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1.
J Med Virol ; 2022 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2003625

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant seemed to cause milder disease compared to previous predominated variants. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to conduct a meta-analysis to assess the pooled proportion of non-severe disease and asymptomatic infection among COVID-19 patients infected with Omicron and Delta. DATA SOURCES: We searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and CNKI databases. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: We included studies of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron infection from 1 November 2021 to 18 April 2022 and studies of Delta infection from 1 October 2020 to 30 June 2022. Studies without corresponding data, with less than 50 patients, or obviously biased concerning main outcome were excluded. METHODS: Meta-analysis was performed in R 4.2.0 with the "meta" package. Subgroup analyses were conducted by study group and vaccination status. RESULTS: The pooled proportion of asymptomatic infection and non-severe disease with Omicron were 25.5% (95% CI 17.0%-38.2%) and 97.9% (95% CI 97.1%-98.7%), significantly higher than those of Delta with 8.4% (95% CI 4.4%-16.2%) and 91.4% (95% CI 87.0%-96.0%). During Omicron wave, children and adolescents had higher proportion of asymptomatic infection, SOTR and the elderly had lower proportion of non-severe disease, vaccination of a booster dose contributed to higher proportion of both asymptomatic infection and non-severe disease. CONCLUSIONS: This study estimates the pooled proportion of asymptomatic infection and non-severe disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 Omicron compared to other predominant variants. The result has important implications for future policy making. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
J Interferon Cytokine Res ; 2022 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1992071

ABSTRACT

The aim of our study was to investigate the potential role of IL-1-alpha, IL-6, and chitinase 3-like protein-1 (CHI3L1) as potential biomarkers for COVID-19. Sixty adult SARS Cov-2 PCR-positive patients (22 mild, 25 moderate, and 13 severe) and 50 healthy controls were included in this study. The serum levels of CHI3L1, IL-1-alpha, and IL-6 for all study participants were measured by protein-specific ELISAs. Mean serum CHI3L1 levels in patients with severe disease (7,185.5 ± 1,109.4) were significantly higher than in the moderate (3,977.4 ± 1,260.3), mild (1,379.5 ± 598.8), and control (329.5 ± 128.4) groups (P = 0.001). There was no difference in IL-1-alpha levels between the patient and control groups (P = 0.083). IL-6 levels differed significantly, being lowest in the control group (35.9 ± 13.7), 89.1 ± 23.4 in the mild group, 156.2 ± 29.6 in the moderate group, and the highest in the severe group (214.9 ± 28.1) (P = 0.001). A strong significant correlation was found between disease severity and serum IL-6 and CHI3L1 values (r = 0.894 and r = 0.905, respectively, and P < 0.001 for both). Serum CHI3L1 and IL-6 levels exhibited a linear correlation with the clinical course of COVID-19 infection. These results indicate that inhibitors of IL-6 and/or CHI3L1 may provide useful treatments for COVID-19.

3.
Int J Infect Dis ; 118: 150-154, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1838855

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: At present, it is unclear whether the extent of reduced risk of severe disease seen with SARS-Cov-2 Omicron variant infection is caused by a decrease in variant virulence or by higher levels of population immunity. METHODS: RdRp target delay (RTD) in the Seegene AllplexTM 2019-nCoV PCR assay is a proxy marker for the Delta variant. The absence of this proxy marker in the transition period was used to identify suspected Omicron infections. Cox regression was performed for the outcome of hospital admission in those who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 on the Seegene AllplexTM assay from November 1 to December 14, 2021 in the Western Cape Province, South Africa, in the public sector. Adjustments were made for vaccination status and prior diagnosis of infection. RESULTS: A total of 150 cases with RTD and 1486 cases without RTD were included. Cases without RTD had a lower hazard of admission (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.34-0.91). Complete vaccination was protective against admission, with an aHR of 0.45 (95% CI, 0.26-0.77). CONCLUSION: Omicron has resulted in a lower risk of hospital admission compared with contemporaneous Delta infection, when using the proxy marker of RTD. Under-ascertainment of reinfections with an immune escape variant remains a challenge to accurately assessing variant virulence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis D , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , South Africa/epidemiology , Survival Analysis
4.
China CDC Wkly ; 4(14): 293-297, 2022 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1786625

ABSTRACT

What is already known about this topic?: Compared with the international mRNA and adenovirus-vectored coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines, there is less real-world research data about breakthrough cases in people vaccinated with China-made COVID-19 vaccines. Analyses of clinical outcomes of breakthrough cases will be an important supplement to the clinical trial efficacy and observational effectiveness data of China-made COVID-19 vaccines. What is added by this report?: COVID-19 vaccine age-eligible individuals (≥3 years old) who received full primary series and a booster dose of China-made COVID-19 vaccines had good protection from pneumonia caused by Delta variant infection. There was only one serious Delta case in children (unvaccinated), but among adults 18 years and older, there was good protection from serious illness with primary vaccination and booster vaccination. Among people ≥60 years, full vaccination and booster vaccination were associated with protection from pneumonia and risk of serious COVID-19 caused by Omicron variant infection. There were few serious Omicron cases. What are the implications for public health practice?: Everyone 3 years and older without contraindications should be fully vaccinated against COVID-19; schedule-eligible adults should receive booster doses. The pace of booster dose administration, especially among the elderly, should be accelerated.

5.
Journal of Laboratory Physicians ; : 11, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1702225

ABSTRACT

Introduction An array of routinely accessible serum biomarkers was assessed to explore their overall impact on severity and mortality in coronavirus disease 2019. Materials and Methods A retrospective analysis of 1,233 adults was conducted. The study groups comprised 127 nonsurvivors and 1,106 survivors. Data for demographic details, clinical presentations, and laboratory reports were recorded from the medical record section. The predictors were analyzed for their influence on mortality. Results The mean (+ standard deviation) age of the patients in the nonsurvivor group was 58.8 (13.8) years. The mean age (56.4 years) was highest in severe grade patients. The odds ratio for death was 2.72 times for patients above the age of 40 years. About 46% of nonsurvivors died within 5 days of admission. Males were found to be more prone to death than females by a factor of 1.36. Serum urea depicted highest sensitivity (85%) for nonsurvival at 52.5 mg/dL. Serum albumin (3.23 g/dL), albumin-to-globulin ratio (0.97), and C-reactive protein-to albumin ratio (CAR) (2.08) showed a sensitivity of more than 70% for mortality outcomes. The high hazard ratio (HR) for deceased patients with hyperkalemia was 2.419 (95% confidence interval [CI] =1.96-2.99;p < 0.001). The risk for nonsurvival was increased with elevated serum creatinine by 15.6% and uric acid by 21.7% (p < 0.001). The HR for hypoalbuminemia was 0.254 (95% CI: 0.196-0.33;p < 0.001) and CAR was 1.319 (95% CI: 1.246-1.397;p < 0.001). Saturation of oxygen (p < 0.001), lactate dehydrogenase (p = 0.006), ferritin (p = 0.004), hyperuricemia (p = 0.027), hyperkalemia (p < 0.001), hypoalbuminemia (p=0.002), and high CAR values (0.031) served as potential predictors for mortality. Conclusion Adjusting for all the predictor variables, serum uric acid, potassium, albumin, and CAR values at the time of admission were affirmed as the potential biomarkers for mortality.

6.
J Pers Med ; 11(12)2021 Dec 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580616

ABSTRACT

Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, 195 million people have been infected and 4.2 million have died from the disease or its side effects. Physicians, healthcare scientists and medical staff continuously try to deal with overloaded hospital admissions, while in parallel, they try to identify meaningful correlations between the severity of infected patients with their symptoms, comorbidities and biomarkers. Artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) have been used recently in many areas related to COVID-19 healthcare. The main goal is to manage effectively the wide variety of issues related to COVID-19 and its consequences. The existing applications of ML to COVID-19 healthcare are based on supervised classifications which require a labeled training dataset, serving as reference point for learning, as well as predefined classes. However, the existing knowledge about COVID-19 and its consequences is still not solid and the points of common agreement among different scientific communities are still unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to follow an unsupervised clustering approach, where prior knowledge is not required (tabula rasa). More specifically, 268 hospitalized patients at the First Propaedeutic Department of Internal Medicine of AHEPA University Hospital of Thessaloniki were assessed in terms of 40 clinical variables (numerical and categorical), leading to a high-dimensionality dataset. Dimensionality reduction was performed by applying a principal component analysis (PCA) on the numerical part of the dataset and a multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) on the categorical part of the dataset. Then, the Bayesian information criterion (BIC) was applied to Gaussian mixture models (GMM) in order to identify the optimal number of clusters under which the best grouping of patients occurs. The proposed methodology identified four clusters of patients with similar clinical characteristics. The analysis revealed a cluster of asymptomatic patients that resulted in death at a rate of 23.8%. This striking result forces us to reconsider the relationship between the severity of COVID-19 clinical symptoms and the patient's mortality.

7.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 2239, 2021 12 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566517

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 patients with long incubation period were reported in clinical practice and tracing of close contacts, but their epidemiological or clinical features remained vague. METHODS: We analyzed 11,425 COVID-19 cases reported between January-August, 2020 in China. The accelerated failure time model, Logistic and modified Poisson regression models were used to investigate the determinants of prolonged incubation period, as well as their association with clinical severity and transmissibility, respectively. RESULT: Among local cases, 268 (10.2%) had a prolonged incubation period of > 14 days, which was more frequently seen among elderly patients, those residing in South China, with disease onset after Level I response measures administration, or being exposed in public places. Patients with prolonged incubation period had lower risk of severe illness (ORadjusted = 0.386, 95% CI: 0.203-0.677). A reduced transmissibility was observed for the primary patients with prolonged incubation period (50.4, 95% CI: 32.3-78.6%) than those with an incubation period of ≤14 days. CONCLUSIONS: The study provides evidence supporting a prolonged incubation period that exceeded 2 weeks in over 10% for COVID-19. Longer monitoring periods than 14 days for quarantine or persons potentially exposed to SARS-CoV-2 should be justified in extreme cases, especially for those elderly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Humans , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(9): e2890-e2897, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500985

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global public health problem that has already caused more than 662 000 deaths worldwide. Although the clinical manifestations of COVID-19 are dominated by respiratory symptoms, some patients present other severe damage such as cardiovascular, renal and liver injury, and/or multiple organ failure, suggesting a spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in blood. Recent ultrasensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology now allows absolute quantification of nucleic acids in plasma. We intend to use the droplet-based digital PCR technology to obtain sensitive detection and precise quantification of plasma SARS-CoV-2 viral load (SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia) in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Fifty-eight consecutive COVID-19 patients with pneumonia 8 to 12 days after onset of symptoms and 12 healthy controls were analyzed. Disease severity was categorized as mild to moderate in 17 patients, severe in 16, and critical in 26. Plasma SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia was quantified by droplet digital Crystal Digital PCR next-generation technology (Stilla Technologies, Villejuif, France). RESULTS: Overall, SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia was detected in 43 (74.1%) patients. Prevalence of positive SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia correlated with disease severity, ranging from 53% in mild-to-moderate patients to 88% in critically ill patients (P = .036). Levels of SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia were associated with severity (P = .035). Among 9 patients who experienced clinical deterioration during follow-up, 8 had positive SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia at baseline, whereas only 1 critical patient with undetectable SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia at the time of analysis died at day 27. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia measured by droplet-based digital PCR constitutes a promising prognosis biomarker in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Critical Illness , Humans , RNA, Viral , Severity of Illness Index
9.
Int J Lab Hematol ; 43(6): 1334-1340, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443280

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV2 can present from mild flu-like symptoms to acute respiratory distress syndrome. There is multi-organ involvement; particularly, hematopoietic system can be associated with morphological changes in blood cells of COVID-19 patients. METHOD: We conducted a cross-sectional study on a cohort of 50 COVID-19 patients, confirmed on RT-PCR with documented cycle threshold (Ct) value. Peripheral blood sample of these patients was collected and examined for complete blood counts (CBC) on automated haematological analyser as well as Leishman-stained blood smears to look for morphological changes in blood cells. Morphological changes were evaluated with reference to clinical severity and Ct value. Additionally, association between Ct value and clinical severity was also performed. Statistical tests were performed, and P value <.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: Mean age of our study group was 42.16 ± 15.55 years, with male preponderance. Most commonly observed peripheral blood changes were hypolobation (P value = .002) and toxic granules (P value = .005) in neutrophils, atypical granules with nucleolar prominence in lymphocytes, cytoplasmic granulation with clumped nuclear chromatin in monocytes, giant platelets and thrombocytopenia and normocytic normochromic anaemia. CONCLUSION: No association was found between clinical severity and Ct value as well as peripheral blood morphological changes with Ct value. We conclude that examination of peripheral smear coupled with complete blood count (CBC) is only partially supportive of disease pathogenesis and to assess the viral load other parameters should be utilised instead of relying solely on Ct value.


Subject(s)
Blood Cells/ultrastructure , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/blood , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Load , Viremia/blood , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Cell Count , COVID-19/virology , Cell Shape , Cell Size , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cytoplasmic Granules/ultrastructure , Female , Hematopoiesis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Oropharynx/virology , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral/blood , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
10.
Cureus ; 13(7): e16655, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1380074

ABSTRACT

Background/objective Coronavirus infectious disease (COVID-19) is a novel disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2). Some studies have shown that disease severity according to clinical and biochemical parameters are in direct relation to viral load while others have found no direct correlation. In this study, the COVID-19 cycle threshold (Ct) value, which is taken as a direct indicator of the viral load, has been correlated with the biochemical and clinical parameters in COVID-19 patients. Methods In this cross-sectional, retrospective, and single-center study, 365 patients admitted with COVID 19 were divided into three groups according to their Ct values obtained from reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction RT-PCR as 1 (9-20), 2 (21-30), and 3 (31-40). The correlation of the COVID-19 Ct value with biochemical parameters and clinical presentation (taken as mild, moderate, and severe) was done and analyzed. The chi-square test was used for the correlation and calculated by using SPSS V-24.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY). p-value <0.05 was considered significant statistically. Results Disease severity levels (mild, moderate, and severe) correlated in group 1 (Ct value 9 to 20), 2 (Ct value 21 to 30), and 3 (Ct value 31 to 40) but no significance was found between disease severity levels and the Ct value groups' p-value (>0.05). All the biochemical parameters analyzed (alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), albumin, bilirubin, c-reactive protein (CRP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), ferritin, D-dimer, and total leucocyte count (TLC)) showed a significant p-value (<0.05) in all the three groups studied. Procalcitonin (PCT), however, did not show any significant value in any of the groups studied. In the intergroup assessment, it was found that the values of ALT, AST, albumin, CRP, ferritin, bilirubin, and TLC are maximum in group 2 with a downward trend in groups 1 and 2. Neutrophils and lymphocytes did not show any variations. LDH did not follow the trend of increasing viral load. Conclusions The severity of the disease was not statistically significant in the Ct value groups (p> 0.05). However biochemical parameters, i.e. ALT, AST, ALP, CRP, and bilirubin were statistically significant (p<0.05). Patients with COVID-19 should be closely monitored for the assessment of disease progression according to the above-mentioned biochemical parameters.

13.
Cureus ; 13(7): e16655, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1350527

ABSTRACT

Background/objective Coronavirus infectious disease (COVID-19) is a novel disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2). Some studies have shown that disease severity according to clinical and biochemical parameters are in direct relation to viral load while others have found no direct correlation. In this study, the COVID-19 cycle threshold (Ct) value, which is taken as a direct indicator of the viral load, has been correlated with the biochemical and clinical parameters in COVID-19 patients. Methods In this cross-sectional, retrospective, and single-center study, 365 patients admitted with COVID 19 were divided into three groups according to their Ct values obtained from reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction RT-PCR as 1 (9-20), 2 (21-30), and 3 (31-40). The correlation of the COVID-19 Ct value with biochemical parameters and clinical presentation (taken as mild, moderate, and severe) was done and analyzed. The chi-square test was used for the correlation and calculated by using SPSS V-24.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY). p-value <0.05 was considered significant statistically. Results Disease severity levels (mild, moderate, and severe) correlated in group 1 (Ct value 9 to 20), 2 (Ct value 21 to 30), and 3 (Ct value 31 to 40) but no significance was found between disease severity levels and the Ct value groups' p-value (>0.05). All the biochemical parameters analyzed (alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), albumin, bilirubin, c-reactive protein (CRP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), ferritin, D-dimer, and total leucocyte count (TLC)) showed a significant p-value (<0.05) in all the three groups studied. Procalcitonin (PCT), however, did not show any significant value in any of the groups studied. In the intergroup assessment, it was found that the values of ALT, AST, albumin, CRP, ferritin, bilirubin, and TLC are maximum in group 2 with a downward trend in groups 1 and 2. Neutrophils and lymphocytes did not show any variations. LDH did not follow the trend of increasing viral load. Conclusions The severity of the disease was not statistically significant in the Ct value groups (p> 0.05). However biochemical parameters, i.e. ALT, AST, ALP, CRP, and bilirubin were statistically significant (p<0.05). Patients with COVID-19 should be closely monitored for the assessment of disease progression according to the above-mentioned biochemical parameters.

14.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 68: 102661, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340529

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the pandemic COVID-19 affected developing and developed countries, there is no proven treatment options available yet. The anti-inflammatory, antiviral and immune modulator effect of Vitamin D could be beneficial to COVID-19. AIM: To find out the possible association between Vitamin D and COVID-19. METHODS: The present case-control study was conducted at tertiary care hospital, AIIMS, Patna, Bihar, India. Total 156 cases and 204 controls were enrolled in the study after obtaining informed consent. Categorization of the patients were done based on clinical severity and level of Vitamin D. The association between these categories with different variables were analyzed using regression analysis and other statistical tests. RESULTS: The status of Vitamin D (optimal, mild to moderate deficiency and severe deficiency) differed significantly among cases and controls. Diabetes and hypertension were most prevalent comorbidities among cases. On regression analysis, the difference in Vitamin D level was significant (aOR, 3.295; 95%CI, 1.25-8.685). The association between Vitamin D status and clinical severity group was statistically significant among cases. Among all variables, age, diabetes, hypertension and clinical severity were associated with worst outcome. CONCLUSION: Vitamin D status appears to be strongly associated with COVID-19 clinical severity. After COVID-19 confirmation, Vitamin D level should be measured in all patients and curative plus preventive therapy should be initiated.

15.
mBio ; 12(3): e0122921, 2021 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286719

ABSTRACT

We sought to discover links between antibody responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and patient clinical variables, cytokine profiles, and antibodies to endemic coronaviruses. Serum samples from 30 patients of younger (26 to 39 years) and older (69 to 83 years) age groups and with varying clinical severities ranging from outpatient to mechanically ventilated were collected and used to probe a novel multi-coronavirus protein microarray. This microarray contained variable-length overlapping fragments of SARS-CoV-2 spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M), nucleocapsid (N), and open reading frame (ORF) proteins created through in vitro transcription and translation (IVTT). The array also contained SARS-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43), and HCoV-NL63 proteins. IgG antibody responses to specific epitopes within the S1 protein region spanning amino acids (aa) 500 to 650 and within the N protein region spanning aa 201 to 300 were found to be significantly higher in older patients and further significantly elevated in those older patients who were ventilated. Additionally, there was a noticeable overlap between antigenic regions and known mutation locations in selected emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of current clinical consequence (B.1.1.7, B1.351, P.1, CAL20.C, and B.1.526). Moreover, the older age group displayed more consistent correlations of antibody reactivity with systemic cytokine and chemokine responses than the younger adult group. A subset of patients, however, had little or no response to SARS-CoV-2 antigens and disproportionately severe clinical outcomes. Further characterization of these slow-low-responding individuals with cytokine analysis revealed significantly higher interleukin-10 (IL-10), IL-15, and interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10) levels and lower epidermal growth factor (EGF) and soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) levels than those of seroreactive patients in the cohort. IMPORTANCE As numerous viral variants continue to emerge in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, determining antibody reactivity to SARS-CoV-2 epitopes becomes essential in discerning changes in the immune response to infection over time. This study enabled us to identify specific areas of antigenicity within the SARS-CoV-2 proteome, allowing us to detect correlations of epitopes with clinical metadata and immunological signals to gain holistic insight into SARS-CoV-2 infection. This work also emphasized the risk of mutation accumulation in viral variants and the potential for evasion of the adaptive immune responses in the event of reinfection. We additionally highlighted the correlation of antigenicity between structural proteins of SARS-CoV-2 and endemic HCoVs, raising the possibility of cross-protection between homologous lineages. Finally, we identified a subset of patients with minimal antibody reactivity to SARS-CoV-2 infection, prompting discussion of the potential consequences of this alternative immune response.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Coronavirus NL63, Human/immunology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/immunology , Cytokines/blood , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Protein Array Analysis , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
16.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 147(6): 2146-2153.e1, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253078

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Measurement of regional lung ventilation with hyperpolarized 129Xe magnetic resonance imaging (129Xe MRI) in pediatric asthma is poised to advance our understanding of disease mechanisms and pathophysiology in a disorder with diverse clinical phenotypes. 129Xe MRI has not been investigated in a pediatric asthma cohort. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that 129Xe MRI is feasible and can demonstrate ventilation defects that relate to and predict clinical severity in a pediatric asthma cohort. METHODS: Thirty-seven children (13 with severe asthma, 8 with mild/moderate asthma, 16 age-matched healthy controls) aged 6 to 17 years old were imaged with 129Xe MRI. Ventilation defect percentage (VDP) and image reader score were calculated and compared with clinical measures at baseline and at follow-up. RESULTS: Children with asthma had higher VDP (P = .002) and number of defects per image slice (defects/slice) (P = .0001) than children without asthma. Children with clinically severe asthma had significantly higher VDP and number of defects/slice than healthy controls. Children with asthma who had a higher number of defects/slice had a higher rate of health care utilization (r = 0.48; P = .03) and oral corticosteroid use (r = 0.43; P = .05) at baseline. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis demonstrated that the VDP and number of defects/slice were predictive of increased health care utilization, asthma, and severe asthma. VDP correlated with FEV1 (r = -0.35; P = .04) and FEV1/forced vital capacity ratio (r = -0.41; P = .01). CONCLUSIONS: 129Xe MRI correlates with asthma severity, health care utilization, and oral corticosteroid use. Because delineation of clinical severity is often difficult in children, 129Xe MRI may be an important biomarker for severity, with potential to identify children at higher risk for exacerbations and improve outcomes.


Subject(s)
Asthma/diagnosis , Contrast Media , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Xenon Isotopes , Adolescent , Asthma/therapy , Case-Control Studies , Child , Female , Humans , Male , ROC Curve , Respiratory Function Tests , Severity of Illness Index
18.
Iran J Pathol ; 16(2): 144-153, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175874

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have addressed the electrolyte abnormalities such as hypocalcemia in COVID-19 patients. We aimed to compare the laboratory findings especially the electrolyte levels among COVID-19 patients and healthy controls and evaluate their prognostic values. METHODS: This case-control study included 91 COVID-19 patients and 169 healthy individuals. Their laboratory parameters including electrolytes, albumin, liver enzymes, complete blood count, vitamin D, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were compared. We also analyzed the association between these markers and the major outcomes including severity, mortality and hospitalization. RESULTS: Among patients with COVID-19, 59.3% of the patients had hypocalcemia on admission while in control group only 32.5% had low calcium level (OR=3.02, 95% CI: 1.79-5.13, P<0.001). The rates of death and ICU admission were significantly higher among the patients in hypocalcemic group than those of eucalcemic group (85.7% vs 14.3% and 33.3% Vs 9.1%, respectively). However, there was no significant difference in the mean PTH and vitamin D levels between the two groups. In terms of the severity of the infection, 74.1% of patients in hypocalcemic group had a severe infection while 24.3% of the patients in eucalcemic group were diagnosed with severe infection (OR=8.89, 95% CI: 3.38-23.37, P<0.001). CONCLUSION: Patients with COVID-19 may present with considerable laboratory abnormalities including hypocalcemia. The hypocalcemia would be also associated with worse major clinical outcome and higher mortality risk.

19.
J Med Virol ; 93(5): 3165-3175, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085669

ABSTRACT

The disease spectrum of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) varies from asymptomatic infection to critical illness and death. Identification of prognostic markers is vital for predicting progression and clinical practice. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA, known as RNAemia, has been detected in the blood. However, the potential clinical value of SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia remains unknown. We, therefore, conducted a meta-analysis using a random-effects model to estimate the pooled prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia as well as summary strength of RNAemia in association with disease severity and unfavorable clinical outcomes. A total of 21 studies involving 2181 patients were included. SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia in COVID-19 patients varied from 9.4% to 74.1%, with a pooled estimate of 34% (95% confidene interval [CI]: 26%-43%). Overall, SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia was associated with COVID-19 severity with odds ratio (OR) of 5.43 (95% CI: 3.46-8.53). In addition, SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia was a significant risk factor for unfavorable clinical outcomes (OR = 6.54, 95% CI: 3.82-11.21). The summary OR was 4.28 (95% CI: 2.20-8.33) for intensive care unit (ICU) admission, 11.07 (95% CI: 5.60-21.88) for mortality. Furthermore, RNAemia was also a significant risk factor for invasive mechanical ventilation and multiple organ failure. SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia is associated with disease severity, ICU admission, death in COVID-19, and may serve as a clinical predictor. More prospective trials in evaluating the potential of SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia as a prognostic indicator are necessary.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/blood , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severity of Illness Index , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Databases, Factual , Hospitalization , Humans , Odds Ratio , Prognosis , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Respiration, Artificial , Risk Factors , Viral Load
20.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 166: 11-17, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082230

ABSTRACT

Thiol-disulphide homeostasis (TDH) is a new parameter indicating oxidative stress that plays a role in the pathogenesis of various clinical disorders. Our study planned to investigate TDH in COVID-19 patients. Age and gender-matched healthy subjects (n = 70) and COVID-19 patients (n = 144) were included in the study. In addition to the routine laboratory parameters of the groups, their native thiol (NT), total thiol (TT) and disulphide levels were measured. Primarily, we compared COVID-19 patients to the healthy control group for inflammatory parameters, NT, TT and disulphide levels. Then, COVID-19 patients were divided into two groups according to the severity of the disease as mild to moderate and severe COVID-19, and the three groups were compared with each other. Predictive value of thiol parameters in the diagnosis of COVID-19 and in the determining its severity, and its correlation with presence and duration of symptoms were investigated. Severe COVID-19 patients had lower NT and TT levels compared with healthy controls and mild to moderate patients (P < 0.001 for both). The results of ROC analysis show that the greatest AUC was IL-6 and NT (AUC = 0.97, AUC = 0.96, respectively) between control and COVID-19 patients, while it was CRP and NT (AUC = 0.85, AUC = 0.83) between mild to moderate and severe patients. A negative correlation was found between duration of symptoms of dyspnoea, cough, fever, and sore throat and NT (r = -0.45, P = 0.017, r = -0.418, P < 0.001, r = -0.131, P = 0.084, r = -0.452, P = 0.040, respectively). NT and TT levels have a strong predictive value in the diagnosis of COVID-19 and in determining disease severity. Our results support that changing TDH parameters appears to have an important role in disease pathogenesis and it can be used in clinical management of patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Disulfides/analysis , Sulfhydryl Compounds/analysis , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Oxidative Stress , Predictive Value of Tests , Severity of Illness Index
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