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1.
Intern Med J ; 52(9): 1495-1504, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001643

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Laboratory biomarkers to estimate the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are crucial during the pandemic since resource allocation must be carefully planned. AIMS: To evaluate the effects of basal serum total immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels and changes in inflammatory parameters on the clinical progression of patients hospitalised with COVID-19. METHODS: Patients hospitalised with confirmed COVID-19 were included in the study. Laboratory data and total IgE levels were measured on admission. Lymphocyte, eosinophil, ferritin, d-dimer and C-reactive protein parameters were recorded at baseline and on the 3rd and 14th days of hospitalisation. RESULTS: The study enrolled 202 patients, of which 102 (50.5%) were males. The average age was 50.17 ± 19.68 years. Of the COVID-19 patients, 41 (20.3%) showed clinical progression. Serum total IgE concentrations were markedly higher (172.90 (0-2124) vs 38.70 (0-912); P < 0.001) and serum eosinophil levels were significantly lower (0.015 (0-1.200) vs 0.040 (0-1.360); P = 0.002) in clinically worsened COVID-19 patients when compared with stable patients. The optimal cut-off for predicting clinical worsening was 105.2 ng/L, with 61% sensitivity, 82% specificity, 46.3% positive predictive value and 89.2% negative predictive value (area under the curve = 0.729). Multivariable analysis to define risk factors for disease progression identified higher total IgE and C-reactive protein levels as independent predictors. CONCLUSIONS: Our single-centre pilot study determined that total IgE levels may be a negative prognostic factor for clinical progression in patients hospitalised due to COVID-19 infection. Future studies are required to determine the impact of individuals' underlying immune predispositions on outcomes of COVID-19 infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin E , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(7): ofac219, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931882

ABSTRACT

Background: The Adaptive COVID Treatment Trial-2 (ACTT-2) found that baricitinib in combination with remdesivir therapy (BCT) sped recovery in hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients vs remdesivir monotherapy (RMT). We examined how BCT affected progression throughout hospitalization and utilization of intensive respiratory therapies. Methods: We characterized the clinical trajectories of 891 ACTT-2 participants requiring supplemental oxygen or higher levels of respiratory support at enrollment. We estimated the effect of BCT on cumulative incidence of clinical improvement and deterioration using competing risks models. We developed multistate models to estimate the effect of BCT on clinical improvement and deterioration and on utilization of respiratory therapies. Results: BCT resulted in more linear improvement and lower incidence of clinical deterioration compared with RMT (hazard ratio [HR], 0.74; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.95). The benefit was pronounced among participants enrolled on high-flow oxygen or noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation. In this group, BCT sped clinical improvement (HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.51) while slowing clinical deterioration (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.48 to 1.02), which reduced the expected days in ordinal score (OS) 6 per 100 patients by 74 days (95% CI, -8 to 154 days) and the expected days in OS 7 per 100 patients by 161 days (95% CI, 46 to 291 days) compared with RMT. BCT did not benefit participants who were mechanically ventilated at enrollment. Conclusions: Compared with RMT, BCT reduces the clinical burden and utilization of intensive respiratory therapies for patients requiring low-flow oxygen or noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation compared with RMT and may thereby improve care for this patient population.

3.
Arch Rehabil Res Clin Transl ; 4(2): 100184, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1889230

ABSTRACT

Objective: To report vision-related symptoms and neuro-visual clinical signs in patients approximately 4 months after discharge from hospitalization after COVID-19 infection. To report on coexisting functional and activity limitations. Design: The study is part of an ambidirectional population-based cohort study. Setting: An outpatient setting in a hospital environment. Participants: Patients from a population-based cohort study including all patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 admitted to hospital during a 3-month period in a health care region in Sweden. Among patients who, based on a standardized telephone interview, were identified as having persisting rehabilitation needs 4 months after discharge (n=185), several (n=57) reported vision-related symptoms. All 57 patients were invited to a neuro-visual examination. Six patients declined, 6 were unavailable, and 3 did not fulfil the inclusion criteria. Thus, 42 patients were included in the analysis (N=42). Interventions: Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures: Vision-related symptoms, neuro-visual function, and coexisting impairments affecting activities of daily life and participation. Results: A total of 31% of patients with rehabilitation needs after COVID-19 reported vision-related symptoms. Reading-related issues (73.8%), blurry vision (69.0%), and light sensitivity (66.7%) were the most common symptoms. Patients with reading-related issues showed a higher level of eye strain (P<.001). Neuro-visual deficits were found in 83.3% of the patients, mainly concerning eye teaming (23.1%-66.7%) and eye movement (28.6%-30.8%) functions. Patients with vision-related symptoms reported fatigue and 18 other coexisting symptoms to a greater extent (P≤.0001 to .049). Conclusions: Neuro-visual symptoms and signs should be considered when assessing rehabilitation needs after COVID-19. The association between vision-related issues and coexisting symptoms with an effect on body function and activity and/or participation underlines the need for multiprofessional rehabilitation assessment and intervention.

4.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 52(7): e13794, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794704

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 disease progression is characterized by hyperinflammation and risk stratification may aid in early aggressive treatment and advanced planning. The aim of this study was to assess whether suPAR and other markers measured at hospital admission can predict the severity of COVID-19. METHODS: The primary outcome measure in this international, multi-centre, prospective, observational study with adult patients hospitalized primarily for COVID-19 was the association of WHO Clinical Progression Scale (WHO-CPS) with suPAR, ferritin, CRP, albumin, LDH, eGFR, age, procalcitonin, and interleukin-6. Admission plasma suPAR levels were determined using the suPARnostic® ELISA and suPARnostic® Turbilatex assays. RESULTS: Seven hundred and sixty-seven patients, 440 (57.4%) males and 327 (42.6%) females, were included with a median age of 64 years. Log-suPAR levels significantly correlated with WHO-CPS score, with each doubling of suPAR increasing the score by one point (p < .001). All the other markers were also correlated with WHO-CPS score. Admission suPAR levels were significantly lower in survivors (7.10 vs. 9.63, 95% CI 1.47-3.59, p < .001). A linear model (SALGA) including suPAR, serum albumin, serum lactate dehydrogenase, eGFR, and age can best estimate the WHO-CPS score and survival. Combining all five parameters in the SALGA model can improve the accuracy of discrimination with an AUC of 0.80 (95% CI: 0.759-0.836). CONCLUSIONS: suPAR levels significantly correlated with WHO-CPS score, with each doubling of suPAR increasing the score by one point. The SALGA model may serve as a quick tool for predicting disease severity and survival at admission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator , Adult , Biomarkers , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies
5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(12): 2209-2217, 2022 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706701

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Adaptive Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Treatment Trial-1 (ACTT-1) found that remdesivir therapy hastened recovery in patients hospitalized with COVID-19, but the pathway for this improvement was not explored. We investigated how the dynamics of clinical progression changed along 4 pathways: recovery, improvement in respiratory therapy requirement, deterioration in respiratory therapy requirement, and death. METHODS: We analyzed trajectories of daily ordinal severity scores reflecting oxygen requirements of 1051 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 who participated in ACTT-1. We developed competing risks models that estimate the effect of remdesivir therapy on cumulative incidence of clinical improvement and deterioration, and multistate models that utilize the entirety of each patient's clinical course to characterize the effect of remdesivir on progression along the 4 pathways above. RESULTS: Based on a competing risks analysis, remdesivir reduced clinical deterioration (hazard ratio [HR], 0.73; 95% confidence interval [CI]: .59-.91) and increased clinical improvement (HR, 1.22; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.39) relative to baseline. Our multistate models indicate that remdesivir inhibits worsening to ordinal scores of greater clinical severity among patients on room air or low-flow oxygen (HR, 0.74; 95% CI: .57-.94) and among patients receiving mechanical ventilation or high-flow oxygen/noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (HR, 0.73; 95% CI: .53-1.00) at baseline. We also find that remdesivir reduces expected intensive care respiratory therapy utilization among patients not mechanically ventilated at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Remdesivir speeds time to recovery by preventing worsening to clinical states that would extend the course of hospitalization and increase intensive respiratory support, thereby reducing the overall demand for hospital care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19/drug therapy , Critical Care , Humans , Oxygen , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Biology (Basel) ; 11(2)2022 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701241

ABSTRACT

Patients with Coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19) manifest many neuromuscular complications. We evaluated the correlations between electromyography and nerve conduction measurements among COVID-19 patients and the severity of the initial infection, as well as the rehabilitation outcomes, and searched for the factors which best predict the rehabilitation outcomes. A total of 19 COVID-19 patients (16 men; mean ± SD age 59.1 ± 10.4), with WHO clinical progression scale of 6.8 ± 2.3, received rehabilitation for 3.9 ± 2.5 months. The Functional Independence Measure (FIM), the 10 m walk test, the 6 minute walk test, and grip force were collected before and after the rehabilitation period. Motor Nerve Conduction (MNC), Sensory Nerve Conduction (SNC) and electromyographic abnormalities were measured. All of the MNC measures of the median nerve correlated with the WHO clinical progression scale and duration of acute hospitalization. The MNC and SNC measures correlated with the rehabilitation duration and with FIM at discharge. The MNC distal latency of the median and the peroneal nerves and the MNC velocity of the median and tibial nerves predicted 91.6% of the variance of the motor FIM at discharge. We conclude that nerve conduction measurements, especially in COVID-19 patients with severe illness, are important in order to predict prognosis and rehabilitation outcomes.

7.
J Proteome Res ; 21(3): 623-634, 2022 03 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671479

ABSTRACT

Despite the scientific and human efforts to understand COVID-19, there are questions still unanswered. Variations in the metabolic reaction to SARS-CoV-2 infection could explain the striking differences in the susceptibility to infection and the risk of severe disease. Here, we used untargeted metabolomics to examine novel metabolic pathways related to SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility and COVID-19 clinical severity using capillary electrophoresis coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (CE-TOF-MS) in plasma samples. We included 27 patients with confirmed COVID-19 and 29 healthcare workers heavily exposed to SARS-CoV-2 but with low susceptibility to infection ("nonsusceptible"). We found a total of 42 metabolites of SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility or COVID-19 clinical severity. We report the discovery of new plasma biomarkers for COVID-19 that provide mechanistic explanations for the clinical consequences of SARS-CoV-2, including mitochondrial and liver dysfunction as a consequence of hypoxemia (citrulline, citric acid, and 3-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIBA)), energy production and amino acid catabolism (phenylalanine and histidine), and endothelial dysfunction and thrombosis (citrulline, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), and 2-aminobutyric acid (2-AB)), and we found interconnections between these pathways. In summary, in this first report several metabolic pathways implicated in SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility and COVID-19 clinical progression were found by CE-MS based metabolomics that could be developed as biomarkers of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Biomarkers , Humans , Metabolome , Metabolomics/methods
8.
Transl Med Commun ; 6(1): 20, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581977

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The majority of COVID-19 research has been devoted to characterizing the epidemiology and early clinical aspects of the virus. In Lagos, Nigeria, we looked at the temporal progression of COVID-19 patients. We included 1337 confirmed COVID-19 cases in our study from February 27th to March 27th 2020. Of the 1337 patients enrolled, the median age was 50 years old, and 800 (59.83%) were male while 537 (40.16%) were female. METHOD: In symptomatic patients, the time from the beginning of signs to admission was 4 (2-7) days. Fever occurred in 217 (16.2%) while cough occurred in 211(15.78%) patients respectively. Patients were given 5-6 treatment, including nutrition support, supplementary oxygen, and antiviral medicines (e.g., Remdesivir, dexamethasone) in a limited percentage of cases. The assessed median period of infection in all patients was 10 days after the start of symptoms (95 confidential intervals [CIs]: 8-11 days). The duration of fever was slightly longer in patients admitted to intensive care units (ICU) than in those who were not (31 days versus 9 days, respectively, P < 0.003). RESULTS: On day 7 after the onset of symptoms, radiological deterioration of the original picture was found in 500 (37.39%) patients. On day 13, 154 of these patients (94.5%) showed signs of radiological improvement. The average time it took for upper respiratory tract samples to test negative for reverse transcriptase PCR was 10 days (90 percent confidence interval: 10-12 days). Virus clearance was more significant in ICU patients than in non-ICU patients (P < 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Community members should continue to adhere to the recommended methods of preventing the spread of COVID-19 infection and patients should seek care early to reduce the risk of mortality associated with the infection as rapidly as possible.

9.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 705020, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344277

ABSTRACT

The risk factors for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity are still poorly understood. Considering the pivotal role of the gut microbiota on host immune and inflammatory functions, we investigated the association between changes in the gut microbiota composition and the clinical severity of COVID-19. We conducted a multicenter cross-sectional study prospectively enrolling 115 COVID-19 patients categorized according to: (1) the WHO Clinical Progression Scale-mild, 19 (16.5%); moderate, 37 (32.2%); or severe, 59 (51.3%), and (2) the location of recovery from COVID-19-ambulatory, 14 (household isolation, 12.2%); hospitalized in ward, 40 (34.8%); or hospitalized in the intensive care unit, 61 (53.0%). Gut microbiota analysis was performed through 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and the data obtained were further related to the clinical parameters of COVID-19 patients. The risk factors for COVID-19 severity were identified by univariate and multivariable logistic regression models. In comparison to mild COVID-19 patients, the gut microbiota of moderate and severe patients have: (a) lower Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio; (b) higher abundance of Proteobacteria; and (c) lower abundance of beneficial butyrate-producing bacteria such as the genera Roseburia and Lachnospira. Multivariable regression analysis showed that the Shannon diversity index [odds ratio (OR) = 2.85, 95% CI = 1.09-7.41, p = 0.032) and C-reactive protein (OR = 3.45, 95% CI = 1.33-8.91, p = 0.011) are risk factors for severe COVID-19 (a score of 6 or higher in the WHO Clinical Progression Scale). In conclusion, our results demonstrated that hospitalized patients with moderate and severe COVID-19 have microbial signatures of gut dysbiosis; for the first time, the gut microbiota diversity is pointed out as a prognostic biomarker of COVID-19 severity.

10.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 270, 2020 07 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-632434

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) broke out globally. Early prediction of the clinical progression was essential but still unclear. We aimed to evaluate the timeline of COVID-19 development and analyze risk factors of disease progression. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we included 333 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection hospitalized in the Third People's Hospital of Shenzhen from 10 January to 10 February 2020. Epidemiological feature, clinical records, laboratory and radiology manifestations were collected and analyzed. 323 patients with mild-moderate symptoms on admission were observed to determine whether they exacerbated to severe-critically ill conditions (progressive group) or not (stable group). We used logistic regression to identify the risk factors associated with clinical progression. RESULTS: Of all the 333 patients, 70 (21.0%) patients progressed into severe-critically ill conditions during hospitalization and assigned to the progressive group, 253 (76.0%) patients belonged to the stable group, another 10 patients were severe before admission. we found that the clinical features of aged over 40 (3.80 [1.72, 8.52]), males (2.21 [1.20, 4.07]), with comorbidities (1.78 [1.13, 2.81]) certain exposure history (0.38 [0.20, 0.71]), abnormal radiology manifestations (3.56 [1.13, 11.40]), low level of T lymphocytes (0.99 [0.997, 0.999]), high level of NLR (0.99 [0.97, 1.01]), IL-6 (1.05 [1.03, 1.07]) and CRP (1.67 [1.12, 2.47]) were the risk factors of disease progression by logistic regression. CONCLUSIONS: The potential risk factors of males, older age, with comorbidities, low T lymphocyte level and high level of NLR, CRP, IL-6 can help to predict clinical progression of COVID-19 at an early stage.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Disease Progression , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , ROC Curve , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
11.
Clin Exp Immunol ; 201(1): 76-84, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-628822

ABSTRACT

Effective laboratory markers for the estimation of disease severity and predicting the clinical progression of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is urgently needed. Laboratory tests, including blood routine, cytokine profiles and infection markers, were collected from 389 confirmed COVID-19 patients. The included patients were classified into mild (n = 168), severe (n = 169) and critical groups (n = 52). The leukocytes, neutrophils, infection biomarkers [such as C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT) and ferritin] and the concentrations of cytokines [interleukin (IL)-2R, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α] were significantly increased, while lymphocytes were significantly decreased with increased severity of illness. The amount of IL-2R was positively correlated with the other cytokines and negatively correlated with lymphocyte number. The ratio of IL-2R to lymphocytes was found to be remarkably increased in severe and critical patients. IL-2R/lymphocytes were superior compared with other markers for the identification of COVID-19 with critical illness, not only from mild but also from severe illness. Moreover, the cytokine profiles and IL-2R/lymphocytes were significantly decreased in recovered patients, but further increased in disease-deteriorated patients, which might be correlated with the outcome of COVID-19. Lymphopenia and increased levels of cytokines were closely associated with disease severity. The IL-2R/lymphocyte was a prominent biomarker for early identification of severe COVID-19 and predicting the clinical progression of the disease.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit/blood , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , T-Lymphocytes/virology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/immunology , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Disease Progression , Female , Ferritins/blood , Ferritins/immunology , Humans , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-10/immunology , Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit/immunology , Interleukin-6/blood , Interleukin-6/immunology , Interleukin-8/blood , Interleukin-8/immunology , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/immunology , Neutrophils/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Procalcitonin/blood , Procalcitonin/immunology , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/immunology
12.
J Med Virol ; 92(11): 2735-2741, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-574502

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a health emergency worldwide, and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are increasingly reported in COVID-19 patients. However, sample size was small and the incidence of GI symptoms in patients was variable across studies, and the correlation between these symptoms and clinical outcomes remains incompletely understood. The objective of this study is to compare clinical characteristics and outcomes between patients with and without GI symptoms admitted to Jianghan Fangcang Shelter Hospital in Wuhan. This retrospective study recruited 1320 COVID-19 patients admitted to hospital from 5 February 2020 to 9 March 2020. On the basis of the presence of GI symptoms, the sample was divided into a GI group (n = 192) and a non-GI group (n = 1128). The three most common GI symptoms were diarrhea (8.1%), anorexia (4.7%), and nausea and vomiting (4.3%). The rate of clinical deterioration was significantly higher in the GI group than in the non-GI group (15.6% vs. 10.1%, P = .032). GI symptoms (P = .045), male gender P < .001), and increased C-reactive protein (P = .008) were independent risk factors for clinical worsening. This study demonstrated that the rate of clinical deterioration was significantly higher in the GI group. Furthermore, potential risk factors for developing GI symptoms, male gender, and increased C-reactive protein can help clinicians predict clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Adult , Anorexia/virology , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Diarrhea/virology , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, Special/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nausea/virology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sex Factors
13.
J Infect ; 80(5): e1-e6, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-7451

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies on the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) have generally been limited to the description of the epidemiology and initial clinical characteristics. We investigated the temporal progression in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: In this retrospective, single-center study, we included confirmed cases of COVID-19 from Jan 20 to Feb 6, 2020 in Shanghai. Final date of follow-up was February 25, 2020. RESULTS: Of the 249 patients enrolled, the median age was 51 years old, and 126 (50.6%) were male. The duration from onset of symptoms to hospitalization was 4(2-7) days in symptomatic patients. Fever was occurred in 235(94.3%) patients. A total of 215 (86.3%) patients had been discharged after 16(12-20) days hospitalization. The estimated median duration of fever in all the patients with fever was 10 days (95 confidential intervals [CIs]: 8-11 days) after onset of symptoms. Patients who were transferred to intensive care units (ICU) had significantly longer duration of fever as compared to those not in ICU (31 days v.s. 9 days after onset of symptoms, respectively, P <0.0001). Radiological aggravation of initial image was observed in 163 (65.7%) patients on day 7 after onset of symptoms. 154(94.5%) of these patients showed radiological improvement on day 14. The median duration to negative reverse-transcriptase PCR tests of upper respiratory tract samples was 11 days (95 CIs: 10-12 days). Viral clearance was more likely to be delayed in patients in ICU than those not in ICU (P <0.0001). In multivariate logistical analysis, age (Odds ratio [OR] = 1.06) and CD4 T cell count (OR = 0.55 per 100 cells/ul increase) were independently associated with ICU admission. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of COVID-19 cases are mild. The clinical progression pattern suggests that early control of viral replication and application of host-directed therapy in later stage is essential to improve the prognosis of CVOID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Disease Progression , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Female , Fever/etiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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