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1.
Trials ; 23(1): 899, 2022 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089229

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has had major impacts in many different spheres, including mental health. Children and adolescents are especially vulnerable because their central nervous system is still in development and they have fewer coping resources than do adults. Increases in the prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptomatology have been reported worldwide. However, access to mental health care is limited, especially for the paediatric population and in low- and middle-income countries. Therefore, we developed a brief internet-delivered cognitive-behavioural intervention for children and adolescents with symptoms of anxiety and depression. The aim of this proposed study is to test the efficacy of the intervention. METHODS: We will conduct a two-arm, parallel randomised controlled trial involving children and adolescents (8-11 and 12-17 years of age, respectively) with symptoms of anxiety, depression or both, according to the 25-item Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (t-score > 70). A total of 280 participants will be randomised to the intervention group or the active control group, in a 1:1 ratio. Those in the intervention group will receive five weekly sessions of cognitive-behavioural therapy via teleconference. The sessions will focus on stress responses, family communication, diaphragmatic breathing, emotions, anger management, behavioural activation and cognitive restructuring. Participants in both groups will have access to 15 videos covering the same topics. Participant-guardian pairs will be expected to attend the sessions (intervention group), watch the videos (control group) or both (intervention group only). A blinded assessor will collect data on symptoms of anxiety, depression and irritability, at baseline, at the end of the intervention and 30 days thereafter. Adolescents with access to a smartphone will also be invited to participate in an ecological momentary assessment of emotional problems in the week before and the week after the intervention, as well as in passive data collection from existing smartphone sensors throughout the study. DISCUSSION: Internet-delivered interventions play a major role in increasing access to mental health care. A brief, manualised, internet-delivered intervention might help children and adolescents with anxiety or depressive symptomatology, even outside the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT05139433. Registered prospectively in November 2021. Minor amendments made in July 2022.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Internet-Based Intervention , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/therapy , Cognition , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy/methods , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/therapy , Pandemics , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Treatment Outcome
2.
Ann Med ; 54(1): 2477-2485, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2028822

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic led to exacerbation of mental health symptoms and deterioration in psychological well-being in individuals suffering from schizophrenia. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on patients suffering from treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) with auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) having undergone virtual reality therapy (VRT) or cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) on their symptomatology. The secondary objective is to identify the differences and similarities in relation to the response to the COVID 19 pandemic between these two groups of patients. METHODS: Qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews was conducted with 42 patients suffering from TRS who had previously followed VRT or CBT. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analysed. RESULTS: Four themes emerged in this study: Psychotherapeutic Interventions, Impact of COVID-19 and Public health and safety policies, Substance use and Psychiatric follow-up. Participants from both groups reported that their therapy was beneficial in controlling AVH. Patients having followed CBT reported more depressive symptoms whereas patients having followed VRT reported more anxious symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: This study offers a first qualitative insight in patients suffering from TRS and the impacts of COVID-19 on them and opens the door to the protective factors of CBT and VRT for this specific population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Schizophrenia , Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Hallucinations/complications , Hallucinations/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Schizophrenia/complications , Schizophrenia/therapy , Schizophrenia, Treatment-Resistant
3.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 2022 Aug 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2014172

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the COVID-19 pandemic's effect on children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This study aims to investigate whether the pandemic is associated with increased referral of young people with OCD, any changes in their symptom severity and treatment offered. METHODS: Service data were used to investigate 58 young people (8-17 years) referred and assessed in the Central and Northwest London NHS Foundation Trust Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service (CAMHS), before and during the COVID-19 pandemic (months March-October 2018-2020). Changes in symptom severity were measured using the Health of the Nation Outcome Scale for Children and Adolescents (HoNOSCA). Patient records were reviewed to assess if COVID-19 had exacerbated symptoms. Type of treatment offered was compared. RESULTS: 26 (5.62%) assessments to CAMHS related to OCD in 2020, compared to 12 (1.30%) and 20 (2.27%) assessments pre-pandemic (2018 and 2019), showing a significant increase in the proportion of OCD cases (X2 (1, N = 58) = 20.3, p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in any HoNOSCA dimensions on initial assessment. However, 69.2% of patients in 2020 showed symptom worsening over the COVID-period, versus 46.7% of cases first assessed pre-pandemic. Significantly more patients were discharged without being offered treatment pre-pandemic (X2 (2, N = 58) = 12.7, p = 0.002). In 2020, there was an 8.5% increase in the frequency of medication offered. DISCUSSION: The proportion of OCD cases in CAMHS increased in 2020 despite the overall number of CAMHS referrals falling. Furthermore, many cases reportedly worsened during the pandemic, and services will need to address the increased burden of more severe cases. Further larger investigation of this subject is warranted.

4.
the Cognitive Behaviour Therapist Vol 15 2022, ArtID e21 ; 15, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1960165

ABSTRACT

Hoarding disorder (HD) is characterised by excessive acquisition and distress associated with discarding objects, resulting in significant clutter. At present, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) represents the strongest evidence base for treating HD, although some limitations exist. Little research has examined the effectiveness of remote-CBT interventions for HD in older adults. This case study focuses on Mary, an older female adult presenting with clinically significant hoarding behaviours which severely impact her daily functioning and quality of life. Assessment and intervention followed a structured CBT approach. Despite the complicating factor of COVID-19, Mary responded well to a remote-CBT intervention, with progress indicators suggesting modest improvements in personal, social and occupational functioning. These findings support the use of remote-CBT for HD in both reducing frequency and intensity of hoarding behaviours and improving wellbeing. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

5.
Chronic Illn ; 18(3): 691-701, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928039

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Long COVID affects approximately ten-percent of people following post-acute Coronavirus infection. Long COVID is a complex, multisystemic recent illness. Therefore, there are currently no unitary guidelines on its management. The UK national guidelines currently recommended that interventions are guided by objective research evidence and subjective experiences of patients. They also emphasise multidisciplinary/interdisciplinary professional care and patient self-management. METHODS: The current case study applied patient-led integrated cognitive behavioural therapy in a 36-year-old male presenting with long COVID symptoms with comorbid depression and anxiety. It applied integrated interdisciplinary CBT with emphasis on enhancing patient self-management. The patient attended twelve, individual, 60 min video sessions, via Microsoft Teams over a period of five months. The treatment was conducted in collaboration with the patient's general practitioner, physiotherapists and cardiopulmonary specialists. In line with the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines, it applied symptom monitoring, graded pacing and behavioural experiments. RESULTS: At the end of therapy, the patient showed reliable change in his somatic symptoms, depression and anxiety symptoms. He also showed improved quality of life. DISCUSSION: This case illustrates the effective use of patient-led CBT for managing symptoms of long COVID with comorbid depression and anxiety in primary care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Adult , Anxiety/complications , Anxiety/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Depression/complications , Depression/therapy , Humans , Male , Primary Health Care , Quality of Life
6.
Can J Psychiatry ; 67(5): 391-402, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1923447

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Telehealth is being increasingly incorporated into the delivery of mental health care and has received widespread attention during the COVID-19 pandemic for its ability to facilitate care during physical distancing restrictions. Videoconferencing is a common telehealth modality for delivering psychotherapy and has demonstrated similar outcomes to those of face-to-face therapy. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is the most common psychotherapy evaluated across various telehealth modalities; however, studies on CBT delivered via videoconference, particularly in a group therapy format, are lacking. Further, little research exists on videoconference group CBT for anxiety disorders. Accordingly, the present study compared the outcomes of group CBT for anxiety and related disorders delivered via videoconference versus face-to-face. METHOD: Using a non-randomized design, data on attendance, dropout, clinical outcomes, and functional impairment were collected from 413 adult outpatients of a tertiary care anxiety disorders clinic who attended a CBT group for panic disorder/agoraphobia, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), or obsessive-compulsive disorder delivered either face-to-face (pre-COVID-19 pandemic) or via videoconference (since the onset of COVID-19 pandemic). Outcomes were assessed using well-validated self-report measures. Data were collected pre-treatment, across 12 weekly sessions, and post-treatment. Intent-to-treat analyses were applied to symptom outcome measures. RESULTS: Face-to-face CBT conferred only a slight benefit over videoconference CBT for symptom outcomes across all groups, but when assessed individually, only the GAD group showed greater symptom improvement in the face-to-face format. Effect sizes for significant differences between the delivery formats were small. Participants in videoconference groups tended to have slightly higher attendance rates in some instances, whereas functional improvement and treatment dropout were comparable across the delivery formats. CONCLUSIONS: Results provide preliminary evidence that videoconference group CBT for anxiety and related disorders may be a promising and effective alternative to face-to-face CBT. Additional research is needed to establish equivalence between these delivery formats.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Telecommunications , Adult , Anxiety/therapy , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/therapy , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy/methods , Humans , Pandemics
7.
J Adv Nurs ; 2022 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1922952

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Because of the COVID-19 lockdown, an internet-based adaption of a nurse-led cognitive behavioural group therapy (CGBT) was provided for perpetrators of domestic violence. The aim of this study was to describe the development of the therapy, examine the initial feasibility and impact on patient satisfaction of the programme and evaluate the associated patient-reported experiences. DESIGN: Programme development as well as testing its feasibility and acceptability using cross-sectional survey data. METHODS: Anonymous data were collected at a university hospital in Norway between October and December 2021. Feasibility was examined by comparing the numbers of patients who agreed to participate, chose not to participate or dropped out during the intervention. There was a self-reporting scale that evaluated patient satisfaction, and the participants were invited to make suggestions for improvement of the intervention. The results of the study are reported in accordance with the STROBE checklist. RESULTS: The videoconference-delivered CGBT was feasible. Two of the 67 patients refused to attend therapy delivered in a remote manner (3.0%), and four patients (6.0%) were classified as non-completers. Overall, patients were satisfied with the therapy. CONCLUSIONS: This study described a promising nurse-led internet-based intervention for individuals who were domestically violent and had voluntarily sought healthcare help. The participants' satisfaction with the intervention indicates its acceptability and feasibility. However, research on internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy is still in its infancy. These results may guide the future development of internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for individuals who perpetrate domestic violence. Further research is needed on the pros and cons of this mode of service delivery. IMPACT: This study addressed the challenges of providing treatment for domestic violence during the COVID-19 pandemic by examining videoconference-delivered CBT for individuals who perpetrate domestic violence.

8.
J Psychiatr Res ; 152: 397-405, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914719

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the population's levels of stress and anxiety due to its contagious nature and the uncertainties generated by its novelty. One population that is especially vulnerable to these psychological consequences are pregnant women. This is why the objective of this study was to test the efficacy of an online stress management programme of a cognitive behavioural nature on pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic, in Spain. The trial was controlled and randomised, with a total of 207 pregnant women divided into three groups: the Online Cognitive Behavioural Therapy group (o-CBT) (N = 70); the Online Psychological Support group (o-PS) (N = 69); and the Usual Care group (UC) (N = 68). To test the therapy's efficacy, the women's resilience, perceived stress, pregnancy-specific stress and psychopathological symptoms were assessed before and after the intervention. The o-CBT and o-PS consisted of a programme of 8 group sessions (one per week). The results showed that pregnant women who participated in the o-CBT group presented lower rates of pregnancy-specific stress and perceived stress, as well as greater resilience and lower anxiety, depression and obsessions-compulsions symptoms. These data show the efficacy of the treatment programme and thus confirm the importance of implementing these types of interventions during a woman's pregnancy, especially over periods of major stress, such as during a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Vaccines , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy/methods , Depression/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women/psychology , Stress, Psychological/psychology
9.
Cognitive Behaviour Therapist ; 15:22, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1882698

ABSTRACT

Videoconferencing therapy (VT) has been an emerging medium of psychological therapy, and during the COVID-19 pandemic there has been substantial growth in its usage as a result of home working. However, there is a paucity of research into client and clinician perceptions of VT. This study sought to assess client and staff experiences of VT. This mixed methods study produced both quantitative and qualitative data. Seven clients who had previously received VT and 11 psychotherapists who had previously delivered VT were recruited from two NHS sites. Clients and psychotherapists took part in qualitative interviews which were analysed using thematic analysis. Quantitative surveys were developed based on themes generated from the interviews and were completed by 172 clients and 117 psychotherapists. These were analysed using simple percentages. VT often exceeded client and psychotherapist expectations and overall experiences of VT were generally positive, although there were mixed findings regarding the therapeutic alliance. Several barriers to VT were cited, such as IT issues, and challenges identified in conducting behavioural experiments, and potential exclusion of certain populations were also cited. The medium of VT was received well by both clients and clinicians, with advantages around convenience seemingly outweighing losses in quality of therapeutic relationship. Future research should focus on overcoming barriers to accessing VT in populations prone to digital exclusion. NHS services not currently employing VT may wish to reconsider their stance, expanding choice of therapy delivery and improving accessibility.

10.
Cognitive Behaviour Therapist ; 15:18, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1867983

ABSTRACT

Hoarding disorder (HD) is characterised by excessive acquisition and distress associated with discarding objects, resulting in significant clutter. At present, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) represents the strongest evidence base for treating HD, although some limitations exist. Little research has examined the effectiveness of remote-CBT interventions for HD in older adults. This case study focuses on Mary, an older female adult presenting with clinically significant hoarding behaviours which severely impact her daily functioning and quality of life. Assessment and intervention followed a structured CBT approach. Despite the complicating factor of COVID-19, Mary responded well to a remote-CBT intervention, with progress indicators suggesting modest improvements in personal, social and occupational functioning. These findings support the use of remote-CBT for HD in both reducing frequency and intensity of hoarding behaviours and improving wellbeing. Key learning aims (1) Hoarding disorder (HD) is a poorly understood disorder that can significantly impact an individual's personal, social and occupational functioning. (2) According to a cognitive behavioural model, HD emanates from information-processing deficits, emotional attachment difficulties, behavioural avoidance and maladaptive beliefs about objects and the self (Frost and Hartl, 1996). (3) Observations from this case study suggest the acceptability and effectiveness of a remote cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) intervention for HD, with outcomes appearing congruous with those produced by face-to-face intervention. (4) While research attests to the effectiveness of a CBT intervention for HD, an augmented account of the mechanisms through which these outcomes are achieved is required.

11.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry ; 56(11): 1463-1476, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625200

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Cognitive-behavioural therapy is recommended as the first-line treatment for children and adolescents with anxiety. Despite its efficacy, a recent United Kingdom study indicated that few children with anxiety disorders receive cognitive-behavioural therapy. The primary aim of this study was to examine the receipt of cognitive-behavioural therapy for children and adolescents with elevated anxiety symptoms in Australia. Second, this study also examined whether there was a difference in the type of treatment received based on socioeconomic status and geographical location. METHOD: Using self-reported questionnaires, parents of children aged 4-18 years and children aged 12-18 years (N = 784; elevated anxiety symptom sample n = 169) were recruited from four samples: community (n = 164), school (n = 177), clinic (n = 16) and online panel provider (n = 427). Participants reported on the child's anxiety symptoms and the type of treatment (if any) the child received for their anxiety symptoms. RESULTS: Results indicated that 19.5% of children and adolescents with elevated anxiety symptoms received evidence-based treatment (e.g. cognitive-behavioural therapy). Of those families who did seek help for anxiety in Australia, the majority (66.3%) did not receive cognitive-behavioural therapy. In addition, neither socioeconomic status (which was based on the Australian Index of Community Socio-Educational Advantage [ICSEA]) nor location (metropolitan vs regional/remote) affected whether individuals received evidence-based care or non-evidence-based care. CONCLUSION: Overall, children and adolescents in this study seeking support for their anxiety symptoms were not receiving adequate evidence-based care, regardless of socioeconomic status and location. These findings indicate there is a need to increase the receipt of cognitive-behavioural therapy for children and adolescents with anxiety symptoms. The findings should tentatively be interpreted, given data were collected during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Child , Adolescent , Humans , Australia/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/therapy , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/therapy
12.
Sleep Breath ; 26(4): 1947-1951, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611459

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the positive impact of e-aid cognitive behavioural therapy on the sleep quality, anxiety, and depression of nurses on site during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Nurses on site at the Tianjin Medical University General Hospital Airport Site experiencing insomnia, anxiety and depression during the COVID-19 prevention and control period, from February 2020 to April 2021, were selected and divided into either an e-aid cognitive behavioural therapy (eCBT-I) group or a control group using a randomized grouping method. The eCBT-I group was given standard eCBT-I for 6 weeks; the control group did not get any intervention. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) were used to evaluate the sleep quality of the subjects. The Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item (GAD-7) and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) were used to assess the subjects' anxiety and depression. Changes in sleep quality, anxiety and depression before and after treatment were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: Of 118 nurses randomized, the PSQI and ISI scores within the eCBT-I group (n=60) were significantly lower after treatment (5.9 ± 3.9, 6.7 ± 4.5) than before treatment (10.4 ± 3.5, 12.4 ± 4.7) (p <0.05). Compared to the scores of the control group (n=58) (9.1 ± 3.9, 10.6 ± 4.1), the PSQI and ISI scores in the eCBT-I group (5.9 ± 3.9, 6.7 ± 4.5) were lower after treatment (p <0.05). The GAD-7 and PHQ-9 scores in the eCBT-I group were all lower after treatment (3.7±3.4, 4.2±4.1) than before treatment (6.7±4.9, 7.7±5.1) (p <0.05). Compared with subjects in the control group (7.1±5.6, 7.3±5.1), subjects in the eCBT-I group (3.7±3.4, 4.2±4.1) had lower scores on the GAD-7 and PHQ-9 scales after treatment (p <0.05). CONCLUSION: eCBT-I improved the sleep quality of frontline nurses during the COVID-19 prevention and control period and relieved anxiety and depression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Humans , Pandemics , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/therapy , Sleep Quality , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy/methods , Anxiety/therapy , Anxiety/psychology
13.
Trials ; 22(1): 867, 2021 Dec 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551219

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) results in debilitating long-term symptoms, often referred to as Post-Acute Sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 Infection (PASC), in a substantial subgroup of patients. One of the most prevalent symptoms following COVID-19 is severe fatigue. Prompt delivery of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), an evidence-based treatment that has shown benefit in reducing severe fatigue in other conditions, may reduce post-COVID-19 fatigue. Based on an existing CBT protocol, a blended intervention of 17 weeks, Fit after COVID, was developed to treat severe fatigue after the acute phase of infection with SARS-CoV-2. METHOD: The ReCOVer study is a multicentre 2-arm randomised controlled trial (RCT) to test the efficacy of Fit after COVID on severe post-infectious fatigue. Participants are eligible if they report severe fatigue 3 up to and including 12 months following COVID-19. One hundred and fourteen participants will be randomised to either Fit after COVID or care as usual (ratio 1:1). The primary outcome, the fatigue severity subscale of the Checklist Individual Strength (CIS-fatigue), is assessed in both groups before randomisation (T0), directly post CBT or following care as usual (T1), and at follow-up 6 months after the second assessment (T2). In addition, a long-term follow-up (T3), 12 months after the second assessment, is performed in the CBT group only. The primary objective is to investigate whether CBT will lead to a significantly lower mean fatigue severity score measured with the CIS-fatigue across the first two follow-up assessments (T1 and T2) as compared to care as usual. Secondary objectives are to determine the proportion of participants no longer being severely fatigued (operationalised in different ways) at T1 and T2 and to investigate changes in physical and social functioning, in the number and severity of somatic symptoms and in problems concentrating across T1 and T2. DISCUSSION: This is the first trial testing a cognitive behavioural intervention targeting severe fatigue after COVID-19. If Fit after COVID is effective in reducing fatigue severity following COVID-19, this intervention could contribute to alleviating the long-term health consequences of COVID-19 by relieving one of its most prevalent and distressing long-term symptoms. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Netherlands Trial Register NL8947 . Registered on 14 October 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , COVID-19/complications , Fatigue/diagnosis , Fatigue/etiology , Fatigue/therapy , Humans , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
14.
J Telemed Telecare ; : 1357633X211053738, 2021 Dec 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551117

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Worldwide, it is estimated that 264 million people meet the diagnostic criteria for anxiety conditions. Effective treatment regimens consist of cognitive and behavioural therapies. During the COVID-19 pandemic, treatment delivery relied heavily on telemedicine technologies which enabled remote consultation with patients via phone or video platforms. We aim to identify, appraise and synthesise randomised controlled trials comparing telehealth to face-to-face delivery of care to individuals of any age or gender, diagnosed with anxiety disorders, and disorders with anxiety features. METHODS: To conduct this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched three electronic databases, clinical trial registries and citing-cited references of included studies. RESULTS: A total of five small randomised controlled trials were includable; telehealth was conducted by video in three studies, and by telephone in two. The risk of bias for the 5 studies was low to moderate for most domains. Outcomes related to anxiety, depression symptom severity, obsessive-compulsive disorder, function, working alliance, and satisfaction were comparable between the two modes of delivery at each follow-up time point (immediately post-intervention, 3 months, 6 months and 12 months), with no significant differences reported (p > 0.05). None of the trials reported on the costs of telehealth compared to face-to-face care. DISCUSSION: For effectively treating anxiety and related conditions, interventions delivered by telehealth appear to be as effective as the same therapy delivered in-person. However, further high-quality trials are warranted to determine the effectiveness, acceptability, feasibility, and cost-effectiveness of telehealth interventions for the management of a wider range of anxiety disorders and treatments.

15.
Front Digit Health ; 3: 689736, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497057

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has intensified the need for mental health support across the whole spectrum of the population. Where global demand outweighs the supply of mental health services, established interventions such as cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) have been adapted from traditional face-to-face interaction to technology-assisted formats. One such notable development is the emergence of Artificially Intelligent (AI) conversational agents for psychotherapy. Pre-pandemic, these adaptations had demonstrated some positive results; but they also generated debate due to a number of ethical and societal challenges. This article commences with a critical overview of both positive and negative aspects concerning the role of AI-CBT in its present form. Thereafter, an ethical framework is applied with reference to the themes of (1) beneficence, (2) non-maleficence, (3) autonomy, (4) justice, and (5) explicability. These themes are then discussed in terms of practical recommendations for future developments. Although automated versions of therapeutic support may be of appeal during times of global crises, ethical thinking should be at the core of AI-CBT design, in addition to guiding research, policy, and real-world implementation as the world considers post-COVID-19 society.

16.
Nurs Older People ; 33(6): 35-42, 2021 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497830

ABSTRACT

Anxiety is a debilitating condition that adversely affects people's quality of life. It is challenging to differentiate anxiety from other physical and mental health conditions in older people, particularly those with co-morbid dementia or depression. The coronavirus 2019 pandemic has compounded social isolation and loneliness in older people, causing increased levels of anxiety. Nurses need to be able to detect and assess anxiety in older people and offer short, low-intensity interventions to support older people's mental health or refer them to specialist assessment and treatment. While research on anxiety in older people is lacking, cognitive behavioural therapy, mindfulness, yoga, music therapy and pleasant activities have shown potential as non-pharmacological interventions for alleviating anxiety in older people. This article explores the role of nurses in identifying when an older person may be experiencing anxiety and then choosing the optimal non-pharmacological intervention to support them.


Subject(s)
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Quality of Life , Aged , Anxiety/therapy , Anxiety Disorders , Depression , Humans , Loneliness
17.
Clin Psychol Rev ; 88: 102066, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1313025

ABSTRACT

Chronic loneliness is associated with a range of mental health difficulties. Previous theory and research indicate that psychological interventions show promise for reducing loneliness, however, there have been no systematic reviews or meta-analyses to ascertain the efficacy of these interventions across the lifespan. The aim of this study was to synthesise, meta-analyse and explore the heterogeneity in RCTs of psychological interventions for loneliness in order to establish their efficacy. Five databases (Ovid Embase, Ovid Medline, PsycINFO, Web of Science and CINAHL) were systematically searched in order to identify relevant studies. Included studies were required to be peer-reviewed RCTs examining psychological interventions for loneliness. Two independent coders examined the abstracts of the 3973 studies and 103 full texts, finding 31 studies that met inclusion criteria, 28 of which contained sufficient statistical information to be included in the meta-analysis. The quality of included studies was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. The 31 studies (N = 3959) that were included in the systematic review were conducted with participants from a diverse range of cultures, age groups and populations. The interventions were of mixed quality and were mostly face to face, group-based and delivered weekly. The most common type of intervention was Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT). 28 studies (N = 3039) were included in a meta-analysis which found that psychological interventions significantly reduced loneliness compared to control groups, yielding a small to medium effect size (g = 0.43). Subgroup analysis and meta-regressions were conducted in order to explore heterogeneity and found that type of psychological intervention was approaching significance as a moderator of the effectiveness of psychological interventions for loneliness. In conclusion, psychological interventions for loneliness across the lifespan are effective. This finding should inform policy makers, researchers and clinicians going forward, especially in the context of increased loneliness due to the COVID-19 pandemic. There was considerable heterogeneity in the effectiveness of the interventions, suggesting that future research should also explore what works for whom and consider personalising psychological treatment.


Subject(s)
Loneliness/psychology , Psychosocial Intervention , COVID-19/psychology , Humans , Psychosocial Intervention/methods , Treatment Outcome
18.
Behav Sci (Basel) ; 11(7)2021 Jul 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1308297

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The global pandemic has affected the psychological health of the population, including pregnant women. Due to the difficulty of offering conventional therapies to reduce stress in this population, studies are needed to show the effect of online therapies. Therefore, the objective was to test the effect of online cognitive behavioural therapy in pregnant women during the pandemic on the main variables of stress and psychopathology. METHODS: The sample consisted of 16 pregnant women who participated in a weekly cognitive behavioural intervention for 8 weeks. Prenatal concerns, general stress, stress vulnerability, resilience and psychopathology were assessed. RESULTS: The results show a reduction in prenatal concerns, perceived stress, stress vulnerability and psychopathology, as well as an increase in resilience. CONCLUSIONS: Online cognitive behavioural intervention may be effective in pregnant women, so it is important to conduct a randomised controlled trial to certify these findings.

19.
Arab J Urol ; 19(3): 310-322, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1254177

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To highlight the efficacy of various psychological interventions (PI) when used in combination with, or in place of, phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (PDE-5i), as compared to the traditional treatment of men with erectile dysfunction (ED) with PDE-5i alone. Methods: A comprehensive literature review for the years 2005-2020 via MEDLINE and PubMed. We included randomised controlled trials that compared the use of either PDE-5i alone, PI alone or a combination of PDE-5i and PI in the treatment of psychogenic ED. All studies included were performed in adults aged 19-55 years and were written in English. Results: A total of 13 articles, with an overall sample of 597 men, were included in this systematic review. The results show that the combination of PI and PDE-5i was more effective than either PI or PDE-5i alone, on erectile function and long-term sexual satisfaction in men with psychogenic ED. Combined interventions were found to be significantly superior to medical treatment in seven studies and to PI alone in one study. In comparing PI to PDE-5i, two studies found PI to be significantly superior to PDE-5i use. In three other studies, PI was found significantly superior to no treatment at all, although some participants in the control group had taken PDE-5i. Conclusions: The combination of PDE-5i with PI shows real promise for the treatment of psychogenic ED. However, no conclusions could be made about what PI is more promising than the other and larger studies are needed to confirm these initial findings. Abbreviations: CBT: cognitive behavioural therapy; CBST: cognitive behavioural sex therapy; COVID-19: coronavirus disease 2019; ED: erectile dysfunction; EDITS: Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction; GPT, group psychotherapy: IIEF(-EF) (-OS) (-SD): International Index of Erectile Function (erectile functioning) (overall sexual satisfaction) (level of sexual desire); ITP: integrative treatment protocol; MHI: Mental Health Inventory; PDE-5i: phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors; PI, psychological interventions; QoL: quality of life; RCT: randomised controlled trial; SHIM: Sexual Health Inventory for Men.

20.
Behav Cogn Psychother ; : 1-25, 2021 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1221099

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, mental health services have had to offer psychological therapy via video with little time to prepare or mitigate potential problems. Identifying the barriers, benefits and training needs highlighted by clinicians may support the effective delivery of care. METHOD: Changes in the mode therapy sessions were delivered in during 2020 were assessed in two high-volume psychological therapies services. Sixty-six therapists completed a survey about their experiences of delivering therapy via video. RESULTS: The lockdown in March 2020 precipitated a dramatic shift from face-to-face to telephone and video-delivered sessions. Most clinicians (89%) found video-based sessions acceptable. Barriers to effective delivery included technological issues, problems with online platforms, and feeling more tired after sessions. Benefits included generalised learning from behavioural work, improvements in efficiency and in the therapeutic relationship, particularly in comparison with telephone-based sessions. Tutorials and support guides were recommended to maximise use of sessions via video. CONCLUSIONS: Video-delivered therapy was liked by clinicians and preferred to telephone-based sessions. Issues with platforms, internet connections and access for patients need addressing, local troubleshooting guides, video-based tutorials and greater support for low-intensity therapists to maximise uptake of video sessions where appropriate, may be beneficial.

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