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1.
Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2165051

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we discuss pertinent cutaneous findings that patients may present following travel to tropical destinations. We address arthropod-borne infectious diseases such as Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Chagas Disease, Cutaneous Larvae Migrans, Myiasis, and others. We discuss other relevant diseases with cutaneous signs such as Monkey Pox and SARS-CoV-2. We provide clinicians with information regarding the background, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of these tropical rashes. Additionally, we address the impact that climate change will have on the temporal and geographic incidence of these rashes. Viral, fungal, and vector-borne diseases have seen a geographic expansion into more northern latitudes. Among these are tick-borne Lyme disease, aquatic-snail-related Sea bather's eruption, and atopic dermatitis. As these diseases spread, we believe the updated information within this article is significant to the practicing physician in today's warming world.

2.
Science of The Total Environment ; 866:161387, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2165836

ABSTRACT

A warming climate is one of the most important driving forces of intensified wildfires globally. The unprecedented wildfires broke out in the Australian ‘Black Summer' (November 2019–February 2020), which released massive heat, gases, and particles into the atmosphere. The total carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from wildfires were estimated at ∼963 million tons by using a top-down approach based on direct satellite measurements of CO2 and fire radiative power. The fire emissions have led to an approximately 50–80 folds increase in total CO2 emission in Australia compared with the similar seasons of 2014–2019. The excess CO2 from wildfires has offset almost half of the global anthropogenic CO2 emission reductions due to the Corona Virus Disease 2019 in 2020. When the wildfires were intense in December 2019, they caused a 1.48 watts per square meter additional positive radiative forcing above the monthly average in Australia and the vicinity. Our findings demonstrate that vast ecosystem disturbance in a warming climate can strongly influence the global carbon cycle and hamper our climate goal of reducing CO2.

3.
Renewable Energy ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2165794

ABSTRACT

This paper investigates the connectedness among the climate change index, green financial assets, renewable energy markets, and geopolitical risk index from from June 1, 2012 to June 13, 2022, using Quantile Vector Autoregressive (QVAR) and wavelet coherence (WC). The Total connectedness index (TCI) varies as long as the highest TCI originates in the upper quantile. We also note that the higher TCI decreases after the second wave of COVID-19 and increases during the first 100 days of the Russia-Ukraine conflict. Moreover, the results show that Geopolitical risk (GPR) is a net transmitter of the climate change index during the Russian invasion of Ukraine. The green bond and clean energy markets are negatively connected to the GPR at extreme 10 th and 90 th quantiles. The wavelet coherence confirms the QVAR results that the climate change market can be a safe haven against GPR during the Russian invasion. The climate change index, green financial assets, and clean energy are strong influencers in the financial markets and are vital to international peace, reducing geopolitical risk. The study reports a few novel conclusions and implications from a sustainable development perspective.

4.
Journal of International Money and Finance ; 131:102792, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2165570

ABSTRACT

This paper adopts quantile regressions to scrutinize the dynamics of green investment funds in relation to the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. We use data on three of the largest green investment funds (BNP PARIBAS Funds Climate Impact, Nordea Global Climate & Environment, and AMUNDI Funds Global Ecology ESG), whose proceeds finance environmental-focused projects. We consider explicitly how different types of COVID-19 measures impact on these green assets. We show evidence that economic support due to COVID-19 has a positive effect on the green assets. The effect is especially strong when the returns are negative. We further report that strigency owing to the pandemic is also positively associated with green investment funds, but again, for negative returns. On the other hand, the effect of confirmed deaths is not as strong shows up mainly at lower quantiles. A similar results applies to infectious disease equity market volatility. We account for the broader macroeconomic environment and subject our models to a battery of sub-sample robustness checks. Our research offers interesting insights in terms of investment and portfolio diversification, that can be applied to the analysis of asset management and policy making.

5.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 11(1): 57, 2022 May 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1849786

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A One Health approach has been increasingly mainstreamed by the international community, as it provides for holistic thinking in recognizing the close links and inter-dependence of the health of humans, animals and the environment. However, the dearth of real-world evidence has hampered application of a One Health approach in shaping policies and practice. This study proposes the development of a potential evaluation tool for One Health performance, in order to contribute to the scientific measurement of One Health approach and the identification of gaps where One Health capacity building is most urgently needed. METHODS: We describe five steps towards a global One Health index (GOHI), including (i) framework formulation; (ii) indicator selection; (iii) database building; (iv) weight determination; and (v) GOHI scores calculation. A cell-like framework for GOHI is proposed, which comprises an external drivers index (EDI), an intrinsic drivers index (IDI) and a core drivers index (CDI). We construct the indicator scheme for GOHI based on this framework after multiple rounds of panel discussions with our expert advisory committee. A fuzzy analytical hierarchy process is adopted to determine the weights for each of the indicators. RESULTS: The weighted indicator scheme of GOHI comprises three first-level indicators, 13 second-level indicators, and 57 third-level indicators. According to the pilot analysis based on the data from more than 200 countries/territories the GOHI scores overall are far from ideal (the highest score of 65.0 out of a maximum score of 100), and we found considerable variations among different countries/territories (31.8-65.0). The results from the pilot analysis are consistent with the results from a literature review, which suggests that a GOHI as a potential tool for the assessment of One Health performance might be feasible. CONCLUSIONS: GOHI-subject to rigorous validation-would represent the world's first evaluation tool that constructs the conceptual framework from a holistic perspective of One Health. Future application of GOHI might promote a common understanding of a strong One Health approach and provide reference for promoting effective measures to strengthen One Health capacity building. With further adaptations under various scenarios, GOHI, along with its technical protocols and databases, will be updated regularly to address current technical limitations, and capture new knowledge.


Subject(s)
One Health , Forecasting , Global Health
6.
Front Psychol ; 13: 1005813, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154814

ABSTRACT

In two studies, we investigated whether counterfactual messages (i.e., "If… then…") on the economic costs of past public policies influence support for future climate change policies. In Study 1, we tested whether the effect of upward counterfactual messages depended on their referring (or not) to the COVID-19 pandemic. Results showed lower support for a future climate change policy when the past expenses evoked by the upward counterfactual messages were attributed to COVID-19. In Study 2, we combined upward counterfactuals with downward counterfactuals presenting past economic efforts to deal with the COVID-19 pandemic as a moral credit. Results showed that exposure to downward counterfactuals decreased support for climate change policies among participants with low endorsement of anti-COVID-19 measures, whereas it increased support among participants with high endorsement. Discussion focuses on the conditions under which counterfactual communication may activate cross-dimensional moral licensing or moral consistency effects, influencing support for climate change policies.

7.
Revista Juridica ; 4(71):420-447, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2164596

ABSTRACT

Objective: in a realistic view, this scientific research aims to carry out a multidisciplinary approach in this essay beginning in the environmental chaos that runs through humanity, with a preferential focus on the loss of biodiversity and global warming and that necessarily dialogues with the scenario of the pandemic of Covid-19 and, at the end, avoiding a sterile discussion, offer a solution anchored in the principle of sustainable development and its four modern pillars: economic development, environmental protection, social inclusion and good governance. Methodology: the deductive method is used, through bibliographic and documentary review. Results: The Socio-Environmental State of Law will have the opportunity to implement a Green Deal to the Brazilian and can deal better, not only with climate and pandemic crises, but especially social, political, and economic. Brazil, of continental dimensions and very rich, in terms of biological diversity and natural goods, has a constitution and a progressive infra-constitutional framework and able to provide the legal framework for this new scenario that requires the realization of the constitutional principle of sustainable development in a broader dimension than that provided for in the Brundtland Report. Contributions: the proposition of a green deal of the tropics, sufficient to cope with environmental, pandemic, economic, political and social crises. © 2022, Centro Universitario Curitiba - UNICURITIBA. All rights reserved.

8.
South African Journal of Science ; 118(11/12):1-8, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2164371

ABSTRACT

In the previous article in this issue (S Afr J Sci. 2022;118(11/12), Art. #13165), the emergence and spread of COVID-19 pari passu with climate change and planetary degradation were interpreted as late manifestations in the trend towards gradual decline into disorder (entropy) in an unstable and ecologically threatened planet. In this article, as we contemplate a post-COVID world, the question is whether new insights could generate courageous, prescient leadership towards new paradigms of health, politics, economics, society, and our relationship with nature. A gloomy prognosis is postulated because of the power of many impediments to such changes, both in an increasingly polarised world and in South Africa as a microcosm. Despite many squandered opportunities and a decline in local and global cooperation between all who have a stake in the future, some hope is retained for innovative shifts towards sustainable futures. Significance: Precarious local and global instabilities are vivid reminders of our interconnectedness with each other and with nature. Insights into local and global threats and opportunities, call for paradigm shifts in thinking about and taking action towards a potentially sustainable future in a country that has its own unique history and problems but is also a microcosm of the world. The impediments to making appropriately constructive paradigm shifts in many countries with their tendencies to authoritarianism that threaten peace and democracy, are even more complex in South Africa, where opportunities for dialogue and cooperation are diminishing. Retaining some hope, with vision and courage for innovative shifts towards a sustainable economic/ecological paradigm locally and globally, is arguably essential.

9.
South African Journal of Science ; 118(11/12):1-7, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2164370

ABSTRACT

Despite massive global economic growth and advances in science and medicine with spectacular aggregate and individual improvements in health and life expectancy over the past century, the world has now become severely unstable in multiple domains - biological, sociological, political, ecological, economic, and health care. These pervasive instabilities are organically interactive within a complex world system that has reached crisis status at local, global, and planetary levels. Lying at the heart of this complex crisis are long-neglected disparities in health and well-being within and between countries, the refusal to face how these and climate change have arisen, and how economic considerations have fuelled the trend towards entropy (gradual decline of the planet into disorder). The critical point we have reached, starkly highlighted by the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic pari passu with ongoing climate change and planetary degradation, reminds us of our global interconnectedness with each other and with nature. Comprehending and acknowledging the myriad, humanly constructed forces in each of these domains influencing all aspects of life, are the first steps towards effectively facing challenges to our health, our humanity (collectivity as humans) and our planet. Overcoming denial, acknowledging the magnitude and complexity of these challenges, prescient vision and dedicated action capable of fostering the cooperation for overcoming obstacles are now vital to seeking peaceful pathways towards more equitable and sustainable lives. South Africa is a microcosm of the world, with its local threats and challenges mirroring the global. Significance: Instabilities that pervade the world, highlighted by the COVID-19 pandemic, are especially significant for South Africa, where they manifest most starkly because of its apartheid legacy, its relative success economically on the African continent, and the implications of ongoing widening disparities and antagonism amongst South Africa's diverse people. Belief in moving towards narrowing wide disparities through decolonisation and reversion to an 'idyllic African heritage' via a transformation that includes widespread corruption, and the ANC government's perverse erosion of lives today and in the future through 'state capture', intensifies rather than ameliorates our predicament in an era when cooperation and a clear vision of current threats and future possibilities are desperately needed. In an accompanying article, potential pathways towards a better future are offered through suggested shifts in paradigms of thought and action.

10.
Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition and Conference 2022, ADIPEC 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2162742

ABSTRACT

Energy producers are under tremendous pressure to abate GHG emissions earlier than previously thought. The call for action is driven by multiple factors such as climate activism, policy regulations, a global pandemic and geopolitical conflict. Hydrogen is widely considered the most important energy carrier in a decarbonized future. As organizations are revisiting their business models to evaluate the impact of a shift from fossil fuels to Hydrogen, terms such as "Energy Transition", "Carbon Management" and "Hydrogen Economy" are now making frequent appearances in business and project management plans. The global pandemic and cataclysmic geopolitical conflicts may have expedited this shift in strategies, and to some extent exacerbated capital risks faced by mega projects. As a result, a fundamental realignment in Project Management strategies seem inevitable. While managing the Energy Transition, the traditional Oil & Gas PM knowledge areas will require a "reframing" of sorts. This paper investigates the Project Management challenges and opportunities in a large, Joint Venture capital project in the Energy Transition context. The Paris Agreement, the international treaty on climate change, has intensified the discussions around low carbon energy sources. The transition to Hydrogen is sometimes envisaged to happen with cross-sectoral coupling (CO2 capture, Renewable Energy storage). Its long-term implications in terms of project complexity management, technological maturity and economic feasibility along with stakeholder influences will be reviewed. The high-level interface aspects from technology integration viewpoints and Project Human Resource Management challenges will also be addressed. Other important present-day change drivers include impacts of Covid-19 pandemic and geopolitical conflict in Europe, which have led to watershed policy changes such as Joint European action for secure energy (REPowerEU). Rejigging Risk Management, Contract Management, Supply Chain and Stakeholder alignment strategies in the post pandemic world are key execution strategy elements for Hydrogen projects and these will be reviewed on the basis of learnings from Oil & Gas Project execution management. The fundamental changes in Gas and Oil based Capital Project Management and learnings to be harvested for Hydrogen projects will be elaborated utilizing identified critical change drivers. Project Configuration, Integration and Risk management perspectives will be analyzed from Owners' viewpoints. Additional Critical Success Factors, Project Definition Parameters or integrated Front End Loading (iFEL), Project assurance and leadership model will be identified and elaborated. An overall execution strategy focused on new project realities beyond the realm of triple project constraints will be outlined. The strategic redefinition of Project Management functions in the context of Energy Transition and their deployment will be administered via a competent Project Management Office (PMO) function. Authors identify the PMO's leading role in Change Management, harvesting learnings and synergies, stakeholder alignment and overall strategy definition. Copyright © 2022, Society of Petroleum Engineers.

11.
Science ; 378(6623):938-939, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2161787

ABSTRACT

The article discusses short supply of vaccines amid global cholera surge. It mentions that outbreaks are part of what the World Health Organization (WHO) calls an unprecedented surge in cholera cases, driven in part by climate change and fallout from the COVID-19 pandemic. It reveals that a cheap vaccine, made from inactivated bacteria lacking part of their toxin, was approved in 2015.

12.
Anthropology Today ; 38(6):19-22, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2161493

ABSTRACT

This article explores how public responses to the Covid‐19 pandemic could potentially help us understand the responses to the climate crisis and its environmental catastrophes. Public responses to the pandemic, in turn, also potentially help us understand the responses to the climate crisis and its environmental catastrophes. How do these compare through our epistemological lenses? Can the various Covid‐19 responses function as a projection of future responses to the destabilizing climate change we are beginning to experience? Outlined are two broad conceptual overlaps: risk and epistemic dissensus. Could this become the basis of a predictive analogy to help inform anthropological research into future dimensions of climate change?

13.
IOP Conference Series. Earth and Environmental Science ; 1107(1):012114, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2160865

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic, changes in global political and security conditions, and climate change have brought significant changes to the food production, consumption, and supply chain. The impact of these changes is transmitted to the farm level. Farmers face not only production risk and price risk, but also the risk of market changes triggered by changes in business orientation on fulfilling consumer pReferences. The purpose of this study is to identify changes in the socio-economic and political environment and their impact on farmers and farming, as well as to analyse the responses needed for extension to remain effective and relevant in carrying out its role. This study employed a descriptive comparative approach. Qualitative data obtained through literature studies based on journal articles. This study found that changes in the business environment not only affect farmers and farming but also the food agribusiness system from upstream to downstream. The conventional extension approach is increasingly turning into a more flexible approach and is not only oriented to the needs of farmers but also considers the needs or pReferences of consumers. Extension is no longer a domain or carried out by public institutions but also by private institutions or companies as well. The results of this study are useful for the formulation of public policies in the field of extension as part of responding to changes in the busiess environment, climate change, and information technology.

15.
npj Urban Sustainability ; 2(1):33, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2160337

ABSTRACT

How to control the global temperature rise within 1.5 °C in the post-COVID-19 era has attracted attention. Road transport accounts for nearly a quarter of global CO2 emissions, and the related sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions also trigger air pollution issues in population-intensive cities and areas. Many cities and states have announced a timetable for phasing out urban-based fossil fuel vehicles. By combining a Markov-chain model with a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) model, the impacts of on-road energy structural change led by phasing out fossil fuel vehicles in the road transportation sector are evaluated. The impact of automobile emissions (both CO2 and SO2) on the environment is evaluated, taking into consideration of variation between cities, regions, and countries. Two other major driving forces in addition to CO2 emissions reduction in promoting fossil fuel vehicles' transition toward net-zero carbon are identified and analyzed with multiple different indicators. Under the framework of the DSGE model, climate policy instruments' effects on economic development, energy consumption, and their link to economic and environmental resilience are evaluated under exogenous shocks as well.

16.
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews ; 173:113038, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2159781

ABSTRACT

We reviewed the present studies on the vulnerability and resilience of the energy ecosystem (most parts of the energy ecosystem), considering extreme climate events. This study revealed that the increased interactions formed during the transformation of the energy landscape into an ecosystem could notably increase the vulnerability of the energy infrastructure. Such complex ecosystem cannot be assessed using the present state of the art models used by the energy system modelers. Therefore, this study introduces a novel analogy known as the COVID analogy to understand the propagation of disruption within and beyond the energy ecosystem and organized the present state of the art based on the COVID analogy. The analogy helps to categorize the vulnerability of the energy infrastructure into three stages. The study revealed that although there are many publications covering the vulnerability and resilience of the energy infrastructure, considering extreme climate events, the majority are focused on the direct impact of extreme climate on the energy ecosystem. In addition, most of the studies do not consider the impact of future climate variations during this assessment. The propagation of disruptions was assessed mainly for wildfires and hurricanes. Further, there is a clear research gap in considering vulnerability assessment for interconnected energy infrastructure. The transformation of energy systems into a complex ecosystem notably increases the complexity, making it difficult to assess vulnerability and resilience. A shift from a centralized to decentralized modeling architecture could be beneficial when considering the complexities brought by that transformation. Hybrid models consisting of both physical and data-driven machine learning techniques could also be beneficial in this context.

17.
International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction ; 85:103503, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2158952

ABSTRACT

Indonesia has significant expertise in disaster management due to its disaster geography. Collective expertise and knowledge are valuable resources for lowering disaster risk and enhancing disaster resilience. Additionally, in the current pandemic situation, a clearer understanding of COVID-19 is growing, which could make a difference in how effectively we respond to this and future pandemics. Therefore, it is crucial to record and maintain information related to the event in order to handle any crisis and COVID-19 pandemic appropriately. The goal of this study is to explore KM implementation approaches for handling disasters and the COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia. In order to collect data for this study, 20 experts were interviewed and 30 experts participated in a Focus Group Discussion (FGD). SWOT analysis was utilised in this study to find different KM implementation strategies. The Analytic Network Process (ANP) was used to prioritize several previously discovered strategies. The study finds that the approach which must be prioritised is to ensure that knowledge products can be accessed by the public, and they must include the community (family) as subjects in establishing knowledge management methods (not only the government or institutions).

18.
European Journal of Integrative Medicine ; 57 (no pagination), 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2158802
19.
Urban Climate Adaptation and Mitigation ; : 49-67, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2158301

ABSTRACT

The chapter sheds light on the genealogy and the key definitions of the smart city concept. It reviews the underlying principles of smart cities and highlights their main contributions to dealing with climate change. The chapter points out that the concept has undergone many changes during the past 2 decades, promoting from a technology-oriented to a human-oriented approach. The COVID-19 pandemic is evaluated as a pivotal event in the concept's development, paving the way for broader acceptance of smart city initiatives within cities. The emphasis on achieving sustainable development and quality of life through ICT is considered a common theme among definitions for smart cities. The chapter outlines eight fundamental smart city principles: livability, sustainability, efficiency, security, resilience, productivity, inclusion, and transparency. Finally, the contributions of smart cities to climate change management are addressed in the six action areas of citizens, government, economy, mobility, and living. © 2023 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

20.
Finance & Development ; 59(2):28-29, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2157116

ABSTRACT

It is shown that three compounding crises (conflict, COVID, and climate change) are giving rise to another: hunger. Russia's invasion of Ukraine sent food prices to an all-time high by disrupting commodity flows from two of the world's largest exporters of wheat and other staples. Importantly, food prices are rising along with, and because of, other major global economic challenges, including rising inflation, the pandemic which continues to snarl supply chains, and climate change which threatens production across many of the world's agricultural regions. The number of people without sufficient food consumption is back to where it was in the early 2000s.

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