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1.
Travel Behaviour and Society ; JOUR
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2106033

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, which has spread since late 2019, has caused drastic changes in transportation use. A few studies have already addressed the relationships between COVID-19 and transportation mode choice. However, in most cases, the analysis has been based on transit ridership during the early phases of the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, few studies have focused on public bike use before and after COVID-19. This study examines the effect of COVID-19 on the ridership of public bikes and various determining factors of public bike use. An origin-destination (OD) analysis and multivariate linear regression models were used with public bike ridership data from Seoul, Korea. The findings of the analysis can be summarized as follows. First, this study confirms that public parks have significantly influenced the increase in public bike ridership since the COVID-19 outbreak. This finding indicates that outdoor spaces such as riverside parks have played important roles in public bike ridership during the pandemic period. Second, this study finds that accessibility to subway stations strongly impacts the increase in public bike ridership. This means that the demand for public bikes as a connected transportation mode has increased since COVID-19. Third, access to bike lanes has had a significant impact on the increase in public bike ridership. This finding indicates the importance of expanding the public bike infrastructure network. Finally, this study makes policy proposals to promote public bike ridership during the COVID-19 pandemic.

2.
Ann Med ; 54(1): 3146-3156, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097042

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Role models are essential in medical education, yet empirical research is relatively insufficient on the influence of prosocial modelling on medical students' career commitment. The prosocial behaviour of medical staff involved in the fight against the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) at the beginning of 2020 presents an opportunity to fill the research gap. We explored and compared the different associations of the two most important role models for medical students - parents and faculty- with medical students' career commitment. METHODS: The cross-sectional study was conducted with 99,559 undergraduate students majoring in clinical medicine in mainland China. Questions were asked to collect information about participants in the battle against COVID-19, medical students' determination to practice medicine after graduation, as well as students' socio-demographic characteristics. Chi-square tests and hierarchical regressions were performed to examine the associations between parent and faculty involvement and students' career commitment. RESULTS: The results showed statistically significant associations between prosocial modelling during the COVID-19 pandemic in China and students' intention to pursue medical careers. The association of faculty involvement (OR = 1.165, p < .001) with students' career commitment was greater than that of parents (OR = 0.970, p > .05). For faculty involvement, the association was stronger among male students (OR = 1.323, p < .001) and students who were already determined to be doctors (OR = 1.219, p < .001) before the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides new evidence on the potential roles of parents and faculty in shaping medical students' career commitment. Encouraging faculty to act as positive role models could help medical students increase their intention to become doctors.KEY MESSAGESProsocial modelling could enhance students' intention to pursue medical careers.The association of prosocial behaviour of faculty is larger than that of parents on medical students.Those who have prior medical career commitment are much more likely to persist in the medical profession, and prosocial modelling of faculty is positively associated with their medical career commitment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Medical , Male , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Career Choice , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Faculty , Parents
3.
J Surg Educ ; 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095711

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The abrupt cessation of in-person education due to the COVID-19 pandemic has made it difficult for preclerkship students to explore a career in surgery. To supplement the lack of exposure, the Surgical Exploration and Discovery (SEAD) program was transitioned to an entirely virtual format. This study aims to describe the virtual SEAD program and evaluate its effectiveness as a career decision-making (CDM) intervention. DESIGN: The week-long program was delivered on Microsoft Teams, featured 11 surgical specialties, and comprised four activities: live demonstrations, virtual operating room observerships, career talks, and technical skills workshops. The program was evaluated using the four levels of the Kirkpatrick model: (1) reactions, (2) knowledge, (3) CDM behaviors - assessed using the Career Decision-making Difficulties Questionnaire (CDDQ) - and (4) results. The latter was indirectly assessed using CDDQ scores from an in-person SEAD program, where lower CDDQ scores indicate less difficulty with CDM. SETTING: Faculty of Medicine at the University of Ottawa in Ontario, Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Forty pre-clerkship students (27 first and 13 second year students) at the University of Ottawa RESULTS: Level 1: 97.5% of participants rated the program as good or very good. Live demonstration and technical skills workshops were the highest rated activities. Level 2: participants' scores on knowledge-based questions about a surgical career significantly increased following the program (pre: 9/25 vs post: 15/25, p = 0.008). Level 3: overall mean CDDQ scores (±SD) decreased difficulties with significantly following the program (pre: 45.6 ± 10.5 vs post: 38.8 ± 10.9, p < 0.001), which indicates decreased CDM difficulties. Level 4: Except for one sub-category, the difference in mean CDDQ scores between the virtual and in-person programs were not significantly different. CONCLUSION: The program received the positive reactions and significantly increased participants' knowledge. The change in CDDQ scores following the virtual program suggests it may reduce career decision-making difficulties in the short-term. In-person surgical exposure remains important; however, a hybrid model may be valuable in resource limited settings. WC: 300.

4.
Aera Open ; JOUR, 8.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2082356

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in an unanticipated, near-universal shift from in-person to virtual instruction in the spring of 2020. During the 2020-21 school year, schools began to reopen, and families were faced with decisions regarding the instructional mode for their children. We leverage administrative, survey, and virtual-learning data to examine the determinants of family learning-mode choice and associations between virtual education, student engagement, and academic achievement. Family preference for virtual (versus face-to-face) instruction was highly associated with subsequent school-level infection rates and appeared relatively uniform within schools. We find that students assigned to a higher proportion of instructional days in virtual mode experienced higher rates of attendance but negative achievement growth compared to students who were assigned a higher proportion of instructional days in face-to-face mode. Insights from this study can be used to better understand family preferences as well as to target and refine virtual learning in a post-COVID-19 society.

5.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1936, 2022 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079408

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Little research is available regarding vaccination attitudes among those recently diagnosed with COVID-19. This is important to investigate, particularly among those experiencing mild-to-moderate illness, given the ongoing need to improve uptake of both initial vaccine series and booster doses, and the divergent ways such an experience could impact attitudes. METHODS: From September 3 - November 12, 2021, all patients enrolled in Baylor Scott & White's "COVID-19 Digital Care Journey for Home Monitoring" were invited to participate in an online survey that included questions about vaccination status and attitudes/opinions regarding COVID-19 and the COVID-19 vaccines. Following an item asking about accordance of COVID-19 vaccination with religious/personal beliefs, participants were asked to describe those beliefs and how they relate to taking/not taking the vaccine. RESULTS: Of 8,075 patients age ≥ 18 years diagnosed with COVID-19 and invited to join the survey during the study period, 3242 (40.2%) were fully vaccinated. In contrast, among the 149 who completed the questionnaire, 95(63.8%) reported full vaccination. Responses differed significantly between vaccination groups. The vaccinated group strongly agreed that COVID-19 is a major public health problem, the vaccines are safe and effective, and their decision to vaccinate included considering community benefit. The unvaccinated group responded neutrally to most questions addressing safety and public health aspects of the vaccine, while strongly disagreeing with statements regarding vaccine effectiveness and other preventative public health measures. The vaccinated group strongly agreed that taking the vaccine accorded with their religious/personal beliefs, while the unvaccinated group was neutral. In qualitative analysis of the free text responses "risk perception/calculation" and "no impact" of religious/personal beliefs on vaccination decisions were frequent themes/subthemes in both groups, but beliefs related to the "greater good" were a strong driver among the vaccinated, while statements emphasizing "individual choice" were a third frequent theme for the unvaccinated. CONCLUSION: Our results show that two of the three factors that drive vaccine hesitancy (complacency, and lack of confidence in the vaccines) are present among unvaccinated adults recently diagnosed with COVID-19. They also show that beliefs emphasizing the importance of the greater good promote public health participation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adult , Humans , Adolescent , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
6.
Med Law Rev ; 2022 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077810

ABSTRACT

Several COVID-19 vaccinations have been authorised worldwide. Whilst some vaccines are contraindicated for certain age groups or health conditions, there are often multiple clinically suitable authorised vaccine brands available. Few states have allowed recipients to choose amongst them, though there are multiple reasons why choice would be valued. We consider the policy justifications for state controls on recipient choice amongst COVID-19 vaccine brands, focusing on European countries and drawing on the UK context as an example. We contrast justifications for not offering choice at the height of the early pandemic crisis, and as some states seek to de-escalate their response and transition towards living with COVID-19. We argue that in the latter context public expectations of choice between available vaccine brands and platforms may rise, but that several considerations may justify continued restrictions on choice. A key factor which states should continue to take into consideration is the global nature of the pandemic. Insofar as offering recipient choice at a national level might exacerbate global inequity in vaccine distribution, states retain a normative and legal justification for restricting choice amongst available and clinically suitable vaccine brands.

7.
Health Econ ; 2022 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2074991

ABSTRACT

Airborne transmission of the COVID-19 virus increased the need for health policies to reduce transmission in congregate settings associated with minimal risk before the pandemic. While a large literature estimates tradeoffs between policies designed to reduce negative health outcomes, no empirical research addresses consumer willingness to pay (WTP) for health policies designed to reduce airborne virus transmission. Using survey data from 1381 fans of professional sports, we estimate consumers' WTP for reduced likelihood of coronavirus transmission through mask and social distancing policies using a stated preference approach. The results indicate increased attendance likelihood if the venue requires masks and limits attendance, with significant heterogeneity in WTP across risk scenarios and sports. We characterize consumers as casual fans who prefer a mask requirement but are indifferent to capacity constraints, strong fans who are anti-maskers and prefer capacity constraints, and a second group of casual fans with positive WTP under both mask and limited capacity requirements. For example, casual fans' WTP for masking, $38 per National Basketball Association (NBA) game attended, is more than double their WTP for capacity constraints only. Strong fans' WTP for attending capacity constrained NBA games was $490, more than 400% higher than the pre-pandemic average WTP of $105.

8.
Soc Sci Med ; 314: 115430, 2022 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2069696

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 outbreak early 2020 was followed by an unprecedented package of measures. The relative calmness of the pandemic early 2022 provides a momentum to prepare for various scenarios. OBJECTIVES: As acceptance of COVID-19 measures is key for public support we investigated citizens' preferences towards imposing measures in four scenarios: 1) spring/summer scenario with few hospitalizations; 2) autumn/winter scenario with many hospitalizations; 3) a new contagious variant, the impact on hospitalizations is unclear; 4) a new contagious variant, hospitalizations will substantially increase. METHODS: Study 1 comprised a Participatory Value Evaluation (PVE) in which 2011 respondents advised their government on which measures to impose in the four scenarios. Respondents received information regarding the impact of each measure on the risk that the health system would be overloaded. To triangulate the results, 2958 respondents in Study 2 evaluated the acceptability of the measures in each scenario. RESULTS: Measures were ranked similarly by respondents in Study 1 and 2: 1) the majority of respondents thought that hygiene measures should be upheld, even in the spring/summer; 2) the majority supported booster vaccination, working from home, encouraging self-testing, and mandatory face masks from scenario 2 onwards; 3) even in scenario 4, lockdown measures were not supported by the majority. Young respondents were willing to accept more risks for the health system than older respondents. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that policies that focus on prevention (through advising low-impact hygiene measures) and early response to moderate threats (by scaling up to moderately restrictive measures and boostering) can count on substantial support. There is low support for lockdown measures even under high-risk conditions, which further emphasizes the importance of prevention and a timely response to new threats. Our results imply that young citizens' concerns, in particular, should be addressed when restrictive COVID-19 measures are to be implemented.

9.
Travel Behaviour and Society ; 30:41-59, 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2069717

ABSTRACT

Ride-hailing services (RHS) are rapidly transforming the urban transportation landscape, and subsequently, users' perception of mobility services. Hence, it is of utmost importance to understand the perceptual and latent attitudinal factors that drive such service usage. This gains more relevance in the context of a developing nation both because of its characteristically different transport environment-lifestyle interaction, and relatively fewer studies investigating RHS utilization. The present research uses revealed preference data from household surveys (N = 418) to estimate the usage propensity of RHS services in Kolkata, as it has the highest share of commuters among the four large metropolitan areas in India. A SEM-MIMIC Ordered Probit modelling framework has been developed, as it extracts the advantages of exploring latent constructs through a structural equation model (SEM) and examines their interaction with demographics and trip-specific factors with the Multiple Indicator Multiple Cause Model (MIMIC). This study relies on the confirmatory approach to establish the latent attitudinal factors which stem from accepted theories in travel behaviour, i.e., Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). Subsequently, the Ordered Probit model estimates RHS use-frequency. The results highlight that the latent variables (LVs), viz., ride-hailing attitude and perceived usefulness, are the most significant while estimating RHS utilization. These findings encourage RHS providers to focus on service aspects (for example, security during rides, clean vehicles, reliability of rides, less wait time between booking and ride arrival), instead of only emphasizing on (cosmetic) changes to the booking interface. Besides, in contrast to the developed countries, subjective norms were found to have an inverse relationship with RHS usage, suggesting inhibition among the public, which is probably arising from the dearth of customer-friendly service, especially after being comparatively expensive. The model also suggests the supplementary role of RHS to public transit, which could be pivotal in its integration into mobility-as-a-service (MaaS) and also calls for regulatory actions. The demographics (e.g., age, gender, household income) and trip-specific (e.g., trip purpose, trip length, time-of -day) covariates add further meaning to the relationships among latent constructs. The results suggest a higher preference for RHS among non-car-owners, whereas frequent use of ride-hailing is observed to have a likely positive association with longer trip lengths. Overall, this research brings valuable and first-of-its-kind insights into attitudinal factors and their interaction with demographics and trip-specific covariates facilitating RHS utilization in the context of a developing nation.

10.
J Transp Geogr ; 105: 103461, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2069417

ABSTRACT

Identifying and examining factors affecting the use of the subway is critical for developing countries as they struggle with high levels of auto use and resulting congestion, noise and air pollution. In this research, we surveyed students of a top-ranked university in the capital of Iran before and after the COVID-19 outbreak to identify the factors affecting their use of the subway. Chi-square tests show that gender, level of education, and being the only child of the family have the highest impact on using a private car. These variables had no significant influence on students' mode choice to university before the COVID-19 pandemic, when students' mode choice was only a function of their residence location. However, the pandemic has affected priorities for mode choice. For instance, hygiene and social distancing, which were previously insignificant to students, are now among their top criteria, and travel time and cost are less important for students than in the past. As a result, subway use has significantly decreased. Based on the results of the research, when making relevant policies, more attention should be paid to the groups of women, undergraduate students and single children that are more likely to use private cars.

11.
Acta Medica Mediterranea ; 38(5):3375-3381, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067449

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The outbreak of covid 19 (corona virus) brought with it so many disruption in several countries around the globe. This disruption caused by the disease forced some adjustment to be made in order for the countries to continue running other crucial parts of the economy with alternatives option. One major sector affected was the education sector as physical learning was barred following the nature of transmission of the disease causing countries to be on lockdown resulting in teachers adopting the online. Material(s) and Method(s): The study aim to measure different variables such as type of online class, experience on online learning before lockdown, number of classes, the interaction of students and teachers, reasons for not attending, advantages and disadvantages of online learning. This is a cross-sectional study curried out employing the most appropriate sampling technique in order to obtain the data from the participants using an online survey obtained from Google platform consisting of 18 questions which are adapted from a previous study. Result(s): Using the multiple choice questions, about 70% of the students are pleased with this method of learning and also prefer this method over the traditional method of teaching. However 59.4% would love for this method to be used together with the traditional method. In order to improve the online learning, majority of the student suggested the lecturer should have a proper technical set up. Conclusion(s): The results shows that the students prefer the distance learning over the traditional and other want it to be incorporated and used together with the traditional method of learning. Copyright © 2022 A. CARBONE Editore. All rights reserved.

12.
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research ; 16(8):NC05-NC08, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067187

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Hands of health care workers act as the most common vehicle for the transmission of healthcare associated infections. A good practice of hand hygiene reduces the incidence of these nosocomial infections. There is a dearth of precise data about the awareness of hand hygiene practice amongst Ophthalmologists in India. Aim: To assess the knowledge of hand hygiene amongst the Ophthalmologists and trainees in Uttarakhand and surrounding regions of Northern India. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted by Himalayan Institute of Medical Sciences, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India amongst Ophthalmologists attending a three days long annual ophthalmology conference in Uttarakhand in October 2019, after taking due approval from the Ethics Committee of the Institute. All the 150 participants which were included in the study filled the World Health Organisation (WHO) hand hygiene questionnaire comprising of 10 multiple-choice questions. The respondents were asked to tick the most appropriate choices and scores were given out of a maximum score of 25. Mann Whitney test was used for statistical analysis in the study. results: A total of 150 subjects participated in the survey among which 70 were females and 80 were males. Of all, 60% of the participants were practicing surgeons while 60 (40%) were postgraduate students. About 126 (84%) reported having received a formal training on hand hygiene. Hands of the health care workers were reported to be the commonest route of cross transmission of germs between the patients and healthcare facilities. The average total score of the participants in the survey was 16 (64%) and there was no significant difference between the scores of participants based on gender and training. conclusion: The study shows that majority of the Ophthalmologists have formal training and fair knowledge on the basics of hand hygiene, but lacked the in-depth knowledge, which needs to be addressed in order to reduce the incidence of hospital acquired infections.

13.
Int J Public Health ; 67: 1604958, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065659

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study aims to assess the trade-offs between vulnerability and efficiency attributes of contact tracing programmes based on preferences of COVID-19 contact tracing practitioners, researchers and other relevant stakeholders at the global level. Methods: We conducted an online discrete choice experiment (DCE). Respondents were recruited globally to explore preferences according to country income level and the prevailing epidemiology of COVID-19 in the local setting. The DCE attributes represented efficiency (timeliness, completeness, number of contacts), vulnerability (vulnerable population), cooperation and privacy. A mixed-logit model and latent class analysis were used. Results: The number of respondents was 181. Timeliness was the most important attribute regardless of country income level and COVID-19 epidemiological condition. Vulnerability of contacts was the second most important attribute for low-to-lower-middle-income countries and third for upper-middle-to-high income countries. When normalised against conditional relative importance of timeliness, conditional relative importance of vulnerability ranged from 0.38 to 0.42. Conclusion: Vulnerability and efficiency criteria were both considered to be important attributes of contact tracing programmes. However, the relative values placed on these criteria varied significantly between epidemiological and economic context.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Contact Tracing , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Choice Behavior , Humans , Logistic Models , Patient Preference , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
Pharmaceutical Journal ; 306(7950), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2064969
15.
Pharmaceutical Journal ; 306(7948), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2064942
16.
Natural Product Communications ; 17(9), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2064397

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has been responsible for over 500 million cumulative cases all over the world since December 2019 and has marked the third introduction of a highly pathogenic virus after SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. This virus is in a winning situation because scientists are still racing to explore effective therapeutics, vaccines, and event treatment regimens. In view of progress in current disease management, until now none of the preventive/treatment measures can be considered entirely effective to treat SARS-CoV-2 infection. Therefore, it is required to look up substitute ways for the management of this disease. In this context, herbal medicines could be a good choice. This article emphasizes the antiviral potential of some herbal constituents which further can be a drug of choice in SARS-CoV-2 treatment. This article may be a ready reference for discovering natural lead compounds and targets in SARS-CoV-2 associated works.

17.
Prev Med ; 164: 107288, 2022 Oct 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2061990

ABSTRACT

The uptake rate of COVID-19 vaccines among children remains low in the U.S. This study aims to 1) identify sociodemographic and behavioral factors influencing parental refusal of vaccinating children, and 2) quantify the relative importance of vaccine characteristics in parental hesitancy of vaccinating children. An online survey was conducted from October to November 2021 among a probability-based, representative sample of 1456 parents with children under age 18. The survey included a discrete choice experiment asking parents to choose between two hypothetical COVID-19 vaccine alternatives with varying levels of characteristics in 10 hypothetical scenarios. Logistic regressions were used to estimate parental refusal (refused to choose any vaccine alternatives in all hypothetical scenarios) and random parameter logit regressions were used to estimate parental hesitancy (choice of vaccine alternatives depended on vaccine characteristics) of vaccinating children. About 20% parents refused to vaccinate children. The refusal is predicted by parents' sociodemographic characteristics, political orientation, vaccination status, and parents' and children's previous exposure with COVID-19. Among parents who were willing to consider vaccinating children, the most important vaccine characteristics are risk of severe side effects (31.2% relative importance) and effectiveness (30.7%), followed by protection duration (22.6%), local coverage (9.4%), and hospitalization rate of unvaccinated children (6.1%). Our findings imply that policymakers and public health professionals could develop outreach programs at community level to encourage specific subgroups and focus on vaccination depoliticization. Effectively communicating the low risk of severe side effects and high effectiveness of the vaccines may relieve some of the parental hesitancy.

18.
Clinical Toxicology ; 60(Supplement 2):145-146, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2062730

ABSTRACT

Background: The Coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic led to unprecedented changes to medical education as educators adapted to a world necessitating precautions and social distancing. In response to the pandemic, the Emergency Medicine Residents' Association (EMRA) committees' educational programming in association with the American College of Emergency Physicians 2020 Scientific Assembly (ACEP20), initially scheduled to be held in Dallas, TX, between October 26-29, 2020, transitioned to a fully virtual conference. Escape rooms have become popular recreational activities over the last several years. In-person escape rooms are structured around working in teams to solve a series of puzzles in a fictional scenario that allows participants to "escape" the room upon completion. The teamwork and problem-solving skills utilized in escape rooms lend themselves to use in medical education. The traditional in-person escape room format has previously been applied to toxicology for the purposes of providing engaging toxicology education to emergency medicine (EM) residents. Method(s): The researchers developed and led the first nationwide virtual toxicology escape room during ACEP20 using the Zoom platform. The activities consisted of one web-portal linking to a sequence of four Google Forms multiple-choice question quizzes and four games made on Wordwall.net, a virtual educational activity creator. Six teams of 5 residents and medical students from residency programs across the country registered and participated for a total of 30 participants. Teams were split into Zoom breakout rooms, each moderated by at least one medical toxicologist and/or medical toxicology fellow. A survey was sent to participants to assess their overall experience with the activity. Result(s): Every team completed all eight activities within 45 min. This activity demonstrates the feasibility of a large-scale, realtime competitive virtual escape room to engage participants and deliver toxicology education. The lessons learned from exploring virtual sessions like this one will be valuable tools in the future of medical education. Ten participants completed the survey. 80% of respondents reported that the event increased their interest in toxicology. 90% agreed that the format was easy to navigate, instructions were clear, questions were understandable, and toxicologists were well utilized in the event. Conclusion(s): Toxicology-themed escape rooms have potential as virtual activities to educate EM residents on essential toxicology knowledge. While the small survey response rate limits the generalizability of this data, these initial results are promising and suggest that virtual escape rooms may be a viable option for increasing interest in toxicology among resident physicians.

19.
22nd COTA International Conference of Transportation Professionals, CICTP 2022 ; : 887-898, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2062366

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19 and the unprecedented policies issued by the government have compelled citizens to reshape their daily travel behavior. Questionnaires were designed to obtain three main related indicators of socio-economic and demographic characteristics, primary travel purposes and patterns, and factors influencing mode choice to explore the impact of the pandemic on travel behavior and mode preferences of urban residents. By applying the online survey method with Snowball sampling techniques, a total of 591 valid questionnaire responses from Hong Kong residents were received in the designated time period. Then, the non-parametric test methods (e.g., McNemar-Bowker test and Mann-Whitney U test) were employed to implement the statistical analysis. Traffic administrators can use the survey findings to adjust current policies or delineate new policies to align with the passenger travel behavior. This will ensure more fluid and safer transportation. © ASCE.

20.
Chest ; 162(4):A2480-A2481, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060951

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Extraordinary Cardiovascular Reports SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 01:35 pm - 02:35 pm INTRODUCTION: The incidence of acute pericarditis is 3.32 per 100,000 person-years (11). Patone et. Al, found that 0.001% had acute pericarditis after a dose of the COVID-19 vaccine, while 11.9% were COVID-19 positive (11). 1.5% of patients with COVID- 19 developed new onset pericarditis and six-month all-cause mortality was 15.5% (2). CASE PRESENTATION: 48-year-old male with no known past medical history who presented with acute onset of sharp, left-sided chest pain and associated with dyspnea on exertion. He was not vaccinated for COVID-19 and denied being around any sick contacts. On physical examination he was afebrile, normotensive and saturating 99% on room air. EKG initially showed diffuse ST elevations in leads II,III, aVF, V2-V6. Initial high sensitivity trop was <6. He was incidentally found to be COVID positive. Initial echocardiogram was not suggestive of wall motion abnormalities or pericardial effusions. He was not initiated on management for COVID-19 pneumonia as he was asymptomatic and on room air. He was started on colchicine 0.6 mg BID and ibuprofen 400 TID for pericarditis treatment and symptoms resolved on follow up. DISCUSSION: COVID-19 causing pericarditis is relatively rare and our patient presented with pericarditis and no associated respiratory symptoms. The clinical signs of pericarditis include: a pleuritic or sharp chest pain relieved by leaning forwards, a pericardial friction rub auscultated near the left sternal border and EKG changes including diffuse ST elevations or PR depressions seen in the leads I,II,III, aVL, aVF and the precordial leads V2-V6 (3). The common complications seen with pericarditis are pericardial effusion, cardiac tamponade, and constrictive pericarditis (1). A common etiology for pericarditis is a viral illness which can be seen to precede the cardiac symptoms and be seen as flu-like symptoms or as gastrointestinal symptoms. Treatment is with colchicine and NSAIDs. Aspirin has been the drug of choice in patient's who present with pericarditis following a myocardial infarction, solely because the other NSAIDs have been studied and shown to interfere with myocardial healing (3)(4). NSAIDs were believed to be harmful in patient's diagnosed with COVID, due to upregulation of ACE2 receptors in multiple sites which is used by SARS-COV-2 as a point of entry into cells (9). Drake et. Al, looked at patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, and found use of NSAIDs did not play any significant role in mortality (10). First-line therapy for pericarditis is NSAIDs and colchicine. Second line therapy can be with corticosteroids and refractory therapy is generally with intravenous human immunoglobulins, Azathioprine or anti-IL1 agents such as Anakinra (12). CONCLUSIONS: COVID 19 continues to present with varying levels of comorbidities. Timely diagnosis and intervention of pericarditis precipitated by COVID-19 can lead to near complete recovery and prevent fatal outcomes. Reference #1: Dababneh E, Siddique MS. Pericarditis. [Updated 2021 Aug 11]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing;2021 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK431080/ Reference #2: Buckley BJR, Harrison SL, Fazio-Eynullayeva E, Underhill P, Lane DA, Lip GYH. Prevalence and clinical outcomes of myocarditis and pericarditis in 718,365 COVID-19 patients. Eur J Clin Invest. 2021 Nov;51(11):e13679. doi: 10.1111/eci.13679. Epub 2021 Sep 18. PMID: 34516657;PMCID: PMC8646627.1 Reference #3: Little WC, Freeman GL. Pericardial disease. Circulation. 2006 Mar 28;113(12):1622-32. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.561514. Erratum in: Circulation. 2007 Apr 17;115(15):e406. Dosage error in article text. PMID: 16567581. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Atika Azhar No relevant relationships by Berty Baskaran No relevant relationships by Andres Cordova Sanchez No relevant relationships by Harvir Gambhir No relevant relationships by Hanish Jai

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