Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 268
Filter
1.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 842121, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109781

ABSTRACT

Background: The Coronavirus Diseases 2019 (COVID-19) directly affects HIV prevention and sexual health services utilization among men who have sex with men (MSM). This study investigated changes in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing utilization among MSM before and after the COVID-19 pandemic received initial control in Shenzhen, China. Methods: This study was a sub-analysis of a prospective observational cohort study conducted among MSM in Shenzhen, China between August 2020 and May 2021. Participants were recruited through outreaching in gay venues, online recruitment, and peer referral. Participants completed a baseline online survey between August and September 2020 and a follow-up online survey between April and May 2021. This study was based on 412 MSM who reported to be HIV-negative/unknown sero-status at baseline, 297 (72.1%) of them completed the follow-up online survey. Multilevel logistic regression models (level 1: sources of recruitment; level 2: individual participants) were fitted. Results: When comparing follow-up data with baseline data, a significant increase was observed in the uptake of any type of HIV testing (77.9% at Month 6 vs. 59.2% at baseline, p < 0.001). After adjusting for age group, education level, current employment status and monthly personal income, two predisposing factors were associated with higher uptake of HIV testing during the follow-up period. They were: (1) condomless anal intercourse with male non-regular male sex partners at follow-up only (AOR: 5.29, 95%CI: 1.27, 22.01) and (2) sanitizing before and after sex at baseline (AOR: 1.26, 95%CI: 1.02, 1.47). Regarding enabling factors, utilization of HIV testing (AOR: 3.90, 95%CI: 2.27, 6.69) and STI testing (AOR: 2.43, 95%CI: 1.20, 4.93) 6 months prior to the baseline survey was associated with higher uptake of HIV testing during the follow-up period. Having the experience that HIV testing service providers reduced service hours during the follow-up period was also positively associated with the dependent variable (AOR: 3.45, 95%CI: 1.26, 9.41). Conclusions: HIV testing utilization among MSM might rebound to the level before the COVID-19 outbreak after the pandemic received initial control in China. This study offered a comprehensive overview to identify potential reasons that can influence the uptake of HIV testing among Chinese MSM.

2.
Int J Infect Dis ; 125: 58-60, 2022 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105081

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate COVID-19 messenger RNA vaccine effectiveness during the Delta- and Omicron-predominant periods in Japan. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort study among individuals aged 16-64 years during two periods: the Delta-predominant period (July 1-December 31, 2021) and the Omicron-predominant period (January 1-March 29, 2022). RESULTS: When comparing individuals who were vaccinated with those who were unvaccinated, the effectiveness of a second dose against symptomatic infection was 89.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 80.5-94.7%) during the Delta-predominant period and 21.2% (95% CI: 11.0-30.3%) during the Omicron-predominant period. The effectiveness of a third dose against symptomatic infection was 71.8% (95% CI: 60.1-80.1%) during the Omicron-predominant period. CONCLUSION: Vaccine effectiveness against symptomatic infection decreased during the Omicron-predominant period but was maintained by a third dose.

3.
Ann Glob Health ; 88(1): 91, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100229

ABSTRACT

Background: This article summarises a session from the recent Pacific Basin Consortium for Environment and Health Focus meeting on Environmental Impacts on Infectious Disease. Objective: To provide an overview of the literature underpinning the presentations from this session. Methods: References used in developing the presentations were obtained from the presenters. Additional references were obtained from PubMed using key words from the presentations. Findings and Conclusions: The Hokkaido longitudinal children's study has found that exposure to chemicals in early life, such as persistent organic pollutants and per/polyfluorinated compounds, is associated with a range of immunological outcomes such as decreased cord blood IgE, otitis media, wheeze, increased risk of infections and higher risk of food allergy.Epidemiological evidence links exposure to poor air quality to increased severity and mortality of Covid-19 in many parts of the world. Most studies suggest that long-term exposure has a more marked effect than acute exposure.Components of air pollution, such as a newly described combustion product known as environmentally persistent free radicals, induce oxidative stress in exposed individuals. Individuals with genetic variations predisposing them to oxidative stress are at increased risk of adverse health effects from poor air quality.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Child , Humans , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Environment , Air Pollutants/adverse effects
4.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099850

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Investigating antibody titers in individuals who have been both naturally infected with SARS-CoV-2 and vaccinated can provide insight into antibody dynamics and correlates of protection over time. METHODS: Human coronavirus (HCoV) IgG antibodies were measured longitudinally in a prospective cohort of qPCR-confirmed, COVID-19 recovered individuals (k = 57) in British Columbia pre- and post-vaccination. SARS-CoV-2 and endemic HCoV antibodies were measured in serum collected between Nov. 2020 and Sept. 2021 (n = 341). Primary analysis used a linear mixed-effects model to understand the effect of single dose vaccination on antibody concentrations adjusting for biological sex, age, time from infection and vaccination. Secondary analysis investigated the cumulative incidence of high SARS-CoV-2 anti-spike IgG seroreactivity equal to or greater than 5.5 log10 AU/mL up to 105 days post-vaccination. No re-infections were detected in vaccinated participants, post-vaccination by qPCR performed on self-collected nasopharyngeal specimens. RESULTS: Bivariate analysis (complete data for 42 participants, 270 samples over 472 days) found SARS-CoV-2 spike and RBD antibodies increased 14-56 days post-vaccination (p < 0.001) and vaccination prevented waning (regression coefficient, B = 1.66 [95%CI: 1.45-3.46]); while decline of nucleocapsid antibodies over time was observed (regression coefficient, B = -0.24 [95%CI: -1.2-(-0.12)]). A positive association was found between COVID-19 vaccination and endemic human ß-coronavirus IgG titer 14-56 days post vaccination (OC43, p = 0.02 & HKU1, p = 0.02). On average, SARS-CoV-2 anti-spike IgG concentration increased in participants who received one vaccine dose by 2.06 log10 AU/mL (95%CI: 1.45-3.46) adjusting for age, biological sex, and time since infection. Cumulative incidence of high SARS-CoV-2 spike antibodies (>5.5 log10 AU/mL) was 83% greater in vaccinated compared to unvaccinated individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms that vaccination post-SARS-CoV-2 infection provides multiple benefits, such as increasing anti-spike IgG titers and preventing decay up to 85 days post-vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Antibody Formation , SARS-CoV-2 , Prospective Studies , COVID-19 Vaccines , Antibodies, Viral , Vaccination , Immunoglobulin G
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099499

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Acute respiratory infection (ARI) can significantly reduce postoperative quality of life and impair the recovery of older adult patients with lower-limb fractures, and its relationship with methods of anesthesia remains inconclusive. Using data from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan, this study examined the data of patients who received surgical management for lower-limb fractures and compared those who underwent general anesthesia (GA) with those who underwent regional anesthesia (RA) in terms of their incidence of acute upper and lower respiratory infection during the one-month postoperative period. The study also identified related risk factors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Approximately two million patients were randomly sampled from the NHIRD registry. We identified and enrolled patients with lower-limb fractures who were over 60 years old and underwent GA or RA during surgeries conducted between 2010 and 2017. We divided these patients into two groups for further analysis. The outcome of this study was the development of ARI during the one-month postoperative period. RESULTS: In total, 45,032 patients (GA group, 19,580 patients; RA group, 25,452 patients) with a mean age of 75.0 ± 8.9 years were included in our study. The incidence of postoperative ARI within one month of surgery was 8.0% (1562 patients) in the GA group and 9.5% (2412 patients) in the RA group, revealing a significant difference. The significant risk factors for the incidence of ARI were the application of RA for surgery, older age, hypertension, liver disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A subgroup analysis revealed that the RA method was associated with a significantly higher ARI incidence relative to the GA method among patients aged between 60 and 80 years, among male patients, among the patients with or without any comorbidity and among the patients without COPD. CONCLUSION: The incidence of postoperative ARI within one month of surgery was higher among older patients with lower-limb fractures who received RA for surgery than among those who received GA for surgery. The other major risk factors for ARI were older age, hypertension, liver disease, and COPD. Therefore, we should focus on patients with a high risk of developing ARI, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, Spinal , COVID-19 , Fractures, Bone , Hypertension , Leg Injuries , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , Male , Aged , Middle Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anesthesia, Spinal/adverse effects , Incidence , Quality of Life , Pandemics , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Anesthesia, General/adverse effects , Fractures, Bone/epidemiology , Fractures, Bone/surgery , Lower Extremity/surgery , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/etiology , Hypertension/complications , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
6.
Vaccine ; 2022 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096120

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The safety profiles of COVID-19 vaccines are incompletely evaluated in Japan. OBJECTIVES: To examine the risk of serious adverse effects after COVID-19 mRNA vaccination (BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273) in cohort studies and self-controlled case series (SCCS). METHODS: Using an administrative claims database linked with the COVID-19 vaccination registry in a city in Japan between September 2020 and September 2021, we identified health insurance enrolees aged ≥ 18 years. We evaluated the risk of acute myocardial infarction, appendicitis, Bell's palsy, convulsions/seizures, disseminated intravascular coagulation, immune thrombocytopenia, pulmonary embolism, haemorrhagic or ischemic stroke, venous thromboembolism, and all-cause mortality, 21 days following any COVID-19 mRNA vaccination, compared with non-vaccination periods. For the cohort studies, we estimated incidence rate ratios (IRRs) by Poisson regression and rate differences (IRDs) by weighted least-squares regression, adjusting for sex, age, and Charlson comorbidity index. We applied a modified SCCS design to appropriately treat outcome-dependent exposures. For the modified SCCS, we estimated within-subject IRRs by weighted conditional Poisson regression. Subgroup analyses stratified by sex and age were also conducted. RESULTS: We identified 184,491 enrolees [male: 87,218; mean (standard deviation) age: 64.2 (19.5) years] with 136,667 first and 127,322 s dose vaccinations. The risks of any outcomes did not increase in any analyses, except for the fact that the modified SCCS indicated an increased risk of pulmonary embolism after the first dose in women (within-subject IRR [95%CI]: 3.97 [1.18-13.32]). CONCLUSION: The findings suggested that the COVID-19 mRNA vaccine was generally safe, whilst a signal of pulmonary embolism following the first dose of the COVID-19 mRNA vaccine was observed.

7.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 2022 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2085442

ABSTRACT

There is a male sex disadvantage in morbidity and mortality due to COVID-19. Proposed explanations to this disparity include gender-related health behaviors, differential distribution of comorbidities and biological sex differences. In this study, we investigated the association between sex and risk of severe COVID-19 while adjusting for comorbidities, socioeconomic factors, as well as unmeasured factors shared by cohabitants which are often left unadjusted. We conducted a total-population-based cohort study (n = 1,854,661) based on individual-level register data. Cox models was used to estimate the associations between sex and risk for severe COVID-19. We additionally used a within-household design and conditional Cox models aiming to account for unmeasured factors shared by cohabitants. A secondary aim was to compare the risk of COVID-19 related secondary outcomes between men and women hospitalized due to COVID-19 using logistic regression. Men were at higher risk for hospitalization (HR = 1.63;95%CI = 1.57-1.68), ICU admission (HR = 2.63;95%CI = 2.38-2.91) and death (HR = 1.81;95%CI = 1.68-1.95) due to COVID-19, based on fully adjusted models. However, the effect of sex varied significantly across age groups: Among people in their 50s, men had > four times higher risk of COVID-19 death. The within-household design did not provide any further explanation to the sex disparity. Among patients hospitalized due to COVID-19, men had an increased risk for viral pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute respiratory insufficiency, acute kidney injury, and sepsis which persisted in fully adjusted models. Recognition of the combined effect of sex and age on COVID-19 outcomes has implications for policy strategies to reduce the adverse effects of the disease.

8.
Immun Inflamm Dis ; 10(11): e712, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2085043

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: A major contributor to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) progression and severity is a dysregulated innate and adaptive immune response. Interleukin-38 (IL-38) is an IL-1 family member with broad anti-inflammatory properties, but thus far little is known about its role in viral infections. Recent studies have shown inconsistent results, as one study finding an increase in circulating IL-38 in COVID-19 patients in comparison to healthy controls, whereas two other studies report no differences in IL-38 concentrations. METHODS: Here, we present an exploratory, retrospective cohort study of circulating IL-38 concentrations in hospitalized COVID-19 patients admitted to two Dutch hospitals (discovery n = 148 and validation n = 184) and age- and sex-matched healthy subjects. Plasma IL-38 concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, disease-related proteins by proximity extension assay, and clinical data were retrieved from hospital records. RESULTS: IL-38 concentrations were stable during hospitalization and similar to those of healthy control subjects. IL-38 was not associated with rates of intensive care unit admission or mortality. Only in men in the discovery cohort, IL-38 concentrations were positively correlated with hospitalization duration. A positive correlation between IL-38 and the inflammatory biomarker d-dimer was observed in men of the validation cohort. In women of the validation cohort, IL-38 concentrations correlated negatively with thrombocyte numbers. Furthermore, plasma IL-38 concentrations in the validation cohort correlated positively with TNF, TNFRSF9, IL-10Ra, neurotrophil 3, polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, CHL1, CD244, superoxide dismutase 2, and fatty acid binding protein 2, and negatively with SERPINA12 and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that IL-38 is not associated with disease outcomes in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. However, moderate correlations between IL-38 concentrations and biomarkers of disease were identified in one of two cohorts. While we demonstrate that IL-38 concentrations are not indicative of COVID-19 severity, its anti-inflammatory effects may reduce COVID-19 severity and should be experimentally investigated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Serpins , Male , Humans , Female , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Biomarkers , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Interleukins
9.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(10)2022 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082011

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Real-world evidence on the effectiveness of inactivated vaccines against the Delta and Omicron (BA.2.38) variants remains scarce. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted to estimate the adjusted vaccine effectiveness (aVE) of one, two, and three doses of inactivated vaccines in attenuating pneumonia, severe COVID-19, and the duration of viral shedding in Delta and Omicron cases using modified Poisson and linear regression as appropriate. RESULTS: A total of 561 COVID-19 cases were included (59.2% Delta and 40.8% Omicron). In total, 56.4% (184) of Delta and 12.0% (27) of Omicron cases had COVID-19 pneumonia. In the two-dose vaccinated population, 1.4% of Delta and 89.1% of Omicron cases were vaccinated for more than 6 months. In Delta cases, the two-dose aVE was 52% (95% confidence interval, 39-63%) against pneumonia and 61% (15%, 82%) against severe disease. Two-dose vaccination reduced the duration of viral shedding in Delta cases, but not in booster-vaccinated Omicron cases. In Omicron cases, three-dose aVE was 68% (18%, 88%) effective against pneumonia, while two-dose vaccination was insufficient for Omicron. E-values were calculated, and the E-values confirmed the robustness of our findings. CONCLUSIONS: In Delta cases, two-dose vaccination within 6 months reduced pneumonia, disease severity, and the duration of viral shedding. Booster vaccination provided a high level of protection against pneumonia with Omicron and should be prioritized.

10.
Interact J Med Res ; 11(2): e40289, 2022 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079994

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Continuous monitoring of vital signs has the potential to assist in the recognition of deterioration of patients admitted to the general ward. However, methods to efficiently process and use continuously measured vital sign data remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore methods to summarize continuously measured vital sign data and evaluate their association with respiratory insufficiency in COVID-19 patients at the general ward. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we included patients admitted to a designated COVID-19 cohort ward equipped with continuous vital sign monitoring. We collected continuously measured data of respiratory rate, heart rate, and oxygen saturation. For each patient, 7 metrics to summarize vital sign data were calculated: mean, slope, variance, occurrence of a threshold breach, number of episodes, total duration, and area above/under a threshold. These summary measures were calculated over timeframes of either 4 or 8 hours, with a pause between the last data point and the endpoint (the "lead") of 4, 2, 1, or 0 hours, and with 3 predefined thresholds per vital sign. The association between each of the summary measures and the occurrence of respiratory insufficiency was calculated using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Of the 429 patients that were monitored, 334 were included for analysis. Of these, 66 (19.8%) patients developed respiratory insufficiency. Summarized continuously measured vital sign data in timeframes close to the endpoint showed stronger associations than data measured further in the past (ie, lead 0 vs 1, 2, or 4 hours), and summarized estimates over 4 hours of data had stronger associations than estimates taken over 8 hours of data. The mean was consistently strongly associated with respiratory insufficiency for the three vital signs: in a 4-hour timeframe without a lead, the standardized odds ratio for heart rate, respiratory rate, and oxygen saturation was 2.59 (99% CI 1.74-4.04), 5.05 (99% CI 2.87-10.03), and 3.16 (99% CI 1.78-6.26), respectively. The strength of associations of summary measures varied per vital sign, timeframe, and lead. CONCLUSIONS: The mean of a vital sign showed a relatively strong association with respiratory insufficiency for the majority of vital signs and timeframes. The type of vital sign, length of the timeframe, and length of the lead influenced the strength of associations. Highly associated summary measures and their combinations could be used in a clinical prediction score or algorithm for an automatic alarm system.

11.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 8(11): e36712, 2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079967

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A possible link between influenza immunization and susceptibility to the complications of COVID-19 infection has been previously suggested owing to a boost in the immunity against SARS-CoV-2. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate whether individuals with COVID-19 could have benefited from vaccination against influenza. We hypothesized that the immunity resulting from the previous influenza vaccination would boost part of the immunity against SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We performed a population-based cohort study including all patients with COVID-19 with registered entries in the primary health care (PHC) electronic records during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic (March 1 to June 30, 2020) in Catalonia, Spain. We compared individuals who took an influenza vaccine before being infected with COVID-19, with those who had not taken one. Data were obtained from Information System for Research in Primary Care, capturing PHC information of 5.8 million people from Catalonia. The main outcomes assessed during follow-up were a diagnosis of pneumonia, hospital admission, and mortality. RESULTS: We included 309,039 individuals with COVID-19 and compared them on the basis of their influenza immunization status, with 114,181 (36.9%) having been vaccinated at least once and 194,858 (63.1%) having never been vaccinated. In total, 21,721 (19%) vaccinated individuals and 11,000 (5.7%) unvaccinated individuals had at least one of their outcomes assessed. Those vaccinated against influenza at any time (odds ratio [OR] 1.14, 95% CI 1.10-1.19), recently (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.10-1.18), or recurrently (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.05-1.15) before being infected with COVID-19 had a higher risk of presenting at least one of the outcomes than did unvaccinated individuals. When we excluded people living in long-term care facilities, the results were similar. CONCLUSIONS: We could not establish a protective role of the immunity conferred by the influenza vaccine on the outcomes of COVID-19 infection, as the risk of COVID-19 complications was higher in vaccinated than in unvaccinated individuals. Our results correspond to the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, where more complications and mortalities due to COVID-19 had occurred. Despite that, our study adds more evidence for the analysis of a possible link between the quality of immunity and COVID-19 outcomes, particularly in the PHC setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Cohort Studies , Primary Health Care , Electronics
12.
J Clin Med ; 11(19)2022 Sep 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066173

ABSTRACT

Statins exert cholesterol-independent beneficial effects, including immunomodulatory effects. In this study, we attempted to investigate the association between statin therapy and the risk of viral infection. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using data from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. We identified patients with hyperlipidemia and divided them into two cohorts: statin users and statin nonusers. A 1:1 propensity score matching was conducted between the two cohorts, and a Cox proportional hazards model was used to evaluate the risk of viral infection. Overall, a total of 20,202 patients were included in each cohort. The median follow-up durations were 4.41 and 6.90 years for statin nonusers and users, respectively. The risk of viral infection was 0.40-fold (95% confidence interval = 0.38-0.41) in statin users than in statin nonusers after adjustment for potential confounders. Statin treatment was associated with a significantly lower risk of viral infection in all age groups older than 18 years in both men and women. Moreover, the risk of viral infection substantially reduced as the duration of statin treatment increased. Our findings suggest that statin therapy is associated with a significantly lower risk of viral infection in patients with hyperlipidemia.

13.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-344282

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 patients, even among asymptomatic infected SARS-CoV-2 population, significantly increased the incidence of CVDs. This study focuses on the topic whether the community population without COVID-19 suffering from chronic lung disease (CLD) could increase the risk of incident CVDs using two Chinese national cohorts of China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) and Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS). Methods: The follow-up survey data in current study were conducted from 2014 to 2018 in CLHLS and from 2015-2018 in CHARLS. A total of 15,052 and 9, 765 participants were recruited in CHARLS and CLHLS, respectively. Cox proportional risk model was used to estimate the relationship between the CLD and CVD, and gender, age and cardiovascular health (CVH) were considered as stratification factor. The mediating and moderated mediating effects were performed to detect the possible influencing path from CLD to CVDs. E value was calculated to exclude the confounding effects of unmeasured bias factors in the sensitivity analysis. Results: A total of 1,647 participants (10.9%) with newly diagnosed CVDs were identified in CHARLS and 332 participants (11.6%) in CLHLS. In CHARLS, the standardized incidence of CVDs in baseline population with and without chronic pulmonary disease were 5.3(4.5-6.0) and 3.5(3.3-3.7) person-years, respectively. The Cox proportional risk model showed that CLDs was a significant predictor of CVD (HR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.27–1.76) after adjusting for covariates, and the HRs of stroke and CVDs excluding stroke were (HR: 1.02, 95% CI: 0.79–1.31) and (HR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.46–2.13), respectively. These association were mediated by BMI and CES_D_10 scores. The similar associations have been verified in the CLHLS. Conclusions: The evidence from two Chinese national cohort studies meet that CLD was associated with increased incidence of CVD in middle aged and older people in the community, which is of concern for respirology, cardiology and public health.

14.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-344259

ABSTRACT

Background: We estimated the coverage and effectiveness of Covid-19 vaccines against laboratory-confirmed Covid-19 cases among indigenous people in Brazil. Methods: We linked nationwide immunization data with symptomatic and Severe Acute Respiratory Infection records and studied a cohort of vaccinated indigenous people aged ≥5 years between 18th Jan 2021 and 1st Mar 2022. We estimated the Covid-19 vaccination coverage and used Poisson regression to calculate the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of CoronaVac, ChAdOx1, and BNT162b2 against Covid-19 laboratory-confirmed symptomatic and severe cases (i.e., mortality, hospitalisation, and hospital-progression to Intensive Care Unit (ICU) or death). VE was estimated as (1-RR)*100, comparing unexposed (<14 days after the 1st dose), to partially (≥14 days after 1st dose to <14 days after 2nd dose), or fully vaccinated (≥14 days after 2nd dose). Findings: By 1st Mar 2022, 48·7% (35·0-62·3) of eligible indigenous people vs 74·8% (57·9-91·8) overall Brazilians had been fully vaccinated for Covid-19. Among the 370,092 indigenous subjects studied, we detected 1951 Covid-19 cases, of which 105 were hospitalised and 35 died. VE for the three Covid-19 vaccines combined was 53% (95%CI:44-60%) for symptomatic cases, 53% (95%CI:-56-86%) for mortality and 41% (95%CI:-35-75%) for hospitalisation. Among hospitalised patients, VE was 87% (95%CI:27-98%) for progression to ICU and 96% (95%CI: 90-99%) for death. Interpretation: Lower coverage but similar Covid-19 vaccine effectiveness among indigenous people than overall Brazilians suggest the need to expand access, timely vaccination, especially among children and adolescents, and urgently offer booster doses to achieve a great level of protection among this group.

16.
Medwave ; 22(9): e2536, 2022 Oct 04.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056186

ABSTRACT

Introduction: SARS-CoV-2 infection in healthcare professionals represents a threat to the healthcare system. Objectives: To identify factors associated with complications from COVID-19 in healthcare workers infected by SARS-CoV-2, in a specialized national hospital level III in Peru in 2020. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study. Health personnel who were working at Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal of Peru participated. The clinical and epidemiological characteristics and results of the Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) test were collected from the medical records and epidemiological files. Simple and multiple regression models were used to estimate the risk factors of complications due to COVID-19. Results: We found 1048 suspected cases, and 26.2% had a confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Of those infected, 20.8% had comorbidity, and 55% reported contact with COVID-19 patients in health care settings. Moreover, 27.4% of infected workers were administrative personnel, 24.1% were nursing technicians, 18.3% were nurses, and 13.1% were physicians. We also found that 24.1% presented complications from COVID-19, and three workers died. In a multiple regression, the risk factors for complications due to COVID-19 were the presence of comorbidity (risk ratio: 2.94; 95% confidence interval: 1.95 to 4.42), 30 years or older (1.28; 0.6 to 2.75), 60 years or older (2.04; 0.88 to 4.74), male sex (1.1; 0.71 to 1.7) and care work area (1.02; 0.06 to 2.62). Conclusions: The findings in the present study show an association between the presence of comorbidities and an increased risk of presenting complications due to COVID-19 in healthcare workers, regardless of age, sex and area of work.


Introducción: La infección por SARS-CoV-2 en profesionales sanitarios representa una amenaza para el sistema de salud. Objetivos: Identificar factores asociados a complicaciones por COVID-19 en trabajadores sanitarios, infectados por SARS-CoV-2 y que pertenecen a un hospital nacional especializado de tercer nivel de Perú en el año 2020. Métodos: Estudio de cohorte retrospectivo. Participaron trabajadores sanitarios infectados por SARS-CoV-2, que trabajaron en el Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal entre abril y diciembre de 2020. Se recogieron características clínicas y epidemiológicas, más resultados de la prueba de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa con transcriptasa inversa (PCR-TR) a partir de historias clínicas y fichas clínico epidemiológicas. Se utilizó regresión simple y múltiple para estimar los riesgos relativos de complicaciones por COVID-19. Resultados: Se identificaron 1048 casos sospechosos, de ellos 26,2% tuvo infección confirmada de SARS-CoV-2. Del personal sanitario infectado, el 20,8% tuvo alguna comorbilidad, 55% manifestó atención a pacientes COVID-19, 27,4% fue personal administrativo, 24,1% técnico en enfermería, 18,3% licenciada de enfermería y 13,1% personal médico. El 24,1% presentó complicaciones por COVID-19 y tres trabajadores sanitarios fallecieron. En regresión múltiple, se obtuvo riesgos relativos para complicaciones por COVID-19 según presencia de comorbilidad (riesgo relativo: 2,94; intervalo de confianza 95%: 1,95 a 4,42), edad de 30 años a más ( 1,28; 95%: 0,6 a 2,75), 60 años a más ( 2,04; 95%: 0,88 a 4,74), sexo masculino ( 1,1; 95%: 0,71 a 1,7) y área laboral asistencial ( 1,02; 95%: 0,06 a 2,62). Conclusiones: Los hallazgos sugieren que en trabajadores sanitarios infectados por SARS-CoV-2, la presencia de comorbilidades está asociada a complicaciones por COVID-19, independientemente de la edad, el sexo y del área laboral.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Health Personnel , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Personnel, Hospital , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 776, 2022 Oct 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053872

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Randomised controlled trials have shown that steroids reduce the risk of dying in patients with severe Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), whilst many real-world studies have failed to replicate this result. We aim to investigate real-world effectiveness of steroids in severe COVID-19. METHODS: Clinical, demographic, and viral genome data extracted from electronic patient record (EPR) was analysed from all SARS-CoV-2 RNA positive patients admitted with severe COVID-19, defined by hypoxia at presentation, between March 13th 2020 and May 27th 2021. Steroid treatment was measured by the number of prescription-days with dexamethasone, hydrocortisone, prednisolone or methylprednisolone. The association between steroid > 3 days treatment and disease outcome was explored using multivariable cox proportional hazards models with adjustment for confounders (including age, gender, ethnicity, co-morbidities and SARS-CoV-2 variant). The outcome was in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: 1100 severe COVID-19 cases were identified having crude hospital mortality of 15.3%. 793/1100 (72.1%) individuals were treated with steroids and 513/1100 (46.6%) received steroid ≤ 3 days. From the multivariate model, steroid > 3 days was associated with decreased hazard of in-hospital mortality (HR: 0.47 (95% CI: 0.31-0.72)). CONCLUSION: The protective effect of steroid treatment for severe COVID-19 reported in randomised clinical trials was replicated in this retrospective study of a large real-world cohort.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone , Humans , Hydrocortisone , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , RNA, Viral , Retrospective Studies
18.
J Travel Med ; 2022 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051490

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The future of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic hinges on virus evolution and duration of immune protection of natural infection against reinfection. We investigated duration of protection afforded by natural infection, the effect of viral immune evasion on duration of protection, and protection against severe reinfection, in Qatar, between February 28, 2020 and June 5, 2022. METHODS: Three national, matched, retrospective cohort studies were conducted to compare incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 severity among unvaccinated persons with a documented SARS-CoV-2 primary infection, to incidence among those infection-naïve and unvaccinated. Associations were estimated using Cox proportional-hazard regression models. RESULTS: Effectiveness of pre-Omicron primary infection against pre-Omicron reinfection was 85.5% (95% CI: 84.8-86.2%). Effectiveness peaked at 90.5% (95% CI: 88.4-92.3%) in the 7th month after the primary infection, but waned to ~ 70% by the 16th month. Extrapolating this waning trend using a Gompertz curve suggested an effectiveness of 50% in the 22nd month and < 10% by the 32nd month. Effectiveness of pre-Omicron primary infection against Omicron reinfection was 38.1% (95% CI: 36.3-39.8%) and declined with time since primary infection. A Gompertz curve suggested an effectiveness of < 10% by the 15th month. Effectiveness of primary infection against severe, critical, or fatal COVID-19 reinfection was 97.3% (95% CI: 94.9-98.6%), irrespective of the variant of primary infection or reinfection, and with no evidence for waning. Similar results were found in sub-group analyses for those ≥50 years of age. CONCLUSIONS: Protection of natural infection against reinfection wanes and may diminish within a few years. Viral immune evasion accelerates this waning. Protection against severe reinfection remains very strong, with no evidence for waning, irrespective of variant, for over 14 months after primary infection.

19.
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 23: 100513, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2049611

ABSTRACT

Background: The two-dose BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccine has demonstrated high efficacy against COVID-19 disease in clinical trials of children and young people (CYP). Consequently, we investigated the uptake, safety, effectiveness and waning of the protective effect of the BNT162b2 against symptomatic COVID-19 in CYP aged 12-17 years in Scotland. Methods: The analysis of the vaccine uptake was based on information from the Turas Vaccination Management Tool, inclusive of Mar 1, 2022. Vaccine safety was evaluated using national data on hospital admissions and General Practice (GP) consultations, through a self-controlled case series (SCCS) design, investigating 17 health outcomes of interest. Vaccine effectiveness (VE) against symptomatic COVID-19 disease for Delta and Omicron variants was estimated using a test-negative design (TND) and S-gene status in a prospective cohort study using the Scotland-wide Early Pandemic Evaluation and Enhanced Surveillance of COVID-19 (EAVE II) surveillance platform. The waning of the VE following each dose of BNT162b2 was assessed using a matching process followed by conditional logistic regression. Findings: Between Aug 6, 2021 and Mar 1, 2022, 75.9% of the 112,609 CYP aged 16-17 years received the first and 49.0% the second COVID-19 vaccine dose. Among 237,681 CYP aged 12-15 years, the uptake was 64.5% and 37.2%, respectively. For 12-17-year-olds, BNT162b2 showed an excellent safety record, with no increase in hospital stays following vaccination for any of the 17 investigated health outcomes. In the 16-17-year-old group, VE against symptomatic COVID-19 during the Delta period was 64.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 59.2-68.5) at 2-5 weeks after the first dose and 95.6% (77.0-99.1) at 2-5 weeks after the second dose. The respective VEs against symptomatic COVID-19 in the Omicron period were 22.8% (95% CI -6.4-44.0) and 65.5% (95% CI 56.0-73.0). In children aged 12-15 years, VE against symptomatic COVID-19 during the Delta period was 65.4% (95% CI 61.5-68.8) at 2-5 weeks after the first dose, with no observed cases at 2-5 weeks after the second dose. The corresponding VE against symptomatic COVID-19 during the Omicron period were 30.2% (95% CI 18.4-40.3) and 81.2% (95% CI 77.7-84.2). The waning of the protective effect against the symptomatic disease began after five weeks post-first and post-second dose. Interpretation: During the study period, uptake of BNT162b2 in Scotland has covered more than two-thirds of CYP aged 12-17 years with the first dose and about 40% with the second dose. We found no increased likelihood of admission to hospital with a range of health outcomes in the period after vaccination. Vaccination with both doses was associated with a substantial reduction in the risk of COVID-19 symptomatic disease during both the Delta and Omicron periods, but this protection began to wane after five weeks. Funding: UK Research and Innovation (Medical Research Council); Research and Innovation Industrial Strategy Challenge Fund; Chief Scientist's Office of the Scottish Government; Health Data Research UK; National Core Studies - Data and Connectivity.

20.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 37(10): 1061-1070, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2048367

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, rehearsal and concert activities of professional orchestras and choirs were severely restricted based on the assumption of particularly high infection risks associated with wind instruments and singing. Therefore, our primary objective was to determine the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infections in orchestra and choir musicians compared to controls. We also assessed influenza, flu, upper respiratory tract infections, and course of illness. Musicians from professional orchestras and choirs and controls from 23 institutions throughout Germany were included in a prospective cohort study. Data were collected from October 2020 to June 2021 by weekly online surveys. A mixed-effects cox proportional hazards model was used to assess the effect of exposure by professional activity on SARS-CoV-2 infection. In 1,097 participants (46.7 years (SD 10.3); 46.8% female; 705 orchestra, 154 choir, and 238 control subjects) 40 SARS-CoV-2 infections occurred. Cases per person-years were 0.06 in orchestras, 0.11 in choirs, and 0.03 in controls. Hazard ratios compared to controls were 1.74 (95% CI 0.58 to 5.25, p = 0.320) for orchestra musicians and 2.97 (0.87 to 10.28, p = 0.087) for choir singers. Infection source was suspected predominantly in private contexts. Disease courses were mild to moderate. Other respiratory infections were reported in 6.1% of study weeks in orchestras, 10.1% in choirs, and 8.0% in controls. Sick leave days of total study days were 0.5, 2.1 and 1.3%, respectively. This epidemiologic study during the pandemic in professional musicians indicates no increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infections in orchestra musicians and a trend towards increased risk in choir singers compared to controls. However, the exact routes of infection could not be validated. If appropriate hygiene concepts are adhered to, safe orchestra and choir activity appears possible in pandemic times.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Occupational Diseases , Humans , Female , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL