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1.
J Neurol Sci ; 443: 120487, 2022 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095674

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Limited data exists evaluating predictors of long-term outcomes after hospitalization for COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, longitudinal cohort study of patients hospitalized for COVID-19. The following outcomes were collected at 6 and 12-months post-diagnosis: disability using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS), activities of daily living assessed with the Barthel Index, cognition assessed with the telephone Montreal Cognitive Assessment (t-MoCA), Neuro-QoL batteries for anxiety, depression, fatigue and sleep, and post-acute symptoms of COVID-19. Predictors of these outcomes, including demographics, pre-COVID-19 comorbidities, index COVID-19 hospitalization metrics, and life stressors, were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 790 COVID-19 patients who survived hospitalization, 451(57%) completed 6-month (N = 383) and/or 12-month (N = 242) follow-up, and 77/451 (17%) died between discharge and 12-month follow-up. Significant life stressors were reported in 121/239 (51%) at 12-months. In multivariable analyses, life stressors including financial insecurity, food insecurity, death of a close contact and new disability were the strongest independent predictors of worse mRS, Barthel Index, depression, fatigue, and sleep scores, and prolonged symptoms, with adjusted odds ratios ranging from 2.5 to 20.8. Other predictors of poor outcome included older age (associated with worse mRS, Barthel, t-MoCA, depression scores), baseline disability (associated with worse mRS, fatigue, Barthel scores), female sex (associated with worse Barthel, anxiety scores) and index COVID-19 severity (associated with worse Barthel index, prolonged symptoms). CONCLUSIONS: Life stressors contribute substantially to worse functional, cognitive and neuropsychiatric outcomes 12-months after COVID-19 hospitalization. Other predictors of poor outcome include older age, female sex, baseline disability and severity of index COVID-19.

2.
Dementia e Neuropsychologia ; 16(3):354-360, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2079868

ABSTRACT

Assessment of cognitive processing speed through choice reaction time (CRT) can be an objective tool to assess cognitive functions after COVID-19 infection. Objective: This study aimed to assess CRT in individuals after acute COVID-19 infection over 1 year. Methods: We prospectively analyzed 30 individuals (male: 9, female: 21) with mild-moderate functional status after COVID-19 and 30 individuals (male: 8, female: 22) without COVID-19. Cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms were evaluated using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), respectively. CRT (milliseconds) was evaluated by finding the difference between the photodiode signal and the electromyographic (EMG) onset latency of anterior deltoid, brachial biceps, and triceps during the task of reaching a luminous target. CRT was evaluated three times over 1 year after COVID-19: baseline assessment (>4 weeks of COVID-19 diagnosis), between 3 and 6 months, and between 6 and 12 months. Results: The multiple comparison analysis shows CRT reduction of the anterior deltoid in the COVID-19 group at 3-6 (p=0.001) and 6-12 months (p<0.001) compared to the control group. We also observed CRT reduction of the triceps at 6-12 months (p=0.002) and brachial biceps at 0-3 (p<0.001), 3-6 (p<0.001), and 6-12 months (p<0.001) in the COVID-19 compared to the control group. Moderate correlations were observed between MoCA and CRT of the anterior deltoid (r=-0.63;p=0.002) and brachial biceps (r=-0.67;p=0.001) at 6–12 months in the COVID-19 group. Conclusions: There was a reduction in CRT after acute COVID-19 over 1 year. A negative correlation was also observed between MoCA and CRT only from 6 to 12 months after COVID-19 infection. © 2022, Associacao Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria. All rights reserved.

3.
Behaviour & Information Technology ; : 1-13, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2077282

ABSTRACT

Although physical isolation measures can stem the spread of COVID-19, they can also heighten individuals’ perceived isolation and feeling of loneliness, resulting in problematic internet use (PIU). However, studies have rarely investigated both the effects of physical and perceived isolation on PIU. Given the widespread availability and accessibility of digital communication technologies, it is difficult to conclude that the former may necessitate the latter inducing PIU. Using a two-wave longitudinal national survey in Singapore (n = 689), this study found that, at Time 1, both physical and perceived social isolation have direct and independent effects on internet users’ preference for online social interaction (POSI), driving PIU. This, in turn, leads to their experience of negative outcomes at Time 2. The results highlight the importance of considering the independent effects of physical and perceived isolation in affecting POSI leading to PIU. [ FROM AUTHOR]

4.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(10): 100750, 2022 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2076844

ABSTRACT

As COVID-19 cases exceed hundreds of millions globally, many survivors face cognitive challenges and prolonged symptoms. However, important questions about the cognitive effects of COVID-19 remain unresolved. In this cross-sectional online study, 478 adult volunteers who self-reported a positive test for COVID-19 (mean = 30 days since most recent test) perform significantly worse than pre-pandemic norms on cognitive measures of processing speed, reasoning, verbal, and overall performance, but not short-term memory, suggesting domain-specific deficits. Cognitive differences are even observed in participants who did not require hospitalization. Factor analysis of health- and COVID-related questionnaires reveals two clusters of symptoms-one that varies mostly with physical symptoms and illness severity, and one with mental health. Cognitive performance is positively correlated with the global measure encompassing physical symptoms, but not the one that broadly describes mental health, suggesting that the subjective experience of "long COVID" relates to physical symptoms and cognitive deficits, especially executive dysfunction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Adult , Humans , Neuropsychological Tests , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cognition
5.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Negative Results ; 13:857-866, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2072538

ABSTRACT

Background Studies have shown that morbidity and mortality critically increase from COVID-19 in patients with Alzheimer's disease and dementia. But we had an Alzheimer's disease patient treated rapidly from COVID-19 involvement. We explore the probable cause of treatment using in-silico drug screening tools. Case presentation We present an 81-year-old female patient who recovered from COVID-19 disease despite her severe dementia and Alzheimer's disease, and unfavorable respiratory status. The patient was under medical care for ten days. She received standard COVID-19 medical care plus her drugs for Alzheimer's disease. We found those drugs administered for Alzheimer's disease can interact, and probably inhibit, SARS-COV-2 main protease that plays a central role in virus replication. Conclusion Our patient remediated from COVID-19 very well despite being at a higher risk of morbidity and mortality. However, her amnesia may help her to fight and resist respiratory distress. In addition, administered drugs for Alzheimer's disease may interact with viral biomolecules and dwindle SARS-COV-2 replication.

6.
30th International Cartographic Conference (Icc 2021), Vol 4 ; 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2072055

ABSTRACT

With the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, the execution of eye-tracking user studies in indoor environments was no longer possible, and remote and contactless substitutes are needed. With this paper, we want to introduce an alternative method to eye tracking, completely feasible under COVID-19 restrictions. Our main technique are think aloud interviews, where participants constantly verbalize their thoughts as they move through a test. We record the screen and the mouse movements during the interviews, and analyse both the statements and the mouse positions afterwards. With this information, we can encode the approximate map position of the user's attention for each second of the interview. This allows us to use the same visual methods as for eye-tracking studies, like attention maps or trajectory maps. We implement our method conducting a user study with 21 participants to identify user behaviour while solving high-level interpretation tasks, and with the results of this study, we can show that or new method provides a useful substitute for eye-tracking user studies.

7.
Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition ; 11(3):338-345, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2069864

ABSTRACT

The diffusion of accurate knowledge about diseases in the population is of critical concern to public health officials. This is because an informed public should be in a position to make better decisions, especially when these decisions impact other individuals, as is the case during pandemics. This article is aimed at presenting current research on the acquisition and propagation of medical knowledge in social networks under conditions of high perceived risk of viral infection. I will review recent psychological findings to show how anxiety associated with high perceived risk of infection could (a) negatively impact information processing, (b) activate motivational frames of processing, and (c) exacerbate the adoption of misinformation. Finally, I make specific recommendations for how to maximize accurate information dissemination and minimize the spread of misinformation.

8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071468

ABSTRACT

Post-COVID syndrome (PCS) is a medical condition characterized by the persistence of a wide range of symptoms after acute infection by SARS-CoV-2. The work capacity consequences of this disorder have scarcely been studied. We aimed to analyze the factors associated with occupational status in patients with PCS. This cross-sectional study involved 77 patients with PCS on active work before SARS-CoV-2 infection. Patients were evaluated 20.71 ± 6.50 months after clinical onset. We conducted a survey on occupational activity and cognitive and clinical symptoms. The association between occupational activity and fatigue, depression, anxiety, sleep quality, and cognitive testing was analyzed. Thirty-eight (49.4%) patients were working, and thirty-nine (50.6%) patients were not. Of those not working at the moment of the assessment, 36 (92.3%) patients were on sick leave. In 63 patients (81.8% of the sample), sick leave was needed at some point due to PCS. The mean duration of sick leave was 12.07 ± 8.07 months. According to the patient's perspective, the most disabling symptoms were cognitive complaints (46.8%) and fatigue (31.2%). Not working at the moment of the assessment was associated with higher levels of fatigue and lower cognitive performance in the Stroop test. No association was found between occupational status with depression and anxiety questionnaires. Our study found an influence of PCS on work capacity. Fatigue and cognitive issues were the most frequent symptoms associated with loss of work capacity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/complications , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/etiology , Fatigue/psychology , Employment , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology
9.
Neuropsychol Rehabil ; : 1-25, 2022 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2069989

ABSTRACT

This observational cohort study explored objective neurocognitive deficits in COVID-19 patients five months after discharge, and any associations with demographic factors and disease severity indicators. Medical notes of all COVID-19 patients admitted to hospital in Region Östergötland, Sweden, March-May 2020, were reviewed. After applying exclusion criteria, 433 patients were screened by telephone. Of these, 185 patients reported persistent and concerning post-COVID-19 problems, including but not restricted to cognitive functions, and were invited to a clinical evaluation. The Repeatable Battery for Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) and Colour-Word Interference Test (CWIT) were used to assess immediate memory, visuo-spatial function, language, attention, delayed memory, and executive function. A total of 133 patients had valid test performances. Mean RBANS Global Cognition Score was 83.4, with 37% scoring below cut-off (1.5 SD). Deficits in Attention and Memory indices were most common, each affecting approximately 30% of the patients. After adjustment for sex, language, level of education and premorbid function, neurocognitive performance was positively associated with length of hospital stay, but not with the disease severity indicators WHO CPS and CRP. Findings support that comprehensive neuropsychological assessment should be performed when patients report post-COVID-19 symptoms that affect daily life.

10.
NeuroQuantology ; 20(9):4327-4336, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067290

ABSTRACT

Background: Due to the increase in life expectancy and population growth over 65 years, cognitive impairment (CI) is gradually increasing. Because of many changes in the human brain that occur with aging, cognitive decline usually worsens with age. The number of neurons, dendrites, synapses, receptors, glial components, and critical neurotransmitters (norepinephrine, dopamine, acetylcholine) diminishes every year after age 50 (by 0.1–0.2 percent). As a result, the brain's volume, metabolism, and perfusion decrease, and an average age-related cognitive decline emerge. Objective: This review will elucidate the underlying factors mediating the interaction of COVID-19, diabetes, and mental health, which may provide essential clues for tailored intervention for this vulnerable population. Result: As per the World Alzheimer Report, 46.8 million individuals worldwide suffered from dementia in 2015, a figure that's still expected to quadruple every 20 years. During the COVID-19 epidemic, researchers and practitioners are becoming increasingly concerned about the emergence of neurological symptoms, particularly the development of cognitive impairment. Learning, memory, flexible thinking, concentration, and executive function are all cognitive functions. Examples of executive functions include understanding a specific problem, solving problems, judging, halting, or modifying old behaviors, and initiating new ones. When patients are required to complete complex tasks, such as changing their insulin dose, predicting the effects of physical exercise on blood glucose, or even diagnosing and treating appropriate hypoglycemia, all these behavioral reactions are critical. Conclusion: Cognitive problems impair a patient's capacity to carry out several treatment measures, such as adhering to a medical regimen and recognizing signs of deterioration, all of which compromise the patient's treatment compliance. The current review focuses on the state of cognitive functioning in patients with metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus at the time of diagnosis and following COVID-19.

11.
World Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine ; 8(4):491-496, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2066907

ABSTRACT

Photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy is a therapeutic method that can produce a range of physiological effects in cells and tissues using certain wavelengths. The reparative benefits of PBM therapy include wound healing, bone regeneration, pain reduction, and the mitigation of inflammation. Advances in the development of laser instruments, including the use of high-intensity lasers in physiotherapy, have recently led to controllable photothermal and photomechanical treatments that enable therapeutic effects to be obtained without damaging tissue. The combination of PBM therapy with acupuncture may provide new perspectives for investigating the underlying therapeutic mechanisms of acupuncture and promote its widespread application.

12.
Sustainability ; 14(19):12936, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2066485

ABSTRACT

Mobile food order applications have become a phenomenal disruption in the food delivery industry. Customers demand better and more consistent experiences when making most purchases, including in food choices. Food delivery platforms have also been seen as the most convenient feature for customers during the global COVID-19 pandemic. Although food delivery applications have been widely used, there is only a scarce literature that focuses on the factors that optimize user experience and repurchase intention. The current study attempted to explore customer repurchase intention, driven through cognitive and affective experience, towards food delivery applications. In the current study, we conceptualized and empirically confirmed an integrated model of antecedents for cognitive and affective experience and its influence on application satisfaction and repurchase intention. The model also incorporated situational factors (distance to restaurant and availability of time to visit restaurant) as a moderating variable. To test the proposed model, data were collected from 350 regular users of different food delivery applications. Subsequently, the data were analyzed using partial least square-structural equation modeling where the findings substantially supported the significance of cognitive and affective experience on application satisfaction and repurchase intention towards food delivery applications. In addition, the results of multigroup analysis (MGA) also confirmed the positive impact of situational factors as a moderator between application satisfactions and repurchase intention. The findings of the study provide important insights into how food delivery applications can accelerate cognitive and affective experience and use application satisfaction to encourage repeat buying intention. The results also offer guidance in designing and implementing effective approaches and strategies for food delivery retailers.

13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066003

ABSTRACT

The world faces a once-in-a-century transformation due to the COVID-19 pandemic, adversely affecting farmers' employment, production practices, and livelihood resilience. Meanwhile, climate change (CC) is a crucial issue limiting agricultural production worldwide. Farmers' lives, severely affected by extreme weather conditions, are resulting in the reduced production of major economic crops. The CC has drastically influenced the major agricultural sectors of Pakistan, leading to a significant decline in farmers' living standards and the overall economy. Climate-smart and eco-friendly agricultural practices can mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and ameliorate agricultural productivity under extreme environmental conditions. This paper highlights farmers' autonomous CC adaptation strategies and their influence on cash crop (maize for this study) yield under prevailing circumstances. The current study used a simultaneous equation model to examine the different adaptation impacts on adapters and non-adapters. The survey results of 498 maize farmers in rural Pakistan revealed that growers were aware of the recent CC and had taken adequate adaptive measures to acclimatize to CC. Farmers' arable land area, awareness level, and information accessibility to CC are the most crucial factors that impart a significant role in their adaptation judgments. However, most growers have inadequate adaptation strategies, including improved irrigation and the utilization of extensive fertilizers and pesticides. Using a simultaneous equation model of endogenous switching regression, the study found that farmers not adapted to CC were negatively affecting maize productivity. Therefore, this study suggests that policymakers pay attention to the countermeasures farmers have not taken to mitigate the impact of CC. In addition, policymakers should deliver appropriate adaptation strategies to assist growers in coping with climate-related natural hazards and ensure farmers' livelihood security, rural revitalization, and sustainable agricultural development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Greenhouse Gases , Pesticides , Agriculture/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Climate Change , Cognition , Farmers , Fertilizers , Humans , Pandemics
14.
Journal of Indian Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health ; 18(1):92-99, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2064574

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Fear and uncertainty are the 2 ingredients of psychological challenges brought about by coronavirus (COVID-19). Fear and intolerance of uncertainty can affect decision-making. Because of the pandemic and owing to their phase of cognitive development, adolescents are more susceptible to such influence. Objective(s): To explore and understand the effects of COVID-19 on emotion and cognition by investigating the association between fear of COVID-19, intolerance for uncertainty, and decision-making in Indian adolescents. Method(s): The sample constituted 136 Indian adolescents aged 15 to 19 years. The sampling technique used was a nonprobability sampling technique called snowball sampling. The sample was collected through an online platform, ie, WhatsApp, Facebook, and most responses were received from Delhi, Sirsa (Haryana), and Chandigarh. The tools administered were the fear of COVID-19 scale (FCVS-19), the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS-12), and the adolescent decision-making questionnaire (ADMQ). Correlational, regression, and mediational analyses were conducted to study the associations and interactions between the 3 study variables. Result(s): The sample consisted of 51.5% females and 48.5% males. The correlational analysis reported significant positive relationships between fear of COVID-19, intolerance of uncertainty, and maladaptive decision-making. Further, mediation analysis reported: (a) the intolerance of uncertainty mediates the relationship between fear of COVID-19 and maladaptive decision-making patterns and (b) fear of COVID-19 mediates the relationship between intolerance of uncertainty and maladaptive decision-making patterns. Conclusion(s): The findings indicated that emotions experienced by adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic could have a negative and significant effect on their decision-making. Thus, it is necessary to mitigate these effects to ensure optimal development of their cognitive skills during calamities such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Copyright © 2022 Indian Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health, unless otherwise noted. Manuscript content on this site is licensed under Creative Commons Licenses.

15.
Complexity ; 2022, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2064342

ABSTRACT

With the normalization of epidemic prevention and control, the expression of the public’s demand for health information on online platforms continues to increase, while knowledge hiding behavior has seriously hindered the communication and dissemination of epidemic prevention knowledge and has a negative impact on public communication and access to health information in the socialized Q&A communities. Therefore, further stimulating diving users' activity and reducing their knowledge hiding behavior have become the key to the sustainable development of epidemic prevention and control and communities. Based on the social cognition theory, from the perspective of individual cognition and external environment, this study constructs a theoretical model of the influencing factors of users’ knowledge hiding behavior in the socialized Q&A communities in the post-epidemic era and puts forward relevant assumptions. 151 effective questionnaires are collected and an empirical analysis is carried out by using the structural equation model. The results show that outcome expectation, community atmosphere, and requesting negatively affect knowledge hiding behavior;self-efficacy, outcome expectation, and community atmosphere negatively affect the three different types of knowledge hiding behavior, which are evasive hiding, playing dumb, and rationalized hiding;community atmosphere positively affects outcome expectation, which plays a significant intermediary effect between community atmosphere and knowledge hiding behavior. The research content and relevant conclusions of this study deepen and expand the connotation and extension of knowledge hiding behavior in the negative performance of Q&A communities. From the perspective of practical application, it can also effectively reduce knowledge hiding behavior, grasp the development direction of public health needs, and strengthen the dissemination of epidemic prevention and control knowledge.

16.
American Journal of Transplantation ; 22(Supplement 3):405, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063339

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC) is an increasingly recognized phenomenon manifested by long lasting cognitive, mental, and physical symptoms. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of PASC symptoms in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) in the short (1- 6 months) and long-term (> 6 months) periods after SARS-CoV-2 infection. We also compared the prevalence of these symptoms between those with SARS-CoV-2 infection requiring hospitalization and those not requiring hospitalization. Method(s): We surveyed 111 SOTRs with self-reported SARS-CoV-2 infection diagnosed more than 4 weeks prior to survey administration. The survey consisted of 7 validated questionnaires ("Quick Dementia Rating System (QDRS)", "Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ9)", "Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7 (GAD-7)", "Impact of Events Scale (IES-6)", "EuroQol- 5 Dimension (EQ-5D)", "PROMIS global physical health scale (GHS) "and "Breathlessness, Cough and Sputum Scale (BCSS)"). Result(s): Of the 111 survey participants, 32 (33%) had been hospitalized and 35 (36%) had SARS-CoV-2 infection >6 months ago. Median (IQR) age was 58 years (46, 65). Median time from SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis was 167 days (138, 221). Cognitive impairment, anxiety, depression, insomnia, feeling of trauma, fatigue, pain, breathing problems, cough, abnormal smell, abnormal taste, and diarrhea were reported by 40%, 23%, 36%, 55%, 53%, 41%, 19%, 33%, 33%, 21%, 22%, and 32% of patients respectively. Hospitalized patients had poorer scores in cognition (QDRS survey score of 2 versus 0.75, p=0.048) (Figure 1), quality of life (EQ-5D survey score of 2 versus 1, p=0.043), physical health (PROMIS GHS survey score of 10 versus 11, p=0.013), respiratory status (BCSS survey score of 1 versus 0, p=0.056), and pain (Pain score of 3 versus 0, p 0.006). Among patients who had SARS-CoV-2 infection >6 months ago, abnormal breathing, cough, abnormal smell, abnormal taste, and diarrhea continued to be reported by 31%, 31%, 29%, 32%, and 32% of patients respectively. Conclusion(s): After SARS-CoV-2 infection, SOTRs had a high prevalence of PASC symptoms. Some of the symptoms are more severe in patients who had required hospitalization and persist beyond 6 months. Further studies are needed to understand the long term sequalae of SARS-CoV-2 infection in SOTRs and to develop an evidence-based multidisciplinary approach for caring for these patients beyond the acute phase. (Table Presented).

17.
Chest ; 162(4):A2534-A2535, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060957

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Uncommon Presentations and Complications of Chest Infections SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 10:15 am - 11:10 am INTRODUCTION: The correlation between long-haul Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) and sleep disorders remains poorly understood. In this report, we present a case of newly diagnosed central sleep apnea (CSA) and symptoms starting after a COVID-19 infection as part of a long-haul COVID-19 presentation. CASE PRESENTATION: A 69-year-old male presented to a sleep medicine clinic for evaluation of hypersomnia. He had a history of hypertension and pulmonary embolism. He contracted COVID-19 eight months prior to his presentation. He was not hospitalized, but received Remdesivir and prednisone. He complained of long-haul COVID-19 symptoms since his infection which included headaches, fatigue, cough, dyspnea, anosmia, poor appetite, dysgeusia, and memory impairment. He also started noticing nocturnal apneic episodes that frightened him and woke him up from sleep. His symptoms started after his infection and were not present prior. He went to the emergency department for evaluation and no etiology was identified. He was then referred to sleep medicine for further evaluation. A home sleep apnea test was done and showed severe sleep apnea with an Apnea-Hypopnea Index of 35.7 events per hour. His sleep apnea was predominantly central with a central apnea index of 15.3 events per hour. Cardiac testing showed no evidence of ischemia or cardiomyopathy with an ejection fraction of 52%. A CT angiogram showed no evidence of PE. Brain MRI showed no acute abnormalities. He was started on positive airway pressure therapy but could not tolerate it so he was sent for a phrenic nerve stimulator implantation. DISCUSSION: Long-term sequelae of COVID-19 infection have been increasingly recognized. However, the etiology and pathophysiology is poorly understood (1). Symptoms of long-haul COVID-19 include fatigue, dyspnea, cognitive manifestations, thrombosis and sleep disturbances (1). Sleep apnea was found in some studies to be a risk factor for severe COVID-19 illness and worse outcomes (2). The relationship between COVID-19 and sleep apnea in the post-viral syndrome remains unknown. Only few case reports have found obstructive sleep apnea as a new diagnosis and a possible cause of fatigue in post COVID-19 infection (3). There is no report of a relationship between CSA and COVID-19 in the literature. It is hypothesized that long-COVID can lead to brainstem dysfunction and dysautonomia, which can affect the ventilatory control mechanisms and lead to an unstable respiration (4–6). Our patient's nocturnal symptoms started after his infection as part of long-haul COVID-19. While we cannot determine if CSA was a result of COVID-19 infection or not, it is important to evaluate for sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in patients presenting with long-COVID symptoms to better understand the association. CONCLUSIONS: More research is need to better understand the correlation between SDB and long-haul COVID-19. Reference #1: 1. Mehandru S, Merad M. Pathological sequelae of long-haul COVID. Nat Immunol. 2022 Feb;23(2):194–202. 2. Miller MA, Cappuccio FP. A systematic review of COVID-19 and obstructive sleep apnoea. Sleep Medicine Reviews. 2021 Feb;55:101382. Reference #2: 3. Koczulla AR, Stegemann A, Gloeckl R, Winterkamp S, Sczepanski B, Boeselt T, et al. Newly detected rapid eye movement associated sleep apnea after coronavirus disease 2019 as a possible cause for chronic fatigue: two case reports. J Med Case Reports. 2021 Dec;15(1):211. 4. Barizien N, Le Guen M, Russel S, Touche P, Huang F, Vallée A. Clinical characterization of dysautonomia in long COVID-19 patients. Sci Rep. 2021 Dec;11(1):14042. Reference #3: 5. Yong SJ. Persistent Brainstem Dysfunction in Long-COVID: A Hypothesis. ACS Chem Neurosci. 2021 Feb 17;12(4):573–80. 6. White DP. Pathogenesis of Obstructive and Central Sleep Apnea. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2005 Dec;172(11):1363–70. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Amer Als ekh Mousa No relevant relationships by University of Arizona at Banne Institute No relevant relationships by Joyce Lee-Iannotti No relevant relationships by Anas Rihawi No relevant relationships by Amr Salem No relevant relationships by Mohanad Soliman No relevant relationships by Kristen Trimble

18.
Embase; 2021.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-344407

ABSTRACT

Objective. To characterize cognitive function in young children under 3 years of age over the past decade, and test whether children exhibit different cognitive development profiles through the COVID-19 pandemic. Study Design. Neurocognitive data (Mullen Scales of Early Learning, MSEL) were drawn from 700 healthy and neurotypically developing children between 2011 to 2021 without reported positive tests or clinical diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. We compared MSEL composite measures (general cognition, verbal, and non-verbal development) to test if those measured during 2020 and 2021 differed significantly from historical 2011-2019 values. We also compared MSEL values in a sub-cohort comprising infants 0-16 months of age born during the pandemic vs. infants born prior. In all analyses, we also included measures of socioeconomic status, birth outcome history, and maternal stress. Results. A significant decrease in mean population MSEL measures was observed in 2021 compared to historical references. Infants born during the pandemic exhibited significantly reduced verbal, nonverbal, and overall cognitive performance compared to children born pre-pandemic. Maternal stress was not found to be associated with observed declines but a higher socioeconomic status was found to be protective. Conclusions. Results reveal a striking decline in cognitive performance since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic with infants born since mid-2020 showing an average decrease of 27-37 points. Further work is merited to understand the underlying causative factors. Copyright The copyright holder for this preprint is the author/funder, who has granted medRxiv a license to display the preprint in perpetuity. All rights reserved. No reuse allowed without permission.

19.
Int Rev Neurobiol ; 165: 103-133, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2060258

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic has profoundly affected the quality of life (QoL) and health of the general population globally over the past 2 years, with a clear impact on people with Parkinson's Disease (PwP, PD). Non-motor symptoms have been widely acknowledged to hold a vital part in the clinical spectrum of PD, and, although often underrecognized, they significantly contribute to patients' and their caregivers' QoL. Up to now, there have been numerous reports of newly emerging or acutely deteriorating non-motor symptoms in PwP who had been infected by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), while some of these symptoms, like fatigue, pain, depression, anxiety and cognitive impairment, have also been identified as part of the long-COVID syndrome due to their persistent nature. The subjacent mechanisms, mediating the appearance or progression of non-motor symptoms in the context of Covid-19, although probably multifactorial in origin, remain largely unknown. Such mechanisms might be, at least partly, related solely to the viral infection per se or the lifestyle changes imposed during the pandemic, as many of the non-motor symptoms seem to be prevalent even among Covid-19 patients without PD. Here, we summarize the available evidence and implications of Covid-19 in non-motor PD symptoms in the acute and chronic, if applicable, phase of the infection, with a special reference on studies of PwP.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Pandemics , Quality of Life/psychology , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Journal of Multidisciplinary Research ; 14(2):91-102, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2058084

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, many New Yorkers quarantined in the state of "New York Pause." In this period, many had increased time for leisure. This study looked at New Yorkers from three neighboring counties and compared how people of different genders and ages (split into four groups) picked up new hobbies and furthered upon their old ones. The survey asked participants both if they picked up or expanded upon a prior hobby, and if so, to identify the hobby. Males and females showed no difference in how they picked up or continued hobbies during New York Pause, but younger participants both picked up and furthered hobbies more often than older participants. Along with that, the study categorized the hobbies picked up or furthered by type (Physical, Creative, Non-Physical Recreation, and Academic), and creative or creation-based hobbies saw the most participation, especially with people learning instruments, drawing, or cooking. All these results suggest that during their free time, most New Yorkers preferred to participate in hobbies under the creative or creation hobby umbrella.

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