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1.
Medicine in Drug Discovery ; JOUR: 100146,
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2105578

ABSTRACT

In malaria endemic countries, coinfections and cotransmissions of different viral pathogens are widely reported. Prior studies have shown that malaria can trigger the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation in the body. Besides, the altered immunity due to malaria could increase susceptibility to acquire co-circulating viruses like SARS-CoV-2 or vice versa during pandemic times. The dual burden of pathogens can deteriorate health by inducing disease severity. There are no or limited antiviral therapies available against EBV and SARS-CoV-2. Exploring the novel antimalarials for checking antiviral efficacy and using them in such cases could be the efficient approach of ‘hitting two birds with one stone’. We investigated the antiviral potency of medicine for a malaria venture’s malaria box containing 400 drug-like or probe-like compounds with experimentally proven antimalarial activity. We utilized a molecular docking approach to screen these compounds against crucial proteins- EBNA1 of EBV and RdRp of SARS-CoV-2 respectively. Based on binding affinity we shortlisted the top three compounds for each protein. Further, for validation of complex stability and binding, the protein-ligand complex is subjected to 100ns molecular dynamic simulation. All the compounds showed stable binding with respective proteins. Based on binding free energies, involvement of important residues from target sites, and ADMET properties of compounds, the top ligand for each protein is selected. Ligand B (MMV665879) for EBNA1 (ΔGbind= -183.54 kJ/mol) and Ligand E (MMV665918) for RdRp (ΔGbind = -172.23 kJ/mol) could act as potential potent inhibitors. These antimalarial compounds can hence be utilized for further experimental investigation as antivirals against EBV and SARS-CoV-2.

2.
Erciyes Medical Journal ; JOUR:540-543, 44(6).
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2100488

ABSTRACT

World Health Organization data indicate that as of April 2022, 6.2 million deaths have been reported worldwide due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In Turkiye, official statistics indicate some 15 million cases and a death toll of 98,660. It is important that clinicians consider the possibility of the co-occurrence of other respiratory microorganisms with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, the virus that causes COVID-19, when managing treatment, particularly severe COVID-19 patients. The burden and effect of a secondary infection may be significant, especially in patients with chronic disease and advanced age. Proper attention to potential co-infections can prevent COVID-19 progression and the development of complications. Copyright ©C 2022 by Erciyes University Faculty of Medicine.

3.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0115022, 2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097931

ABSTRACT

Recent studies suggest the enhancement of liver injury in COVID-19 patients infected with Hepatitis C virus (HCV). Hepatocytes express low levels of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the SARS-CoV-2 entry receptor, raising the possibility of HCV-SARS-CoV-2 coinfection in the liver. This work aimed to explore whether HCV and SARS-CoV-2 coinfect hepatocytes and the interplay between these viruses. We demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 coinfects HCV-infected Huh7.5 (Huh7.5HCV) cells. Both viruses replicated efficiently in the coinfected cells, with HCV replication enhanced in coinfected compared to HCV-mono-infected cells. Strikingly, Huh7.5HCV cells were eight fold more susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 pseudoviruses than naive Huh7.5 cells, suggesting enhanced SARS-CoV-2 entry into HCV-preinfected hepatocytes. In addition, we observed increased binding of spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) protein to Huh7.5HCV cells, as well as enhanced cell-to-cell fusion of Huh7.5HCV cells with spike-expressing Huh7.5 cells. We explored the mechanism of enhanced SARS-CoV-2 entry and identified an increased ACE2 mRNA and protein levels in Huh7.5HCV cells, primary hepatocytes, and in data from infected liver biopsies obtained from database. Importantly, higher expression of ACE2 increased HCV infection by enhancing its binding to the host cell, underscoring its role in the HCV life cycle as well. Transcriptome analysis revealed that shared host signaling pathways were induced in HCV-SARS-CoV-2 coinfection. This study revealed complex interactions between HCV and SARS-CoV-2 infections in hepatocytes, which may lead to the increased liver damage recently reported in HCV-positive COVID-19 patients. IMPORTANCE Here, we provide the first experimental evidence for the coexistence of SARS-CoV-2 infection with HCV, and the interplay between them. The study revealed a complex relationship of enhancement between the two viruses, where HCV infection increased the expression of the SARS-CoV-2 entry receptor ACE2, thus facilitating SARS-CoV-2 entry, and potentially, also HCV entry. Thereafter, SARS-CoV-2 infection enhanced HCV replication in hepatocytes. This study may explain the aggravation of liver damage that was recently reported in COVID-19 patients with HCV coinfection and suggests preinfection with HCV as a risk factor for severe COVID-19. Moreover, it highlights the possible importance of HCV treatment for coinfected patients. In a broader view, these findings emphasize the importance of identifying coinfecting pathogens that increase the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and that may accelerate COVID-19-related co-morbidities.

4.
Vacunas ; 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096124

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infections caused by Acinetobacter baumannii, especially carbapenem-resistant (CR) strains, pose important challenges in patients with COVID-19 infection. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated co-infection and antimicrobial resistance patterns, as well as the role of A. baumannii in the outcome of patients with COVID-19. Materials and methods: Between February 2019 and January 2021, 141 patients with A. baumannii infections were detected from seven different hospitals (A to G) in Arak, Iran, and the antibacterial susceptibility pattern of these isolates was evaluated using disk diffusion and E-test methods. Forty-seven of these patients were co-infected with COVID-19. During the study, the data about the clinical course, demographic data, and the role of A. baumannii infections in the mortality rate of COVID-19 patients were collected. Results: Hospitals A and B reported the most patients, with 53 (38%) and 47 (33%), respectively. Additionally, most cases (105 cases, 75%) were reported from surgical and general ICUs. Mechanical ventilators were detected as predisposing factors in 95 (67%) patients, and infection was detected in 20% of patients on the 10th day after intubation. All of the A. baumannii isolates were resistant to different classes of antibiotics, such as carbapenems. Notably, 33% (47 patients) were also positive for COVID-19, and 68% (32 patients) died due to the infection. Statistical analysis showed a significant role of A. baumannii co-infection in the mortality rate of COVID-19 patients (p-value 0.05). Conclusion: co-infection with A. baumannii is one of the most important challenges in COVID-19 patients. Our results showed that all isolated bacteria were CR and significantly increased mortality rates in COVID-19 patients.


Antecedentes: Las infecciones causadas por Acinetobacter baumannii, especialmente las cepas resistentes a carbapenem (CR), plantean desafíos importantes en pacientes con infección por COVID-19. Por lo tanto, en el presente estudio investigamos los patrones de coinfección y resistencia a los antimicrobianos, así como el papel de A. baumannii en el desenlace de los pacientes con COVID-19.Materiales y métodos: entre febrero de 2019 y enero de 2021, se detectaron 141 pacientes con infecciones por A. baumannii de siete hospitales diferentes (A a G) en Arak, Irán, y se evaluó el patrón de susceptibilidad antibacteriana de estos aislamientos mediante difusión en disco y E- métodos de prueba. Cuarenta y siete de estos pacientes estaban coinfectados con COVID-19. Durante el estudio, se recopilaron datos sobre datos demográficos, curso clínico y el papel de las infecciones por A. baumannii en la tasa de mortalidad de los pacientes con COVID-19.Resultados: Los hospitales A y B reportaron mayor número de pacientes con 53 (38%) y 47 (44%), respectivamente. Además, la mayoría de los casos (105 casos, 75%) se informaron desde la UCI quirúrgica y general. Los ventiladores mecánicos se detectaron como factores predisponentes en 95 (67%) pacientes y la infección se detectó en el 20% de los pacientes al décimo día después de la intubación. Todos los aislamientos de A. baumannii fueron resistentes a diferentes clases de antibióticos, como los carbapenémicos. El 33,6% (47 pacientes) también dieron positivo a COVID-19, y el 68% (32 pacientes) fallecieron a causa de la infección. El análisis estadístico mostró un papel significativo de la coinfección por A. baumannii en la tasa de mortalidad de los pacientes con COVID-19 (valor de p 0,05).Conclusión: la coinfección con A. baumannii es uno de los desafíos más importantes en pacientes positivos para COVID-19. Nuestros resultados mostraron que todas las bacterias aisladas eran CR y aumentaron significativamente las tasas de mortalidad en pacientes con COVID-19.

5.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 2022 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087848

ABSTRACT

Visceral l eishmaniasis (VL), also known as kala-azar, had once been targeted for elimination in 2020, which now has been shifted to 2030. The year 2020 was also the year in which the world was gripped by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This review sheds light on the impact of COVID-19 on VL elimination programmes and the increasing incidences of COVID-19/VL cases. Lockdowns were imposed worldwide that led to the suspension of surveys, active case finding and mass drug administration, which are important activities to manage neglected tropical diseases. Healthcare machinery was redirected to control the pandemic and acute resource shortages were seen. Budget cuts from funding agencies and donors also came as a severe blow. Priority changes for manufacturers of drugs and diagnostic kits have also exacerbated the situation. Cases where patients were co-infected with VL and COVID-19 were reported across various settings and in people of various age groups, posing unprecedented challenges in diagnosis and treatment. Concerted efforts from all stakeholders are required to understand and deal with the impact that this pandemic has had on VL.

6.
New Microbes New Infect ; 49: 101041, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086595

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread globally, becoming a long-lasting pandemic. Dengue is the most common arboviral disease in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. COVID-19 and dengue coinfections have been reported, associated with worse outcomes with significant morbidity and mortality. Therefore, this study aims to determine the epidemiological situation of COVID-19 and dengue coinfection in Latin America. Methods: A systematic literature review was performed using PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, LILACS, and BVS databases from January 1, 2020, to September 4, 2021. The key search terms used were "dengue" and "COVID-19". Results: Nineteen published articles were included. The studies were case reports with a detailed description of the coinfection's clinical, laboratory, diagnostic, and treatment features. Conclusion: Coinfection with SARS-CoV-2 and dengue virus is associated with worse outcomes with significant morbidity and mortality. The similar clinical and laboratory features of each infection are a challenge in accurately diagnosing and treating cases. Establishing an early diagnosis could be the answer to reducing the estimated significant burden of these conditions.

7.
Model Earth Syst Environ ; 8(4): 5493-5520, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2085781

ABSTRACT

A new mathematical model incorporating epidemiological features of the co-dynamics of tuberculosis (TB) and SARS-CoV-2 is analyzed. Local asymptotic stability of the disease-free and endemic equilibria are shown for the sub-models when the respective reproduction numbers are below unity. Bifurcation analysis is carried out for the TB only sub-model, where it was shown that the sub-model undergoes forward bifurcation. The model is fitted to the cumulative confirmed daily SARS-CoV-2 cases for Indonesia from February 11, 2021 to August 26, 2021. The fitting was carried out using the fmincon optimization toolbox in MATLAB. Relevant parameters in the model are estimated from the fitting. The necessary conditions for the existence of optimal control and the optimality system for the co-infection model is established through the application of Pontryagin's Principle. Different control strategies: face-mask usage and SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, TB prevention as well as treatment controls for both diseases are considered. Simulations results show that: (1) the strategy against incident SARS-CoV-2 infection averts about 27,878,840 new TB cases; (2) also, TB prevention and treatment controls could avert 5,397,795 new SARS-CoV-2 cases. (3) In addition, either SARS-CoV-2 or TB only control strategy greatly mitigates a significant number of new co-infection cases.

8.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 8(10)2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081888

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a great threat to global health. In addition to SARS-CoV-2 itself, clinicians should be alert to the possible occurrence of co-infection or secondary infection among patients with COVID-19. The possible co-pathogens include bacteria, viruses, and fungi, but COVID-19-associated cryptococcosis is rarely reported. This review provided updated and comprehensive information about this rare clinical entity of COVID-19-associated cryptococcosis. Through an updated literature search till 23 August 2022, we identified a total of 18 culture-confirmed case reports with detailed information. Half (n = 9) of them were elderly. Fifteen (83.3%) of them had severe COVID-19 and ever received systemic corticosteroid. Disseminated infection with cryptococcemia was the most common type of cryptococcosis, followed by pulmonary and meningitis. Except one case of C. laurentii, all other cases are by C. neoformans. Liposomal amphotericin B and fluconazole were the most commonly used antifungal agents. The overall mortality was 61.1% (11/18) and four of them did not receive antifungal agents before death. Improving the poor outcome requires a physician's high suspicion, early diagnosis, and prompt treatment.

9.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 917606, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080173

ABSTRACT

Secondary infections in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients are difficult to distinguish from inflammation associated with COVID-19 and/or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Therefore, highly specific and sensitive biomarkers are needed to identify patients in whom antimicrobial therapy can be safely withheld. In this prospective monocentric study, 66 COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for ECMO evaluation were included. A total of 46 (70%) patients with secondary infections were identified by using broad microbiological and virological panels and standardized diagnostic criteria. Various laboratory parameters including C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-6, procalcitonin (PCT), and IL-10 were determined at time of study inclusion. The best test performance for differentiating bacterial/fungal secondary infections and COVID-19 and/or ECMO associated inflammation was achieved by IL-10 (ROC-AUC 0.84) and a multivariant step-wise regression model including CRP, IL-6, PCT, and IL-10 (ROC-AUC 0.93). Data obtained in the present study highlights the use of IL-10 to differentiate secondary bacterial/fungal infections from COVID-19 and/or ECMO associated inflammation in severely ill COVID-19 patients.

10.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0230522, 2022 Oct 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2078747

ABSTRACT

Clinicians in the emergency department (ED) face challenges in concurrently assessing patients with suspected COVID-19 infection, detecting bacterial coinfection, and determining illness severity since current practices require separate workflows. Here, we explore the accuracy of the IMX-BVN-3/IMX-SEV-3 29 mRNA host response classifiers in simultaneously detecting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and bacterial coinfections and predicting clinical severity of COVID-19. A total of 161 patients with PCR-confirmed COVID-19 (52.2% female; median age, 50.0 years; 51% hospitalized; 5.6% deaths) were enrolled at the Stanford Hospital ED. RNA was extracted (2.5 mL whole blood in PAXgene blood RNA), and 29 host mRNAs in response to the infection were quantified using Nanostring nCounter. The IMX-BVN-3 classifier identified SARS-CoV-2 infection in 151 patients with a sensitivity of 93.8%. Six of 10 patients undetected by the classifier had positive COVID tests more than 9 days prior to enrollment, and the remaining patients oscillated between positive and negative results in subsequent tests. The classifier also predicted that 6 (3.7%) patients had a bacterial coinfection. Clinical adjudication confirmed that 5/6 (83.3%) of the patients had bacterial infections, i.e., Clostridioides difficile colitis (n = 1), urinary tract infection (n = 1), and clinically diagnosed bacterial infections (n = 3), for a specificity of 99.4%. Two of 101 (2.8%) patients in the IMX-SEV-3 "Low" severity classification and 7/60 (11.7%) in the "Moderate" severity classification died within 30 days of enrollment. IMX-BVN-3/IMX-SEV-3 classifiers accurately identified patients with COVID-19 and bacterial coinfections and predicted patients' risk of death. A point-of-care version of these classifiers, under development, could improve ED patient management, including more accurate treatment decisions and optimized resource utilization. IMPORTANCE We assay the utility of the single-test IMX-BVN-3/IMX-SEV-3 classifiers that require just 2.5 mL of patient blood in concurrently detecting viral and bacterial infections as well as predicting the severity and 30-day outcome from the infection. A point-of-care device, in development, will circumvent the need for blood culturing and drastically reduce the time needed to detect an infection. This will negate the need for empirical use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and allow for antibiotic use stewardship. Additionally, accurate classification of the severity of infection and the prediction of 30-day severe outcomes will allow for appropriate allocation of hospital resources.

11.
Med (N Y) ; 2022 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2076533

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Between November 2021 and February 2022, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Delta and Omicron variants co-circulated in the United States, allowing for co-infections and possible recombination events. METHODS: We sequenced 29,719 positive samples during this period and analyzed the presence and fraction of reads supporting mutations specific to either the Delta or Omicron variant. FINDINGS: We identified 18 co-infections, one of which displayed evidence of a low Delta-Omicron recombinant viral population. We also identified two independent cases of infection by a Delta-Omicron recombinant virus, where 100% of the viral RNA came from one clonal recombinant. In the three cases, the 5' end of the viral genome was from the Delta genome and the 3' end from Omicron, including the majority of the spike protein gene, though the breakpoints were different. CONCLUSIONS: Delta-Omicron recombinant viruses were rare, and there is currently no evidence that Delta-Omicron recombinant viruses are more transmissible between hosts compared with the circulating Omicron lineages. FUNDING: This research was supported by the NIH RADx initiative and by the Centers for Disease Control Contract 75D30121C12730 (Helix).

12.
Heliyon ; 8(10): e11195, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2076136

ABSTRACT

We developed a TB-COVID-19 co-infection epidemic model using a non-linear dynamical system by subdividing the human population into seven compartments. The biological well-posedness of the formulated mathematical model was studied via proving properties like boundedness of solutions, no-negativity, and the solution's dependence on the initial data. We then computed the reproduction numbers separately for TB and COVID-19 sub-models. The criterion for stability conditions for stationary points was examined. The basic reproduction number of sub-models used to suggest the mitigation and persistence of the diseases. Qualitative analysis of the sub-models revealed that the disease-free stationary points are both locally and globally stable provided the respective reproduction numbers are smaller than unit. The endemic stationary points for each sub-models were globally stable if their respective basic reproduction numbers are greater than unit. In each sub-model, we performed an analysis of sensitive parameters concerning the corresponding reproduction numbers. Results from sensitivity indices of the parameters revealed that deceasing contact rate and increasing the transferring rates from the latent stage to an infected class of individuals leads to mitigating the two diseases and their co-infections. We have also studied the analytical behavior of the full co-infection model by deriving the equilibrium points and investigating the conditions of their stability. The numerical experiments of the proposed co-infection model agree with the findings in the analytical results.

13.
Anaesthesia Pain & Intensive Care ; 26(4):523-529, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2072496

ABSTRACT

At the beginning of COVID-19 pandemic the use of NSAIDS was avoided. This was because the previous studies suggesting that NSAIDs may be linked to an increased risk of lower respiratory tract infection consequences. Later on studies involved the patients who used NSAIDs for some chronic conditions and showed no additional harm among these patients. Then many studied assessed the benefit of using NSAIDs in COVID-19 patients for management of pain and fever and showed no additional risk among these patients

14.
Journal of Hazardous Materials ; 441, 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2069324

ABSTRACT

While the microbiome in indoor environments such as hospitals has drawn increasing attention, the transmission routes especially for pathogens in ICUs remain largely unexamined. In this study, we have explored the distinct bacterial communities of ICU compared with Non-ICU in hospital wards. We have then clarified their different transmission patterns by means of microbial source tracking, with results suggesting that bedrail and inside floor were hubs in two wards, respectively. Streptococcus, Staphylococcus were identified as "Transfer-Easy taxa" that were found in both ICU and Non-ICU settings, with potential pathogenicity and cases recorded. We have also detected another 15 pathogenic genera in hospital environment, including Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter, and charted how these pathogenic microorganisms affect patients, demonstrating that there were far more strong routes for pathogens transmitted from environment to patients in ICU. In summary, this work investigates patterns of bacterial transmission in hospital settings, highlights pathogenic genera that are likely to transfer from the environment to humans and cause nosocomial infection, which could provide guidance for healthcare system monitoring and co-infection avoidance.

15.
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research ; 16(9):FC15-FC19, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067197

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Long-term repercussions of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) on antimicrobial resistance have been raised as a grave concern due to the rampant use of antibiotics in the management of COVID-19. As per meta-analysis, the prevalence of antibiotic prescribing was 74.6% which was significantly higher than the estimated prevalence of bacterial co-infection. World Health Organisation (WHO) recommended that antibiotic therapy should not be used in patients with mild/moderate COVID-19 unless there is any bacterial suspicion. Also, the guidelines laid down by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, does not recommend systematic empiric antibiotic therapy in patients hospitalised with COVID-19. Despite not being recommended, antimicrobials are still given in clinical practice. Aim(s): To analyse prescriptions for antimicrobials and to identify potential predictors for antibiotic prescription. Material(s) and Method(s): A retrospective observational study was conducted at a tertiary care teaching institute. Data (demographic profile, co-morbidities, disease category, prescribed antimicrobials, laboratory investigations, and duration of hospital stay) were collected from case files of patients with laboratory-confirmed Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. These patients were admitted in the institute from January 2021 to May 2021. Logistic regression was used to analyse factors associated with the empirical use of antimicrobial agents. Result(s): A total of 184 case files were analysed. The mean age of patients was 55.84+/-15.72 years, with a male preponderance (70.10%). Among antimicrobials, antivirals were prescribed in 159 (86.41%) patients, and antibiotics in 152 patients (82.6%). Antivirals prescribed include Remdesivir [109(68.55%)] and Favipiravir [70(44.02%)]. Ceftriaxone was found to be the highest prescribed antibiotic, with a median duration of administration of six days. An association was found between disease severity and CRP level with antibiotic prescription. On multivariable analysis, the odds of receiving antibiotics were 6.7 times higher in patients with severe disease. Conclusion(s): More than 80% of COVID-19 patients received antibiotics. Duration of hospital stay was similar among patients whether they received antibiotics or not. Disease severity and raised CRP level were strong predictors for prescribing antibiotics for COVID-19. Copyright © 2022 Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. All rights reserved.

16.
Archives of Clinical Infectious Diseases ; 17(4), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067097

ABSTRACT

Context: The current pandemic of COVID-19 affected all people of the world. Evidence Acquisition: Most complications of SARS-CoV-2 are causally related to severe pneumonia due to host immune response in the form of a cytokine storm. The other causes of an increased mortality rate among COVID-19 patients are secondary infections. Results: Mucormycosis is a life-threatening infection that gained much attention in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. A rise in the frequency of COVID-19-associated mucormycosis (CAM) occurred in 2020 and 2021. Overall, mortality of CAM has been reported as 54%-75%. Conclusions: Although awareness of the disease has increased among treating physicians, disease-associated morbidity and mortality are still high. The guideline is intended to serve as a reference to prevent mucormycosis in COVID-19 patients and help health-care providers choose diagnostic and treatment methods for the best management of CAM cases.

17.
Archives of Clinical Infectious Diseases ; 17(3), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067096

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the pathogen responsible for COVID-19, has infected hundreds of millions since its emergence in late December 2019. Recently, concern has been raised due to the increased prevalence of co-infections with opportunistic pathogens among these pa-tients. Though not common, co-infections may be associated with adverse outcomes and increased risk of morbidity and mortality among patients suffering from COVID-19. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a serious problem among immunocompromised and critically ill patients. So far, few cases of co-infection with COVID-19 and CMV have been reported. Here, we report the co-infection with COVID-19 and CMV in a young woman presenting with sudden, progressive fever, delusion, agitation, bizarre behavior, seizure, and loss of consciousness leading to death despite receiving appropriate anti-viral treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of coexisting SARS-CoV-2 and CMV infection presenting with severe, progressive meningoencephalitis in the era of COVID-19.

18.
Biol Sport ; 39(4): 1073-1080, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2067008

ABSTRACT

Preparation for the FIFA World Cup 2022 (WC2022) comes in the time of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims were to (i) provide a brief overview of the 2020 Tokyo Olympic and Paralympic games in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, and (ii) highlight the potential challenges and opportunities central to the hosting of the FIFA WC2022. The organisation, public health policies and prevention protocols of the postponed 2020 Olympic/Paralympic Games (Tokyo July-August 2021), the infection rates during the event, as well as the upcoming WC2022 and its related preparations and challenges, were analysed. An unparalleled International Olympic Committee (IOC) effort, together with the Japanese government and people's perseverance and drive, enabled the safe delivery of the Tokyo Olympic/Paralympic Games, which left a legacy beyond sport. This has been aided by the collection of critical data and lessons learnt throughout the games. The stringent public health policies and especially the tight bubble system for players and their respective delegations have certainly been the key components that ensured the successful containment of COVID-19 within the targeted population. One of the most significant lessons learned from the Tokyo 2020 Olympics is the improvement made in controlling COVID-19 in the context of mass gathering events. Strict infection control strategies to prevent future COVID-19 transmission during the FIFA World Cup 2022 are an immediate priority in Qatar and are constantly being prepared. The planned measures and health care strategies appear to be well adjusted to the risk, especially for the large anticipated number of visitors, and can provide sufficient guarantees to conduct relatively "safe" mega sports events.

19.
Microorganisms ; 10(10)2022 Sep 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066264

ABSTRACT

Background: After its 2019 outbreak in Wuhan, scientists worldwide have been studying the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in children. Evidence indicates that children with SARS-CoV-2 infection are more likely to develop upper and lower respiratory tract infections in association with other infectious agents, such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Here, we conducted a systematic review of SARS-CoV-2 and Mycoplasma pneumoniae co-infection and their clinical course in children. Methods: We evaluated the published literature on SARS-CoV-2 by using the medical databases PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and Web of Science. In the searches, the Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) terms "SARS-CoV-2 and Mycoplasma pneumoniae" AND "co-infection SARS-CoV-2" were used. Studies describing co-infection with SARS-CoV-2 and Mycoplasma pneumoniae in children were included in the review. The study was conducted and reported in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Results: According to the PRISMA guidelines, of the 38 identified studies, 14 were conducted in children (children/adolescents 0-18 years), 6 of which were included in this review. In total, 5867 children under the age of 17 years were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection through real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of nasopharyngeal swabs to detect viral RNA. Elevated serum IgM levels specific to Mycoplasma pneumoniae were observed in 534 children and were associated with a Kawasaki-like illness in one child. To date, all of the children are alive. Conclusion: This study underlines the importance of considering, depending on the clinical context, a possible co-infection between SARS-CoV-2 and atypical bacteria, such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Co-infections with other respiratory pathogens during the pandemic and hospital stay can cause mistakes in clinical diagnostic and drug treatment. Physicians should perform early differential diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 in association with other infectious agents. Further studies are needed to have a real incidence of these co-infections and their impact on symptoms, course, and outcome of patients with SARS-CoV-2.

20.
American Journal of Transplantation ; 22(Supplement 3):644-645, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063525

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Immunocompromised hosts are at risk for severe complications or death from SARS-CoV-2 infection. Few studies describe the clinical features, outcomes and treatment strategies in this population across multiple sites. Method(s): A multi-center retrospective analysis from academic medical centers in the Midwestern US was conducted for hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Data was collected electronically using standardized intake and 28-day follow up case report forms. The centers included Northwestern University, University of Nebraska, Cleveland Clinic, University of Chicago, Indiana University and University of Kansas. Result(s): The cohort included 272 patients hospitalized from March 2020 to November 2021. Demographics are in Table 1. Mean admission was 6.84 +/- 6.42 days after symptom onset. The most commonly reported symptoms were cough (71.4%), dyspnea (59.6%), fatigue (55.3%), fever (54.9%), and diarrhea (43.9%). Admission CXR had pneumonia in 31.6%;63% with multifocal or patchy opacities. 87 patients had a chest CT;72 (82.7%) showed pneumonia. 97 patients (36.1%) required ICU admission. Treatments included remdesivir (58.5%), dexamethasone (54.4%), convalescent plasma (3.0%), IL-6 inhibitor (4.5%). Immunosuppression management included holding (44.2%) or decreasing (26.6%) the dose of antimetabolite. 76 patients (28.3%) had documented bacterial co-infection, in blood (34.1%), lung (30.6%) and urine (30.6%). 6 (2.2%) patients experienced rejection within 30 days and 8 patients (3.0%) developed CMV viremia. 26 patients (9.7%) died by day 28. Conclusion(s): This cohort had high rates of ICU admission (36.1%), bacterial coinfection (28.3%), rehospitalization (31.5%) and mortality (9.7%).

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