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Revista Iberoamericana de Psicologia del Ejercicio y el Deporte ; 17(5):311-315, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2226982


Infectious bronchitis is an acute extremely infectious respiratory illness caused by the avian gamma-corona virus. Infection with infectious bronchitis virus predisposes the bird to subsequent bacterial infection, worsening the situation. Infection causes severe morbidity and variable mortality in broilers, as well as a significant decrease in layer production of eggs. Samples were collected from clinical cases submitted for necropsy at local veterinary clinics.This study was conducted to detect the molecular similarity in S1 gene sequence between field viruses and commonly used vaccines. In order to compare the sequences of field viruses with vaccinal viruses, two vaccines are chosen based on their popularity in veterinary clinics. These are MA5 strain and H120 strain. Molecular identification was done by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) which was employed using primers target the S1 gene. Four positive field cases and two vaccine samples were sent to sequencing. The results of sequence alignment showed that vaccine viruses differ by more than 30% when compared to sequences of all the field viruses. The difference between genetic sequence leads to vaccine failure due to difference in the antigenic molecules on the spike protein of IBV © 2022, Revista Iberoamericana de Psicologia del Ejercicio y el Deporte.All Rights Reserved.

Revista Iberoamericana de Psicologia del Ejercicio y el Deporte ; 17(5):311-315, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2218415
IOP Conference Series. Earth and Environmental Science ; 1107(1):012118, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2160866
Front Vet Sci ; 9: 979548, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065658


The popularity of backyard chickens has been growing steadily over the past 10 years, with Covid-19 stay at home orders in 2020 yielding an added boost in popularity. Concurrently, cases of salmonellosis from live poultry exposure have also risen. Previous research on backyard chicken owners has focused primarily on urban chicken owners, which may have differing knowledge and biosecurity habits from rural backyard chicken owners. The goal of this study was to investigate the prevalence of S. enterica in rural and urban flocks of chickens in the state of Vermont and to determine what attitudes toward and knowledge about S. enterica owners had, as well as what biosecurity practices they used. We conducted two surveys in Vermont between 2019-2022; a pilot study tied to sampling for Salmonella enterica in backyard chicken flocks from 2019-2021 and a statewide study in 2022 to determine the prevalence of backyard chickens in Vermont and obtain representative survey data from backyard chicken owners. We found (i) overall, 19% (8/42) backyard chicken flocks from 2019-2021 had S. enterica, but S. enterica rates varied substantially by year; (ii) backyard chicken owners were wealthier and more educated than the average Vermonter and generally lived in rural areas; (iii) participants in the statewide survey had much lower uptake of good biosecurity habits compared to the pilot survey; (iv) despite increased messaging about backyard chicken-associated salmonellosis and good biosecurity measures over the past several years, uptake of biosecurity measures is inconsistent, and rates of unsafe practices such as kissing or cuddling chickens have increased in Vermont. Overall, the data indicate the need for improved messaging on biosecurity and risks associated with backyard chickens.

Transbound Emerg Dis ; 69(5): e1445-e1459, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2052989


The Mexican lineage H5N2 low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs) were first detected in 1994 and mutated to highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) in 1994-1995 causing widespread outbreaks in poultry. By using vaccination and other control measures, the HPAIVs were eradicated but the LPAIVs continued circulating in Mexico and spread to several other countries. To get better resolution of the phylogenetics of this virus, the full genome sequences of 44 H5N2 LPAIVs isolated from 1994 to 2011, and 6 detected in 2017 and 2019, were analysed. Phylogenetic incongruence demonstrated genetic reassortment between two separate groups of the Mexican lineage H5N2 viruses between 2005 and 2010. Moreover, the recent H5N2 viruses reassorted with previously unidentified avian influenza viruses. Bayesian phylogeographic results suggested that mechanical transmission involving human activity is the most probable cause of the virus spillover to Central American, Caribbean, and East Asian countries. Increased infectivity and transmission of a 2011 H5N2 LPAIV in chickens compared to a 1994 virus demonstrates improved adaptation to chickens, while low virus shedding, and limited contact transmission was observed in mallards with the same 2011 virus. The sporadic increase in basic amino acids in the HA cleavage site, changes in potential N-glycosylation sites in the HA, and truncations of PB1-F2 should be further examined in relation to the increased infectivity and transmission in poultry. The genetic changes that occur as this lineage of H5N2 LPAIVs continues circulating in poultry is concerning not only because of the effect of these changes on vaccination efficacy, but also because of the potential of the viruses to mutate to the highly pathogenic form. Continued vigilance and surveillance efforts, and the pathogenic and genetic characterization of circulating viruses, are required for the effective control of this virus.

Influenza A Virus, H5N2 Subtype , Influenza A virus , Influenza in Birds , Amino Acids, Basic/genetics , Animals , Bayes Theorem , Chickens , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H5N2 Subtype/genetics , Influenza A virus/genetics , Mexico/epidemiology , Phylogeny , Poultry
International Hatchery Practice ; 35(4):27-28, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2045268
Chinese Journal of Nosocomiology ; 32(12):1880-1884, 2022.
Article in English, Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2034518
Zycie Weterynaryjne ; 96(1):42-49, 2021.
Article in Polish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2034018
Economic Affairs ; 67(2):37-42, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2026767
Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine ; 20(1):17-24, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2026591
Russian Journal of Agricultural and Socio Economic Sciences ; 8(128):167-175, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2012667
XIV. Simpozij peradarski dani ; 11(14):64-70, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2011772
Zycie Weterynaryjne ; 95(9):554-559, 2020.
Article in Polish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2011448
XIV. Simpozij peradarski dani ; 11(14):71-77, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2011268
Archives of Razi Institute ; 77(5):1611-1619, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2002783
Sarhad Journal of Agriculture ; 38(2):480-488, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2002723
19. ; 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1998475