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1.
Ernahrung ; 46(3/4):18-19, 2022.
Article in German | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2111881

ABSTRACT

This article discussed the bioeconomy, operating in cycles, the state of Europe, and where opportunities and deficits exist with Hans Mayrhofer, Secretary General of the Ecosocial Forum Austria & Europe. Since the European Commission introduced the Knowledge-Based Bioeconomy in 2005, the bioeconomy has evolved in more than 60 nations from a research-focused strategy to a political one. This is supported by the advantages of biological resources over those derived from fossil fuels, as well as the advantages for innovation, biodiversity, and climate change. This article also addresses strategies for overcoming these obstacles and suggests focusing on the bioeconomy as a societal value economy that supports the attainment of the SDGs and the circular economy. It is advised that the bioeconomy use a systemic approach and act, operate, and do commerce in chains and cycles. Following the Covid-19 epidemic, the bioeconomy will be more important than ever in the coming ten years.

2.
Scandinavian Journal of Public Health ; 49(1 Suppl):1-28, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2053740

ABSTRACT

These proceedings contain articles that discuss social inequality, physical activity, and good practices, to health promotion in local community settings, digital health, quality of life, mental health, as well as living conditions that are conducive to health, schools and kindergartens that foster health, climate and mental health, food, health, and sustainability, the Sustainable Development Goals of the United Nations, mental Health, COVID-19 and a poster session on various topics. In order to better awareness of various approaches to the numerous themes within climate changes and public health, practitioners are also welcomed to these sessions to present their project experiences, meet with researchers, and engage in discussion.

3.
Industria Saccarifera Italiana ; 113(1/2):3-5, 2020.
Article in Italian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2045457

ABSTRACT

The international economy is already being severely impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, both directly and indirectly as a result of the required controls put in place to stop the disease's spread. The food and agriculture industry is likewise being affected by these effects. While the food supply has been stable thus far, in many nations the virus-containment efforts are beginning to affect the flow of agro-food items to markets and consumers, both domestically and abroad. The composition of the industry as well as the degree of demand for specific commodities are both significantly changing. How detrimental these effects wind up being to food security, nutrition, and the livelihoods of farmers, fishers, and others involved in the food supply chain will be greatly influenced by the short-, medium-, and long-term policy responses. Governments have a lot on their plates right now, including responding to the health crisis, dealing with the fallout from the economic shock, and making sure the food system runs smoothly. While the pandemic creates some major short-term issues for the food system, it also presents a chance to speed up changes in the food and agriculture industry that will increase its resilience to a variety of threats, including climate change.

4.
Rethinking Ecology ; 6(1-47):1-47, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040017

ABSTRACT

Stony coral tissue loss disease (SCTLD) was first observed in September 2014 near Virginia Key, Florida. In roughly six years, the disease spread throughout Florida and into the greater Caribbean basin. The high prevalence of SCTLD and high resulting mortality in coral populations, and the large number of susceptible species affected, suggest that this outbreak is one of the most lethal ever recorded. The initial recognition and management response to this catastrophic disease in Florida was slow, which delayed the start of monitoring programs and prevented coordinated research programs by at least two years. The slow management response was a result of several factors that operated concurrently. First, the Port Miami dredging project was ongoing during the coral disease epidemic and dredging rather than SCTLD was blamed by some managers and local environmental groups for the extreme coral losses reported in the project's compliance monitoring program. Second, this blame was amplified in the media because dredging projects are intuitively assumed to be bad for coral reefs. Third, during this same time State of Florida policy prohibited government employees to acknowledge global warming in their work. This was problematic because ocean warming is a proximal cause of many coral diseases. As a result, the well-known links between warming and coral disease were ignored. A consequence of this policy was that the dredging project provided an easy target to blame for the coral mortality noted in the monitoring program, despite convincing data that suggested otherwise. Specifically, results from the intensive compliance monitoring program, conducted by trained scientific divers, were clear. SCTLD that was killing massive numbers of corals throughout Florida was also killing corals at the dredge site - and in the same proportions and among the same suite of species. While eradication of the disease was never a possibility, early control measures may have slowed its spread or allowed for the rescue of significant numbers of large colonies of iconic species. This coral disease outbreak has similarities to the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States and there are lessons learned from both that will improve disease response outcomes in the future, to the benefit of coral reefs and human populations.

5.
PLoS Climate ; 1(3), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2021470

ABSTRACT

Over the last decade many large world cities have scaled up efforts at climate adaptation, a primary focus of which is protecting population health. With extreme weather disasters increasing worldwide, public health agencies are among local institutions under greatest stress;the Covid-19 pandemic has only heightened pressure on these agencies. Yet the limited literature examining adaptation actions across world cities suggest few, mainly high-income cities report health-related adaptation, while city public health agency engagement in adaptation has received little research attention. In this comparative review, we aimed to characterize the public health role in the adaptation plans of 22 large cities pre-identified as highly health-adaptive, by examining five health-associated adaptation activities chosen as "promising practice" based on evidence synthesized from evaluation research and practical experience: (i) hazard and vulnerability mapping;(ii) extreme weather preparedness and response;(iii) extreme heat plans (including heat early warning);(iv) non-heat early warning (e.g., flooding, vector-borne disease);and (v) climate-health monitoring and outcome surveillance. We found most (90%) city adaptation plans reported actions in at least three of these five activity areas. However, only 73% of these health-focused plans reported involvement of a public health agency (though the share was higher for cities in low- and middle-income countries). We detected differences across the five activities, including an ascending pattern of public health engagement starting with heat plans and including activities such as preparedness and mapping as health agency involvement increased. We also identified substantial presence of other city agencies-notably urban planning, emergency management and public utilities-in implementing these health-associated activities. With every world region likely to experience more widespread and intensifying climate impacts, and growing pressure on local public health agencies in conjunction with the Covid-19 pandemic, we identify opportunities for enhancing public health engagement in climate adaptation in large cities with a view to scaling up their ability to contribute to climate adaptation goals.

6.
Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development ; 62(6):31-40, 2020.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2017046

ABSTRACT

This review article discusses the following: (1) infectious diseases and the Sustainable Development Goals, (2) pandemic proofing and the SDGs, (3) climate change and food insecurity, (4) antibiotics and antibiotic resistance, (5) vaccines, prevention, and vaccine hesitancy, (6) plastics, waste, and pollution. Therefore, it is increasingly clear that the pandemic is disproportionately impacting the most vulnerable of our communities: the elderly, persons with preexisting conditions, and persons living with disabilities, as well as communities of color, immigrants, our prison population, and front-line workers, who often have low income. Promoting respect for cultural diversity (SDG16) within a human-rights-based approach helps facilitate cultural understanding and peace, prevents conflicts, and protects the rights of marginalised groups.

7.
African Farming and Food Processing ; : 20-20, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2010694

ABSTRACT

In this article, the IFA Strategic Forum, which was held by the International Fertilizer Association (IFA), facilitated the exchange of ideas among key stakeholders in Africa to develop new partnerships. The event explored how the fertiliser industry and its partners can help in supporting farmers and strengthen food systems to unlock Africa's huge potential to sustainably feed itself and others amid climate change and COVID-19. Improving fertiliser access on the continent was one of the focuses of the forum, which looked ahead to the crucial second Africa Fertilizer and Soil Health Summit planned for 2023. The Africa Fertilizer Map is the first-ever visualisation tool that contains the continent's fertiliser data provided by different associations - primarily AfricanFertilizer.org (AFO) and the International Fertilizer Association (IFA) - and inputs from others, the African Plant Nutrition Institute (APNI), International Fertilizer Development Center (IFDC), African Union (AUC), and Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA). As an alternative, in Kenya, farmers are looking at an organic fertiliser Bokashi, which is restoring depleted soils. It is made by fermenting organic material to quickly create a nutrient-rich compost.

8.
IOP Conference Series : Earth and Environmental Science ; 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2010669

ABSTRACT

These proceedings contain 59 articles focusing the discussion on the roles of the COVID-19 vaccine against climate change, as well as formulating comprehensive and efficient strategies on how to increase the effectiveness of the COVID-19 vaccine against climate change. Topics also revolve around areas such as: impact of depletion or enhancement of air, water, soil, and vegetation resource capabilities;strategy for environmental disaster reduction research;pollution and contamination of land surface and atmosphere;climate model and uneven precipitation distribution;the implication of climate adaptation and mitigation research;carbon footprint, greenhouse gas emission, recycle and reuse energy research;policy and legal aspect of climate change;infrastructures risks and planning on climate adaptation;marine ecosystem affected by climate change;and direct and indirect risks to wellbeing.

9.
Journal of Sustainable Development ; 15(4):97-111, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2002633

ABSTRACT

Wetlands are very important because of the wide range of ecosystem services they provide. Despite their ecological, social and environmental importance, these ecosystems are threatened and fragmented under the combined effects of climate change (CC) and man-made activities (MMA). Such a state of things could be exacerbated by the advent of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic with its many implications. In order to help decision-makers take good decisions, the combined effect of CC, MMA and COVID-19 on the livelihoods of communities around wetland ecosystems have been reviewed based on available scientific knowledge. First, we analyzed the different concepts and theories underlying the wetlands-related studies and then summarized the merits and demerits of the different methodologies underlying wetland studies. The empirical evidences that exist in previous literatures have been highlighted. Similarly, common livelihood strategies for wetland communities in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) have been highlighted. The diversity of wetlands' functions and services makes them a source of livelihood, food security and poverty alleviation for riverside communities. However, these communities lack the knowledge and awareness to understand the impact of their activities and CC on their livelihoods. The review also helped to identify that, out of the three factors investigated, the livelihoods of rural wetland dwellers in SSA are mostly influenced by CC and MMA. However, climate change and COVID-19 remain life-altering transboundary threats that extend in space and time, with large uncertainties on wetlands communities livelihoods.

10.
Journal of Shandong University ; 58(10):7-12, 2020.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1975288

ABSTRACT

The frequent occurrences of emerging infectious diseases in recent years have caused huge burdens on the global economy and society. Climate-driven changes in the natural environment disrupt the ecosystem balance, destroy the habitat of wild animals, affect the survival, transmission and distribution of pathogens and their vectors and intermediate hosts, which contribute to increased risks of infectious diseases. Due to the complex links among climate change, human activity, nature environment, wildlife and pathogens, the challenge of emerging infectious diseases should be addressed with multidisciplinary and multi-sectoral collaboration in the future.

11.
Natural Volatiles & Essential Oils ; 9(1):1654-1665, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1904447

ABSTRACT

Since the last decade, prior to the emergence of COVID-19, the incidence of pneumonia, pneumonia in Indonesia has steadily increased (Minister of Health RI, 2020) along with deforestation phenomenon (Adhyaksa et al, 2019) and global warming (Mirsaeidi et al, 2016). Forest recovery ecosystem is a must to negate this disease. This research was conducted on determining the economic value of the ecosystem service to compensate reforestation program. This research was conducted in Lampung Province started from May to October 2021, by utilizing of Landsat imagery series of 2009, 2012, 2015, 2018, and 2019 for detecting forest covers. The effect on the incidence of pneumonia was determined using multiple linear regression models and to make some simulations work for estimating the reforestation costs. The results prove that the increasement air temperature, and the changes area of state forests, people's forests, bare land, plantations, and urban areas affect the incidence of pneumonia significantly. The determination of the value of environmental services for public costs is required at IDR 942,227,915,- from the maintenance cost of IDR 249,216,000, the cost of reforestation at the state forest area of 5,907,792 Ha and the people's forest of 6,040,689 Ha in case the air temperature increase up to 2 degrees C as the way to mitigate the global warming.

12.
AGROFOR International Journal ; 7(1):48-56, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1903813

ABSTRACT

Around the world, urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA) has evolved into a new socio-political manifestation that can endorse social solidarity, environmental education, and leisure activities. It is also a way to support the urban poor in middle and low-income counties and ensure food sovereignty and self-sufficiency. Furthermore, global shocks, pandemics, and crises (e.g., food crisis 2008, COVID- 19, climate change) have illustrated the vulnerability of the global food supply chain, as well as the need for resilience in cities' long-term food security, shedding more light on UPA's multiple functions in densely populated areas, offering an alternative land use and greater genuine value. Considering the present worldwide governmental push to promote urban agriculture and contemplate its consequences on urban dwellers and their environs, it is vital to investigate Egypt as one of the world's most populous countries, with densely packed cities and significant poverty rates. Using a systematic literature review, this article studies the impact of UPA in Egypt. Data were gathered using the Scopus database and supplemented with information from grey literature. The findings demonstrate that UPA can perform a wide range of socio-economic and environmental roles, including aesthetic urban design, waste management, circular economy, energy use efficiency, microclimate control, preservation of cultural heritage, biodiversity conservation, and health and well-being promotion. However, there is possible apprehension concerning soil erosion, extensive use of fertilizers and pesticides, contamination from wastewater resulting from the poor implementation. Finally, while UPA can make a beneficial difference in Egypt, socio-political, cultural, and technical hurdles may stymie its growth.

13.
International Journal of Tourism Cities ; 8(2):444-460, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1901370

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Climate change is most apparent through the increased severity and frequency of extreme events. Tourism as an activity is particularly sensitive. This paper aims to investigate the impact that climate change has on Xiamen tourism through a fuzzy comprehensive evaluation of questionnaire responses. Design/methodology/approach: A fuzzy classification system of tourism factors most sensitive to climate change was built on the basis of an analytical hierarchical process. Findings: A "relatively strong" association grade of the impacts of climate change on tourism was observed. Through fuzzy comprehensive evaluation, the method used has allowed for clear classification of the aspects of tourism, through its development, which are more vulnerable to climate change. The results acquired here can serve as reference material for stakeholders on implementing risk assessments, deepening the understanding of how climate change affects tourism and coordinate the interests of different parties through the achievement of focused development and realize the optimum, long-term and sustainable exploitation of tourism resources. Originality/value: The sensitivity of a variety of tourist sectors within Xiamen was assessed and represents the newest pre-COVID-19 opinions concerning the effect of climate change on tourism. Additionally, the data used in this study was also collected before the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic and will serve as an important marker to track how expert opinions of the effects of climate change on tourism change over time.

14.
Aquaculture: an introductory text ; 4(347), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1900772

ABSTRACT

This 4th edition covers issues associated with sustainable aquaculture development, culture systems, hatchery methods, nutrition and feeding of aquaculture species, reproductive strategies, harvesting, and many other topics. While its main focus is on the culture of fish, molluscs and crustaceans for food, the book also covers other forms of aquaculture, such as the production of seaweeds, recreational fish and ornamental species, as well as live foods, such as algae and rotifers that are used to feed larval shrimp and marine fish. Thoroughly updated and revised, this essential textbook now includes increased coverage of open-ocean cage culture and sea lice issues with salmon culture, coverage of the significant progress made in nutrition, including the move away from fishmeal as protein and fish oil as lipids in feed, information on biofloc technology uses, predictive impacts of climate change, probiotics, and the impact of COVID-19 on the aquaculture community, and updated aquaculture production statistics and lists of approved anaesthetics. Aquaculture remains one of the most rapidly growing agricultural disciplines, and this book remains an essential resource for all students of aquaculture and related disciplines.

15.
Iranian Journal of Public Health ; 50(12):2608-2609, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1898021

ABSTRACT

This paper discusses the assumption of SARS-CoV-2 being an Archaeal virus, preserved for a long time and accidentally entered the human ecosystem. First of all, given that the Archaeal viruses are halophile, also due to the primary transmission manner of the SARS-CoV-2 infection (from cave bats to the human in Wuhan, China) and appropriate halogen conditions of the caves, it is predicted that there may be the Archaeal viruses-in-fected cadavers of primitive creatures or Archaea in the depth of the caves (without UV irradiation) and protected these viruses for a long time. Second assumption was based on the Earth climate changes, resulting in ice melting. It is feasible that SARS-CoV-2 (as a probable Archaeal virus) has remained in inactive form among the polar ice, and the human infection happened following the global warming, ice melting, and integration of the contaminated water with the seawater. What intensifies the accuracy of this assumption is the similarities between HIV-1 (Archeal virus) and SARS-CoV-2. It is predicted that the SARS-CoV-2 may be a new Archaeal virus and carrying out the extensive evaluations using the bioinformatics, metagenomics, and experimental methods can elevate our knowledge in this field. Particularly, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) system, found in ~90% of sequenced Archaeal, can be used to link the SARS-CoV-2 genome sequence to presumptive Archaeal hosts.

16.
Aquaculture ; 549(39), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1889215

ABSTRACT

Marine aquaculture takes advantage of marine ecosystem services to produce goods that can be relevant from a food security point of view. However, this activity is subject to multiple stressors as the ones exerted by global climate change. Local stressed conditions due to environmental drivers may be exacerbated by the COVID19 pandemic crisis. In this paper we analyze the pre-COVID-19 situation in two Spanish regions with the highest aquaculture production, Galicia and the Valencian Community. The incidence of storms, heat waves and mussel farming closure were analyzed, and surveys were used to define the perception of producers in terms of economic problems derived from COVID-19 and synergistic environmental concerns. Also the temporal trend of mussel production was analyzed. Spanish marine aquaculture has been intensively subjected to climatic stressors that made it more vulnerable to COVID-19, showing some weakness in terms of production as can be seen in mussel production and fresh consumption. Anyway, extensive aquaculture and aquaculture developed by Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) was reported as somewhat more resilient to the impact of COVID-19. In order to ensure the environmental and economic sustainability of marine aquaculture - under a future uncertain pandemic scenario - our outcomes underline the need for more resilient adaptation programs and recovery plans taking into account the climate change effects.

17.
Proceedings of the Crawford Fund ; 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1864062

ABSTRACT

Global food systems have gone through periodic transformations over the past sixty years: the Green Revolution, the Livestock Revolution, and the globalisation of food trade are some of the epochal events observed. The nature and magnitude of biosecurity risks have evolved with the rising intensity and complexity of agriculture and food systems. While transboundary crop pests continue to challenge global food security, zoonotic diseases are rising as risks to human health. The global movement of goods and people has further expanded biosecurity risks, in terms of scale and intensity of impacts. Rising global temperatures will further exacerbate the risks associated with transboundary pest and zoonotic diseases. COVID-19 provides an important example of food systems impacts from a global health shock. Policy and management opportunities for managing biosecurity risks and rebuilding food system resilience need urgent assessment and global action.

18.
Proceedings of the Crawford Fund ; : 1-12, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1863955

ABSTRACT

The author emphasizes on the challenges faced in creating a sustainable food systems. She pointed out four challenges: First, that the world has been working for some time towards producing enough food;second, that a number of people are malnourished;third, that in the midst of all that, our food system is contributing to climate change;and fourth, that our food system's most significant damage is to biodiversity. The author also hopes that this summit will focus: (i) on how we might use the food system to recover from COVID-19, and (ii) how we might use the food system to deliver on SDGs, and (iii) how we might use our thinking about food systems to start understanding the types of transformations that are required in our food system. Lastly, she gives out reflections in establishing food systems, which are: thinking about a holistic approach;embracing innovation;inclusion;courageous conversations;and putting science at the center of this.

19.
Scientific Papers Series Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and Rural Development ; 22(1):265-272, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1863948

ABSTRACT

In the context of the accentuation of the urbanization process, the towns become the main source of territorial development. At the same time, however, they face major challenges regarding sustainability, climate change, social cohesion, environment or mobility. In the perspective of 2030, Calarasi municipality will be the economic center of interest of South-Muntenia region, through the superior capitalization of the existing resources: the geo-strategic positioning, the natural and anthropic patrimony and the human resource. Based on these considerations, we set out to highlight the tourist potential of Calarasi municipality in order to identify the types of tourism that can be practiced in the town and its surroundings. The indicators of the tourist infrastructure, respectively, tourist accommodation units, accommodation capacity, analysis of the main tourist traffic - arrivals, overnight stays, average length of stay were structurally determined and analyzed for 2007-2019, after Romania accession to the European Union and before the health crisis Covid-19. The favourable geographical location of the municipality gives it various advantages as regards economy, tourism, and landscape. The proximity to the Danube River, which is a real development potential for leisure, fishing, business or scientific tourism, to which is added the cultural, ecumenical and hunting tourism. The attractiveness of this Danube town can be increased by better capitalizing on the elements of built and natural heritage that complement the urban landscape and neighbourhoods and which can lead to increase the stay of tourists, with economic and social implications.

20.
AgriRxiv ; 19(35), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1841819

ABSTRACT

The world is currently undergoing a series of changes, the consequences of which are affecting many areas including the supply chain. In a globalized market, a considerable level of interdependence exists where food produced from one country is consumed in another country. This article discusses United Arab Emirates (UAE) strategic efforts in the food supply chain during the pandemic, geopolitical, and climate change era. The initiatives taken by the UAE government to mitigate climate change and measures to augment sustainable food security across the value chain are presented. The devastating impact of covid-19 pandemics and measures adopted by the UAE to manage the supply chain are discussed. The current geopolitical situation and its aftermath on food security are presented in detail. In conclusion, commendable efforts have been made by UAE to tackle food insecurity in a sustainable manner establishing the roadmap for the middle east region.

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