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1.
Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology ; 16(3):1622-1627, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067515

ABSTRACT

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are a primary health concern. They are commonly differentiated as hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA) and community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections, based on their epidemiology, susceptibility findings, and molecular typing patterns. Therefore, appropriate contact precautions and isolation measures should be implemented. CA-MRSA mostly causes skin and soft-tissue infections, but the probability and incidence of it causing sepsis and invasive infections have increased dramatically in recent years. In this study, we report a case of CA-MRSA pneumonia with pan-pneumonic effusion in a 59-year-old male diabetic patient with preexisting comorbidities such as diabetic ketoacidosis and non-ST elevated myocardial infarction. The early reporting of the organism's identity and its antimicrobial susceptibility, as well as timely initiation of antibiotic therapy, aided in the successful management and cure of the patient.

2.
Current Respiratory Medicine Reviews ; 18(3):228-230, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2065265

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) was first reported in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. Skin manifestations of COVID-19 have been reported sporadically. Staphylococcus aureus occurs after viral infection due to unregulated IFN-α. We designed this reported case to pay more attention to the rare skin manifestations following COVID-19. Case Report: The patient was a 12-month-old girl who presented with fever and skin rashes. Two days before admission, erythematous rashes spread around the mouth, nose, eyes, and trunk. Erythematous lesions begin to peel the next day. RT-PCR of the nasopharynx was positive for COVID-19. Treatment with vancomycin and clindamycin was started. The patient was discharged with complete recovery of skin lesions. Conclusion: One of the early manifestations of COVID-19 in children can be fever and rash. Clinical suspicion led to more attention to complications of bacterial superinfection such as staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome.

3.
Chest ; 162(4):A2224, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060913

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: COVID-19 Case Report Posters 3 SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Epiglottitis is an inflammation of the epiglottis which can be life-threatening in the absence of prompt intervention. Although primarily a pediatric condition, streptococcus pneumonia has been identified as a common pathogen in adults. SARS-CoV 2 has been known to affect a multitude of systems including the upper respiratory tract, but rarely the epiglottis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 66-year-old female with a past history of hypertension, and hypothyroidism presented with acute onset pharyngodynia and dysphagia with a feeling of throat closing up due to swelling and difficulty speaking. She had a recent COVID-19 diagnosis and was doing well except for mild fatigue. Upon presentation, she was hemodynamically stable. Physical exam revealed posterior pharyngeal edema without any exudate, mildly edematous uvula, and no stridor. Laboratory data was pristine except for elevated inflammatory markers. Rapid streptococcal test and MRSA swab were negative. Sputum culture showed usual respiratory flora and blood cultures were negative. A neck CT showed diffuse edema without any evidence of abscess. Laryngoscopy performed by the ENT surgeon revealed diffuse edema including epiglottitis. Emergent intubation revealed supra and epiglottis edema sparing the vocal cords. The patient was given Decadron and Benadryl to help with the edema along with clindamycin and subsequently transferred to ICU for further care. She was treated with Ceftriaxone for 7 days due to a chest X-ray finding of pneumonia. As for COVID 19 treatment, she received a course of Remdesivir and Decadron. Decadron was given at an increased interval to reduce edema around the epiglottis. Her ICU course was complicated with hypotension requiring intermittent vasopressor support, and acute kidney injury from ischemic acute tubular necrosis which slowly improved. Repeat CT chest showed bibasilar consolidations with peripheral ground-glass opacities. In view of hospital-acquired pneumonia, she was started on Ertapenem. Her clinical condition improved and she was successfully extubated. She was shifted to the floors from where she was discharged without any further complications. DISCUSSION: There are only two other reported cases of COVID 19 epiglottitis. The patient's advanced age and obesity were non-modifiable risk factors, but the COVID-19 infection played a role. The virus can lead to excessive upregulation of the host inflammatory response through repeat epithelial and endothelial damage leading to a cytokine storm, which may be responsible for this presentation. A great level of attention is to be maintained while attending to these patients given the multitude of systems that can be affected. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 is a potential cause of life-threatening acute epiglottitis. Early suspicion and direct visualization of the epiglottis is the key to success for early management. Reference #1: Emberey J, Velala SS, Marshall B, et al. Acute Epiglottitis Due to COVID-19 Infection. Eur J Case Rep Intern Med. 2021;8(3):002280. Published 2021 Mar 3. doi:10.12890/2021_002280 Reference #2: Smith C, Mobarakai O, Sahra S, Twito J, Mobarakai N. Case report: Epiglottitis in the setting of COVID-19. IDCases. 2021;24:e01116. doi: 10.1016/j.idcr.2021.e01116. Epub 2021 Apr 7. PMID: 33842206;PMCID: PMC8025537. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Arunava Saha

4.
Chest ; 162(4):A875, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060715

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Unusual Critical Care SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 10:15 am - 11:10 am INTRODUCTION: Babesiosis can have a clinical spectrum ranging from mild illness in most cases to more severe manifestations in immunosuppressed individuals or in those with high-grade parasitemia. This patient had severe babesiosis resulting in ARDS and shock in spite of being immunocompetent and having low-grade parasitemia, making it a rare presentation. CASE PRESENTATION: A 49-year-old, previously healthy woman, was admitted with high-grade fevers. Physical exam findings were normal, except for fever (103 F). Initial lab results were significant for hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia. Chest radiography was normal. Other microbiology studies, including COVID-19, were negative. Empiric antibiotic therapy with piperacillin-tazobactam and doxycycline was started. Peripheral smear identified rare, minute intracellular ring forms, suspicious for babesia. IV azithromycin and oral atovaquone were started. PCR was done to confirm the diagnosis and Babesia microti DNA was detected. As peripheral smear showed parasitemia of only 1% (percentage of red blood cells infected), exchange transfusion was not considered as a treatment option. Two days after admission, worsening hemodynamic and respiratory status was noted with increasing oxygen requirements. CT chest now revealed diffuse interstitial infiltrates. ARDS ensued and the patient was intubated and started on mechanical ventilation with vasopressor support. Immunodeficiency workup was normal. In view of clinical deterioration, the antimicrobials were switched from atovaquone and azithromycin to IV clindamycin and quinidine for 14 days. After a protracted ICU stay, the patient showed gradual clinical improvement, parasitemia resolved, and she was eventually discharged to a rehabilitation facility. DISCUSSION: Babesiosis is a tick-borne infectious disease endemic to the North-East and Midwest United States. Majority of the infections are self-limited. However, in immunocompromised individuals and in those with high-grade parasitemia (>10%), it manifests as a severe illness with ARDS, severe hemolysis, or shock. Diagnosis is made by identifying parasites on thin peripheral blood smears with Giemsa/Wright stains. PCR can be used for species identification and for confirming the diagnosis in cases with low-grade parasitemia (<4%). IV azithromycin plus oral atovaquone is the preferred initial regimen and IV clindamycin plus quinidine is an alternative combination that can be used in severe infection. Red blood cell exchange transfusion can be considered in patients with high-grade parasitemia or organ failure. CONCLUSIONS: Babesiosis can very rarely cause ARDS and shock in immunocompetent patients with low-grade parasitemia. Prompt diagnosis and escalation of antimicrobial regimens to clindamycin and quinidine in such cases can lead to improved clinical outcomes. Exchange transfusion can serve as a treatment option in patients with high-grade parasitemia. Reference #1: Ord RL, Lobo CA. Human babesiosis: Pathogens, prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment. Current clinical microbiology reports. 2015 Dec;2(4):173-81. Reference #2: Ripoll JG, Rizvi MS, King RL, Daniels CE. Severe Babesia microti infection presenting as multiorgan failure in an immunocompetent host. Case Reports. 2018 May 30;2018:bcr-2018. Reference #3: Sanchez E, Vannier E, Wormser GP, Hu LT. Diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, and babesiosis: a review. Jama. 2016 Apr 26;315(16):1767-77. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Shankar Chhetri No relevant relationships by Vasudev Malik Daliparty No relevant relationships by Preethi Dendi No relevant relationships by samer talib

5.
Chest ; 162(4):A676-A677, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060665

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: COVID-19 Case Report Posters 2 SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Fusobacterium (FB) are anaerobic, Gram-negative bacilli found in the normal flora of the oral, gastrointestinal, vaginal and upper respiratory tract mucosa. It can cause soft tissue infections and rarely causes bacteremia, yet Fusobacterium bacteremia is associated with high rate of ICU admission, extended hospitalization and significant mortality. Pyogenic liver abscess is a rare indolent disease and is mostly secondary to bacterial infection. CASE PRESENTATION: A 39-year-old female with no comorbidities presented with nausea, vomiting, fatigue, diarrhea, fatigue, heavy menstrual bleed, and high-grade fever. Symptoms started four days before the presentation. She reported a positive COVID-test two weeks earlier and a new IUD placement five weeks before presentation. She is sexually active with one male partner and does not use a contact barrier. On presentation, she was hypotensive, tachycardic, ill-looking with rapid shallow breathing, and fever of 100.7. EKG showed sinus tachycardia, CXR showed no pulmonary disease. Blood tests were significant for leukocytosis, elevated serum lactic acid, and elevated D-dimer. CTA chest was remarkable for two 2x3 cm liver cysts. Patient was admitted to the MICU and started on IV fluids Boluses, Norepinephrine drip, Ceftriaxone and Azithromycin. Gynecology was consulted and recommended against removing the IUD as patient had no signs of IUD infection. Patient continued to be critically sick. Gynecology team was recontacted and removed the IUD and was uninfected on culture. Antibiotics were switched to Vancomycin and Piperacillin-Tazobactam. MRI liver with contrast confirmed the diagnosis liver abscess. Patient received bedside US-guided aspiration, it was remarkable for 16 cc of frank pus. Patient showed significant improvement after procedure and was transferred to the medical floor within 24 hours. Blood culture grew F. Necrophorum and antibiotics were switched to Clindamycin. DISCUSSION: FB is part of the vaginal flora. Mucosal disruption during IUD placement can precipitate disseminated infection with liver abscesses and/or sepsis. Absence of signs of GU tract infection or a non-infective IUD doesn't rule out FB sepsis. Patient Presented five weeks after IUD placement which fits the indolent nature of pyogenic liver abscess. Four cases of F. Nucleatum bacteremia were reported recently in Belgium in COVID patients. One of the cases was healthy young female. Our similar scenario raises a question about a potential association between COVID and risk of floral septicemia. Our patient has F. necrophorum. CONCLUSIONS: Patient presenting with sepsis and liver cyst should be evaluated for liver abscess as appropriate. Recent procedures and mucosal instrumentation can precipitate liver abscess and should be considered if the timing suggest an indolent course. Further studies are needed to evaluate a potential link between COVID infection and FB bacteremia. Reference #1: Goldberg EA, Venkat-Ramani T, Hewit M, Bonilla HF. Epidemiology and clinical outcomes of patients with Fusobacterium bacteraemia. Epidemiol Infect. 2013 Feb;141(2):325-9. doi: 10.1017/S0950268812000660. Epub 2012 Apr 17. PMID: 22717143. Reference #2: Garcia-Carretero R. Bacteraemia and multiple liver abscesses due to Fusobacterium nucleatum in a patient with oropharyngeal malignancy. BMJ Case Rep. 2019 Jan 29;12(1):e228237. doi: 10.1136/bcr-2018-228237. PMID: 30700472;PMCID: PMC6352811. Reference #3: Wolff L, Martiny D, Deyi VYM, Maillart E, Clevenbergh P, Dauby N. COVID-19-Associated Fusobacterium nucleatum Bacteremia, Belgium. Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Mar;27(3):975-977. doi: 10.3201/eid2703.202284. Epub 2020 Dec 8. PMID: 33292922;PMCID: PMC7920680. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Zainab Abdulsada No relevant relationships by Ahmed Abomhya No relevant relationships by Richard Fremont

6.
Chest ; 162(4):A384, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060578

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Global Pulmonary Cases SESSION TYPE: Global Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: COVID 19 is associated with hyper- inflammation with levels of IL 6 correlating with the severity of COVID 19. IL6 causes increased vascular permeability and endothelial dysfunction and plays a major role in the development of ARDS.[1] Tocilizumab is a monoclonal antibody against the IL6 receptor which is being used for COVID pneumonia. Large randomized controlled trials including REMAP-CAP and RECOVERY reported a mortality benefit of tocilizumab in certain patients [3]. Aspergillus is a mold that causes variety of pulmonary infections depending on host's immune status. In immunocompromised hosts, it causes invasive pulmonary aspergillosis [2]. Symptoms initially are similar to bronchopneumonia: cough with sputum, dyspnea, fever not responsive to antibiotics. With disease progression, patients experience pleuritic chest pain and hemoptysis. CASE PRESENTATION: 69 y/o female came to ER with complaint of dyspnea and cough. PMH significant for Diabetes. She had a recent admission for COVID 3 weeks ago during which she received tocilizumab. This time, her vitals were HR- 96 RR- 24 Temp- 99.6 BP- 124/72, Sat- 88% on 2L NC. Labs WBC 31.1 D dimer- 2.17 ABG PO2- 61. CT pulmonary angiogram was consistent with left mid lung zone cavitary mass with an air-fluid level measuring 5 x 8 cm in transverse and AP dimension. Patient was started on broad-spectrum antibiotics (vancomycin, cefepime, metronidazole). Sputum cultures, Beta glucan assay, AFB and fungal immunodiffusion panel was ordered. Beta D Glucan assay came positive. Fungal immunodiffusion panel was negative. Bronchoscopy was done and AFB, aspergillus antigen and cultures were collected. BAL aspergillus antigen came positive and KOH fungal culture grew Aspergillus Fumigatus. Voriconazole was started. She was discharged on voriconazole for 12 weeks, ceftriaxone and clindamycin for 6 weeks for antibacterial coverage with plan to repeat CT chest in 3 weeks. DISCUSSION: We use tocilizumab for COVID 19 patients requiring invasive or non invasive mechanical ventilation and CRP ≥7.5 and exclude patients with ANC <2000, platelet <50,000 and history of serious bacterial, fungal or viral infection. This patient did not have any exclusion criteria but developed invasive fungal infection 3-4 weeks later. Due to worsening hypoxia and high D dimer, initial consideration was pulmonary embolism for which CT angiogram was done and a cavitary lesion was found. Differentials were bacterial abscess, tuberculosis or fungal infection. BAL played a crucial role in diagnosing aspergillosis. CONCLUSIONS: In patients presenting with worsening respiratory symptoms post tocilizumab administration we must keep a low index of suspicion for superimposed opportunistic infections including aspergillosis. Appropriate workup including CT chest, sputum or bronchoalveolar lavage for cultures (bacterial, fungal), Beta D Glucan and fungal panel is essential for diagnosis. Reference #1: Tocilizumab in Hospitalized Patients with Severe Covid-19 Pneumonia Ivan O Rosas;Norbert Bräu;Michael Waters;et al. New England Journal of Medicine, v384 n16 (20210422): 1503-1516 Reference #2: Pulmonary aspergillosis: a clinical review M. Kousha, R. Tadi, A.O. Soubani European Respiratory Review 2011 20: 156-174;DOI: 10.1183/09059180.00001011 Reference #3: Interleukin-6 Inhibitors. Available at: https://www.covid19treatmentguidelines.nih.gov. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Shaylika Chauhan No relevant relationships by Vipul Gidwani

7.
Chinese Journal of Nosocomiology ; 32(12):1812-1816, 2022.
Article in English, Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-2034536

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate and analyze the genotyping, virulence genes and drug-resistant genes of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains isolated from skin and soft tissue infections in this area. METHODS: The skin secretions of 204 patients with skin and soft tissue infections in the Fifth Central Hospital of Tianjin between Jan. 2019 and Dec. 2020 were collected, and MRSA strains identified as non-repetitive strains were isolated. The Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) and Staphylococcal protein A gene (spa) genotyping and Panton-valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene carrying status were analyzed among the MRSA strains, and their relationship with drug resistance was analyzed. RESULTS: Totally 82 strains of S. aureus were isolated from the skin secretions of 204 patients with skin and soft tissue infections, including 44 strains of MRSA (53.66%). The most common SCCmec genotype was genotype III (accounting for 84.09%) and the most common spa genotype was genotype t030 (accounting for 84.09%). PVL genes encoding virulence factors were amplified in 5 strains (11.36%). The drug resistance rates of 44 MRSA strains to vancomycin and compound sulfamethoxazole were 0.00%, and all the strains were drug-resistant to penicillin. Different SCCmec and spa genotypes were highly resistant to erythromycin, cefazolin, clindamycin and levofloxacin, but the differences in drug resistance rates of different SCCmec genotypes to clindamycin and levofloxacin were significant (P < 0.05). The resistance rates of strains with PVL positive genes to chloramphenicol, gentamicin and tetracycline were significantly higher than those with PVL negative genes (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Strains carrying SCCmec III and spa t030 genotypes may be the dominant strains of MRSA in skin and soft tissue infections in this area. Spa genotypes and PVL gene have certain impact on drug resistance of MRSA, and the isolated MRSA strains are all sensitive to vancomycin and compound sulfamethoxazole, which can provide a reference for anti-MRSA treatment in this area.

8.
Medical News of North Caucasus ; 17(2):202-204, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2033430

ABSTRACT

The study determined the etiological structure and sensitivity to antibacterial agents of pathogens of uncomplicated and complicated forms of pneumonia in children treated in a multidisciplinary hospital. According to the study, that timely bacteriological diagnosis in the treatment of pneumonia in childhood with an adequate selection of effective antibacterial agents helps reduce hospitalizations and the development of complicated forms of pneumonia.

9.
Pediatrics ; 149, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2003337

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) is a constellation of symptoms involving fever, laboratory evidence of inflammation, and >/= 2 organ systems involvement (cardiac, renal, respiratory, hematologic, gastrointestinal, dermatologic or neurologic) in a patient who is positive for current or recent COVID-19 infection by RT-PCR, serology or by antigen testing. The total number of cases reported in the United States with MIS-C is more than 3000 as of May 2021. We present a case of MIS-C presenting as a retropharyngeal abscess in a 17- year-old with dendritic cell neoplasm. Case Description: 17-yearold male with a past medical history of metastatic, recurrent, atypical dendritic tumor currently in remission presented with fever for 4 days, associated with headache, sore throat and dysphagia, with a normal examination except 3+ tonsils without midline shift. He had an asymptomatic COVID 19 infection 2 months prior to this presentation. On admit, labs revealed hyponatremic (129) dehydration and a CRP of 29. CT neck showed a well-defined retropharyngeal fluid collection. He was started on Vancomycin and Cefepime and was also given a dose of Dexamethasone. Due to clinical improvement on Day 3, the antibiotics were changed to Unasyn and Clindamycin for the presumed retropharyngeal abscess. He however became hemodynamically unstable and was taken for an emergent incision •drainage by ENT but there was no fluid to be drained. He remained intubated and admitted to the ICU. He required vasopressors because of his hemodynamic instability and broadspectrum antibiotics for concerns of sepsis. Further workup showed signs of end organ damage and inflammation including severe myocardial dysfunction (EF ∼ 20%) and a positive COVID 19 antibody. He was diagnosed with MIS-C and started on IVIG, steroids and Enoxaparin. He showed significant improvement in his clinical status, inflammatory markers and myocardial function over the next 24-48 hours following initiation of treatment. Discussion: MIS-C is believed to develop due to an abnormal immune response to the COVID 19 virus. There has only been a single case reported in a healthy individual presenting as a retropharyngeal abscess. Most of the cases of MIS-C are reported in primarily healthy children or with comorbidities like obesity and asthma but there have been very few cases reported in oncology patients possibly because of an inadequate immune response in these patients. Our case to the author's knowledge is the first case of MIS-C presenting as a retropharyngeal abscess in an oncology patient. Conclusion: It is important to identify the history of COVID 19 infection and have a high index of suspicion in unusual presentations so that early investigation and management is possible to prevent morbidity and mortality due to MIS-C.

10.
Pediatrics ; 149, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2003076

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Blastomyces species are thermally dimorphic fungi endemic to North America, especially areas bordering the Mississippi, Ohio and St. Lawrence rivers, and the Great Lakes. Blastomycosis infections are estimated to occur in 3-13% in the pediatric population. Pediatric literature for blastomycosis has been mostly limited to small studies and case series. Recent literature suggests increasing rates of infections, less morbidity and mortality as compared to adults, with asthma as the most common comorbid condition. Although pulmonary disease is the most common presentation, it rarely progresses to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Case Description: A 17- year-old female, living in the Chicago area, and with type 1 diabetes mellitus and childhood asthma, presented to the emergency room with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure after 14 days of cough, dyspnea, chest pain, and fevers as high as 105°F. Her initial radiographic imaging revealed bilateral infiltrates and consolidations in the right middle and lower lobes. She was admitted to the step down unit for further care. A respiratory viral panel, including COVID-19 evaluation, was negative. She was started on low-flow nasal cannula, ceftriaxone, azithromycin, albuterol, and maintenance IV fluids. On hospital day 2, she was transferred to the pediatric intensive care unit for worsening respiratory distress and escalated to high-flow nasal cannula. She was treated empirically for presumed bacterial pneumonia with ceftriaxone (7-day course), azithromycin (5-day course), cefepime (5-day course), clindamycin (2-day course), and vancomycin (14-day course). Despite this treatment, repeat chest imaging showed worsening disease and she required escalation to BiPAP for progression of her ARDS and impending respiratory failure. Karius testing results indicated Blastomyces dermatitidis at low levels typically not clinically relevant. Sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage cultures demonstrated no significant pathogenic bacteria. Pathology exam of the biopsy obtained from bronchoscopy was consistent with Blastomyces. Urine antigen test was positive for both Blastomyces and Histoplasma. She clinically improved after initiating Amphotericin B lipid complex (6-day course), with transition to oral itraconazole and adjunctive therapy with IV methylprednisolone. She was discharged home after a 30-day hospital stay. Discussion: Pulmonary blastomycosis presents with a broad variety of signs and symptoms. Timely diagnosis is challenging. Pulmonary blastomycosis has no pathognomonic radiographic patterns. Severe acute pulmonary infection that fails to respond to antibacterial treatment should prompt investigation for fungal infection, including urine antigen tests for Histoplasma and Blastomyces, serum galactomannan, beta-1,3-D-glucan, and next-generation sequencing of microbial cell-free DNA (eg, Karius test). Close respiratory monitoring should occur in a pediatric intensive care unit. Conclusion: Blastomycosis is not typically in the initial differential diagnosis unless the patient has other clinical findings, fails to improve on antibacterial therapy, or has identified risk factors for exposure. Failure of prompt recognition is associated with poor outcomes, increased morbidity and mortality, increased length of hospital stay, and cost.

11.
Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology ; 15(5), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1979586

ABSTRACT

Background: Clostridium spp. spores are resistant to many factors, including alcohol-based disinfectants. The presence of clostridial spores in a hospital environment may lead to infection outbreaks among patients and health care workers. Objective: This study is aimed to detect clostridial spores in the aurology hospital using C diff Banana Broth™ and assess the antibiotic sensitivity and toxinotypes of isolates. Methods: After diagnosing COVID-19 in medical staff and closing an 86-bed urology hospital in 2020 for H2O2 fogging, 58 swabs from the hospital environment were inoculated to C diff Banana Broth™, incubated at 37°C for 14 days, checked daily, and positive broths were sub-cultured anaerobically for 48 h at 37°C. After identification, multiplex PCR (mPCR) was performed for Clostridium perfringens, C. difficile toxin genes, and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination. Results: In this study, 16 out of 58 (~ 28%) strains of Clostridium spp. were cultured: 11-C. perfringens, 2-C. baratii, and 1 each of C. paraputrificum, C. difficile, and C. clostridioforme. 11 C. perfringens were positive for the cpa, 7-the cpb2, 2 – cpiA, and 1 – cpb toxin genes. All isolates were sensitive to metronidazole, vancomycin, moxifloxacin, penicillin/tazobactam, and rifampicin. Two out of the 11 C. perfringens strains were resistant to erythromycin and clindamycin. Conclusions: Regardless of the performed H2O2 fogging, antibiotic-resistant, toxigenic strains of C. perfringens (69%) obtained from the urology hospital environment were cultured using C diff Banana Broth™, indicating the need to develop the necessary sanitary and epidemiological procedures in this hospital.

12.
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacy ; 23(4):258-262, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1955706

ABSTRACT

Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis are rare serious disorders that affect the skin and mucous membranes. These reactions are most commonly caused by drugs and, rarely, infections. While discontinuing the offending drug and supportive care are primordial, there are no consensus treatment guidelines on the optimal use of systemic immunomodulatory agents. Here, we report a case of a 57-year-old woman, who had recently recovered from COVID-19 infection, with Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis overlap most likely triggered by dorzolamide eye drops. The patient was successfully treated with a single subcutaneous dose of etanercept combined with oral cyclosporine, corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulins. The progression of skin lesions ceased after administration of etanercept. In addition, a significant clinical improvement was observed a few days after treatment with immunoglobulins, without complications or important side effects.

13.
Top. Med. Chem. ; 39:321-329, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1930368

ABSTRACT

Infections by protozoa can cause some of the most serious human diseases, particularly in tropical regions. However, the number of available drugs used to treat such diseases tends to be limited with relatively high toxicity, and the vast majority of such drugs were developed in the 1920s to 1970s. The development of antiprotozoal drugs has been hindered owing in part to: (1) the highly complicated life cycles of such organisms and their ability to avoid innate immune defences;(2) challenges associated with culturing such organisms particularly in different phases of their growth and amplification;and (3) a lack of investment in biomedical research aimed at developing treatments for tropical diseases that do not tend to affect more affluent countries. Indeed, only three new drugs have entered into clinical trials in recent times, highlighting the tremendous gap in knowledge that should be bridged to more effectively treat protozoal infections.

14.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1927853

ABSTRACT

Introduction:Immunocompromised individuals, such as those with HIV and low CD4 counts, are at increased risk for opportunistic infections. Although uncommon, these patients can be infected with multiple organisms, making diagnosis and management challenging for clinicians. Mortality remains high, as the data on initiating and adjusting antimicrobials when there is concern for co-infection is lacking. We present a case of Pneumocystis jiroveci (PCP) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) coinfection resulting in severe hypoxic respiratory failure and death. Case Report:A 38-year-old male with no past medical history presented with fever, dyspnea, and nonproductive cough. Vital signs were notable for a fever of 102.3°F, respiratory rate of 24, and oxygen saturation of 77% on room air. Physical examination revealed an ill-appearing male with bilateral rhonchi who became dyspneic with minimal conversation. Laboratory studies were significant for an elevated c-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, ferritin and lactate dehydrogenase. CT chest demonstrated bilateral ground glass opacities with multifocal consolidations. The patient was admitted for hypoxic respiratory failure secondary to suspected COVID pneumonia, despite negative testing. By hospital day 4, the patient had shown little improvement. Further work-up revealed that he was HIV positive with a CD4 count of 5, so he was empirically started on oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMPSMX) for presumed PCP pneumonia. On hospital day 9, the patient underwent endotracheal intubation for worsening hypoxia and subsequent bronchoscopy for further evaluation. PCP PCR confirmed the diagnosis, and the patient was transitioned to intravenous TMP-SMX. Still with minimal improvement, micafungin was added as potential salvage therapy. After 12 days of TMPSMX, treatment was changed to clindamycin/primaquine. CMV PCR from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid came back positive at this time, so ganciclovir was added to the regimen. Despite multiple antimicrobials, the patient continued to decline. He was deemed not to be a candidate for ECMO given his profoundly immunocompromised status and ultimately died. Discussion:This case highlights the difficulties clinicians have in managing severely immunocompromised patients who worsen despite appropriate care. Little data exists providing guidelines on when to change to second and/or third-line agents in treating PCP pneumonia. Additionally, further studies need to be completed to delineate in whom empiric antimicrobials should be initiated early when co-infection is a possibility. ECMO may serve a purpose in this patient population given that lung rest is necessary to allow healing, but only a few cases of its use exist at this time.

15.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1927835

ABSTRACT

Invasive aspergillosis is a rapidly progressive, fatal infection that usually occurs in immunocompromised patients. The spectrum of clinical presentation ranges from non-invasive, invasive, destructive and allergic aspergillosis. It is rare to see overwhelming aspergillosis in an immunocompetent host. Nevertheless, certain risk factors such as underlying fibrotic lung disease, suppurative infection, long-term corticosteroid use and uncontrolled diabetes mellitus (DM) have been described. We hereby present a case of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in a patient with uncontrolled DM. A 60-year-old man with a history of heavy smoking (50- pack-year), poorly controlled DM presented to the hospital with a large area of erythema with eschar over his left posterior thigh. Clinical examination and CT abdomen pelvis confirmed necrotizing fasciitis involving his perineum and left thigh. Admission CT abdomen showed a small left lower lobe infiltrate (Day 1, Panel A). He underwent urgent debridement and intraoperative tissue cultures grew coagulase-negative staphylococcus, Proteus Vulgaris and anaerobic gram-positive rods. He received piperacillintazobactam, vancomycin, and clindamycin for 16 days which was subsequently narrowed to ceftriaxone and metronidazole. He had worsening leukocytosis but all his blood cultures have been negative. Tracheal aspirate gram stain on day 5 showed moderate yeast, and cultures grew Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus. CT scan of his chest showed bilateral reticulonodular opacities with a new loculated right pleural effusion (Day 16, Panel B). Trans-esophageal echocardiogram did not show any right-sided heart valve vegetation. He received intravenous voriconazole for disseminated aspergillosis. Despite of new prophylactic antifungal strategies, more sensitive and rapid diagnostic tests, as well as various efficacious treatments, survival of invasive disseminated aspergillosis remains poor. High clinical suspicion with a proactive investigation approach is the key to minimizing mortality. Various risk factors such as hematopoietic-cell transplantation, neutropenia, solid-organ transplantation, chemotherapy, prolonged ICU stay, structural lung disease, impaired mucociliary clearance after a recent pulmonary infection (including SARS-CoV-2) have been well described. Our case highlights the importance of recognizing uncontrolled DM as a crucial risk factor for disseminated aspergillosis. (Figure Presented).

16.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(5)2022 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917255

ABSTRACT

Given the increase in bacterial resistance and the decrease in the development of new antibiotics, the appropriate use of old antimicrobials has become even more compulsory. Clindamycin is a lincosamide antibiotic approved for adults and children as a drug of choice for systemic treatment of staphylococcal, streptococcal, and gram-positive anaerobic bacterial infections. Because of its profile and high bioavailability, it is commonly used as part of an oral multimodal alternative for prolonged parenteral antibiotic regimens, e.g., to treat bone and joint or prosthesis-related infections. Clindamycin is also frequently used for (surgical) prophylaxis in the event of beta-lactam allergy. Special populations (pediatrics, pregnant women) have altered cytochrome P450 (CYP)3A4 activity. As clindamycin is metabolized by the CYP3A4/5 enzymes to bioactive N-demethyl and sulfoxide metabolites, knowledge of the potential relevance of the drug's metabolites and disposition in special populations is of interest. Furthermore, drug-drug interactions derived from CYP3A4 inducers and inhibitors, and the data on the impact of the disease state on the CYP system, are still limited. This narrative review provides a detailed survey of the currently available literature on pharmacology and pharmacokinetics and identifies knowledge gaps (special patient population, drug-drug, and drug-disease interactions) to describe a research strategy for precision medicine.

17.
Journal of Investigative Medicine ; 70(4):1022-1023, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1868746

ABSTRACT

Case Report A male infant is born at 37w to a 34-year-old G3P2 mother by vaginal delivery after an uncomplicated pregnancy. Prenatal screens are negative. The patient had a birth weight of 2,620 g, with Apgar scores of 9 and 9. On day 2 after birth, had increased work of breathing which prompted transfer to a level II NICU for further management. On arrival to the unit, the infant is tachypneic with mild chest wall retractions and thick nasal secretions. A CBC and blood culture were collected and empiric antibiotic therapy was started. Respiratory viral panel and COVID test are negative. A chest radiograph shows a middle lobe opacity concerning for pneumonia (figure 1). His clinical status failed to improve and on day 4 after birth, supplemental oxygen was provided. The primary team consulted ENT and Pulmonology services. Flexible laryngoscopy showed a normal anatomy. Pulmonology recommended transferring to our NICU for a chest CT with bronchoscopy. Our differential diagnosis for this neonate with respiratory distress that fails to improve over time or with antibiotics was broad, but further testing revealed this infant's condition. A CBC, CRP and a blood gas were collected on admission and were normal. ID service was consulted. A Chest CT showed bilateral atelectasis. Bronchoscopy showed a normal anatomy. Bronchoalveolar lavage was sent. Umbilicus swab was positive for MRSA, nasal wash/sputum culture/bronchoalveolar fluid also grew moderate S. aureus. Nasal ciliary biopsy sent for electron microscopy. Positive umbilicus and nasal swab, and subsequently BAL for MRSA led to a diagnosis of MRSA neonatal rhinitis. Therapy with IV vancomycin was initiated and later changed to oral clindamycin to complete a total of 14 days of therapy. The neonate was weaned off oxygen support on day 11. His clinical symptoms improved. He was discharged on oral clindamycin with follow up appointments with pulmonology and ID clinics. His ciliary biopsy showed absence of outer and inner dynein arms, compatible with the diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) (figure 2). Genetic testing for PCD showed mutations in the DNAAF1 and CCDC40 genes. This neonate was diagnosed with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) but his presentation at birth was nonspecific and the differential diagnosis was broad. There is no gold standard diagnostic test for PCD and high clinical suspicion is important. Since it is most likely an AR inheritance, screening of family members is essential. Initial management of neonates may include measures that manage the respiratory distress, airway clearance to prevent respiratory infections and treat bacterial infections. Chest physiotherapy may help if recurrent atelectasis. Flexible bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage may help both to diagnose and treat the underlying infection. Antibiotic therapy based on organism growth for exacerbations may prevent development of bronchiectasis. (Figure Presented).

18.
Natural Volatiles & Essential Oils ; 8(5):797-804, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1812641

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization declared a public health emergency on January 30, 2020, as a result of the coronavirus illness 2019 (COVID-19), which was caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. (SARS-CoV-2). Newborns may show COVID-19 indications, according to the findings of current investigations. Despite the fact that the disease expresses itself differently in different cultures, only a few studies have been conducted on COVID-19-infected mothers. The World Health Organization termed the new coronavirus illness 2019, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome. coronavirus disease on January 7, 2020. (COVID-19) reported in ANC-MOTHER : as a percentage of the total number of cases in the general population Because the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) estimates that 0.35 million kids are born each year, screening pregnant women and providing perinatal care to babies of COVID-19 positive moms is critical. Initially, there was little evidence of mother-to-infant transmission, and only a few deaths in ANC- MOTHER and her newborn were reported, but now that transplacental transmission has been demonstrated, transmission can be controlled with good care or all preventive measures. Patient history: Due to uterine contractions, a 35-year-old woman was referred to the AVBRH Hospital, Sawangi Meghe, Wardha. She was gravida4, para3, with a 39-week pregnancy and three previous caesarean sections. She had no underlying illnesses and had no previous exposure to COVID-19-infected people. On admission, she didn't have a fever or any other symptoms like cough, sore throat, or muscle weakness. Clinical Findings: The patient had undergone with various investigations like blood test, USG, physical examination and CT scan, Computers tomography, and newborn assessment Medical Management: Patient was treated with calcium supplement and iron supplement. Inj. Piptaz 4.45gm, it is antibacterial Drug, It's Prevent the growth or spread of bacteria. Inj. clindamycin 600 mg, it is a antibiotic drug, and it's action is slowing and stopping the growth of bacteria. Inj Levoflox 750 mg, it is a antibiotic drug, Inj neomol 100 ml, it is a painkiller;Tab Limcee 500 mg, it is vitamin supplement. Tab zincovit, it is nutrition suppliment and preventing vitamin and mineral deficiency;Inj dexa 6 mg, it is a steroid, it is treat a condition such as a inflammatory and autoimmune condition, Tab ecosprin 75 mg, it is (NSAID) non-steroid Anti inflammatory drug, it decrease the formation harmful blood clots. Inj ramdesivir, it is antiviral drug used to treat Covid infection. Nursing management: Administered fluid replacement i.e. DNS and RL, Fetal monitoring, monitored all vital signs hourly. Do physical examination, Give proper information regarding the disease condition, provide proper environment to the patient, provide proper care to the patient, give psychological support to the patient, educate patient regarding the disease condition, discuss about the health issues of the patient with doctor. Conclusion : In conclusion, the intensity of Covid -19 Antenatal mother's stage and degree of sickness.

19.
J Travel Med ; 28(8)2021 Dec 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597866

ABSTRACT

We report the case of a 29-year-old male in whom COVID-19 concerns led to a delayed diagnosis of falciparum malaria. The patient developed symptoms of cerebral malaria with cytotoxic lesions of the corpus callosum in magnetic resonance imaging.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials , COVID-19 , Malaria, Cerebral , Malaria, Falciparum , Adult , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Humans , Malaria, Cerebral/diagnosis , Malaria, Cerebral/drug therapy , Malaria, Falciparum/diagnosis , Malaria, Falciparum/drug therapy , Male , Pandemics , Plasmodium falciparum , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Reprod Toxicol ; 100: 101-108, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1033759

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the risk of congenital heart defects (CHD) and other congenital anomalies (CA) associated with first trimester use of macrolide antibiotics (mainly erythromycin, spiramycin, clarithromycin and azithromycin) and lincosamides (clindamycin) using a case-malformed control design. Data included 145,936 babies with a CA diagnosis (livebirths, stillbirths and terminations of pregnancy for CA) from 15 population-based EUROCAT registries in 13 European countries, covering 9 million births 1995-2012. Cases were babies with CHD, anencephaly, orofacial clefts, genital and limb reduction anomalies associated with antibiotic exposure in the literature. Controls were babies with other CA or genetic conditions. Main outcomes were odds ratios adjusted (AOR) for maternal age and registry, with 95 % Confidence Intervals (95 %CI). Macrolide and lincosamide exposure was recorded for 307 and 28 cases, 72 and 4 non-genetic controls, 57 and 7 genetic controls, respectively. AOR for CHD was not significantly raised (AOR 0.94, 95 %CI: 0.70-1.26 vs non-genetic controls; AOR 1.01, 95 %CI: 0.73-1.41 vs genetic controls), nor significantly raised for any specific macrolide. The risk of atrioventricular septal defect was significantly raised with exposure to any macrolide (AOR 2.98; 95 %CI: 1.48-6.01), erythromycin (AOR 3.68, 95 %CI: 1.28-10.61), and azithromycin (AOR 4.50, 95 %CI: 1.30-15.58). Erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin, and clindamycin were associated with an increased risk of at least one other CA. Further research is needed on the risk of specific CA associated with macrolide and lincosamide use in the first trimester, particularly relevant for the potential use of azithromycin in the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Abnormalities, Drug-Induced/etiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Lincosamides/adverse effects , Macrolides/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Case-Control Studies , Female , Heart Defects, Congenital/chemically induced , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Trimester, First , SARS-CoV-2
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