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1.
World Journal of Clinical Cases ; 10(26):9228-9240, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2033420

ABSTRACT

Management of colorectal cancer (CRC) was severely affected by the changes implemented during the pandemic, and this resulted in delayed elective presentation, increased emergency presentation, reduced screening and delayed definitive therapy. This review was conducted to analyze the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on management of CRC and to identify the changes made in order to adapt to the pandemic. We performed a literature search in PubMed, Medline, Index Medicus, EMBASE, SCOPUS, Reference Citation Analysis (https://www.referencecitationanalysis.com/) and Google Scholar using the following keywords in various combinations: Colorectal cancer, elective surgery, emergency surgery, stage upgrading, screening, surveillance and the COVID-19 pandemic. Only studies published in English were included. To curtail the spread of COVID-19 infection, there were modifications made in the management of CRC. Screening was limited to high risk individuals, and the screening tests of choice during the pandemic were fecal occult blood test, fecal immunochemical test and stool DNA testing. The use of capsule colonoscopy and open access colonoscopy was also encouraged. Blood-based tests like serum methylated septin 9 were also encouraged for screening of CRC during the pandemic. The presentation of CRC was also affected by the pandemic with more patients presenting with emergencies like obstruction and perforation. Stage migration was also observed during the pandemic with more patients presenting with more advanced tumors. The operative therapy of CRC was altered by the pandemic as more emergencies surgeries were done, which may require exteriorization by stoma. This was to reduce the morbidity associated with anastomosis and encourage early discharge from the hospital. There was also an initial reduction in laparoscopic surgical procedures due to the fear of aerosols and COVID-19 infection. As we gradually come out of the pandemic, we should remember the lessons learned and continue to apply them even after the pandemic passes

2.
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences ; 10(T7):159-163, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2033205

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer has been known as the leading cause of death with depression as the most common coexisting morbidity. Factors related to depression among cancer patients are required to be explored. AIM: This study aims to investigate factors related to depression among colorectal cancer patients in Medan. METHODS: This cross-sectional predictive analytical multivariate study was conducted through March–May 2021 in Haji Adam Malik General Hospital, Medan, involving 105 colorectal patients visiting digestive surgery outpatient clinic who fulfilled inclusion and exclusion criteria. Subjects were requested to fill in personal data on participant’s form. Direct interview was conducted in accordance with COVID-19 health protocols. To assess depression score, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Depression subscale questionnaire was used in the study. RESULTS: Our study found among independent variables that we assessed, five variables;length of education, number of comorbidities, gender, occupation, and marital status are independent risk factors related to the occurrence of depression among colorectal cancer patients (adjusted R2 = 68.5%). CONCLUSION: By acknowledging risk factors related to depression among these patients, early intervention and tailored education for both patients and their loved ones can be done.

3.
Journal of the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology ; 4, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2032048

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients referral for colonoscopy in the province of Quebec are organized through a standardized triage sheet that includes all indications categorized in 5 hierarchal scheduling priorities. In the context of a restricted access to colonoscopy, exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic, postponed elective endoscopies lead to potential diagnostic and therapeutic delays in patients with colorectal neoplasia. There is currently an important need to evaluate available tools to improve patients prioritization. Aims: This study aims to determine CRC and advanced adenomas (AA) rates associated with indications of priority 3 (P3 fig.1). The secondary objective is to regroup and compare indications with higher and lower rate of CRC and AA. Methods: This retrospective study included all adult patients who underwent a single diagnostic colonoscopy from March 2013 to March 2016 following a single FIT test in a tertiary teaching hospital. A literature review informed the adopted definition of higher-risk of CRC and AA according to P3 colonoscopy indications. These include: Positive FIT test (IN5), hematochezia in ≥ 40 years old patients (IN4), unexplained iron deficiency anemia (IN6) and symptoms suspicious of occult colorectal cancer (IN18). Lower risk P3 indications were defined as: suspicion of IBD (IN3), recent change in bowel habits (IN7), polyp viewed on imaging (IN17), inadequate bowel preparation (IN19), and diverticulitis follow-up (IN20). Higher and lower risk indications findings were analyzed. Results: In our cohort of 2226 patients, indications for colonoscopy referral according to the standardized form were available for 1806 patients (10 P1, 69 P2, 1056 P3, 56 P4 and 615 P5). In our studied group of P3 indications, the mean age was 62.6±11.3 years, 54.1% were female and 173 (16.4%) patients had a significant finding of CRC or AA (table 1). Patients referred for higher risk indications had a significantly increased rate of CRC and AA (19.3% vs 5.1% p≤ 0.01) compared to patients referred for lower risk indications. Conclusions: A standardized colonoscopy referral tool may be adapted to improve prioritization of patients at risk of advanced neoplasia. These findings are especially.

4.
Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy ; 7(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2031821

ABSTRACT

Ubiquitination is a highly conserved and fundamental posttranslational modification (PTM) in all eukaryotes regulating thousands of proteins. The RING (really interesting new gene) finger (RNF) protein, containing the RING domain, exerts E3 ubiquitin ligase that mediates the covalent attachment of ubiquitin (Ub) to target proteins. Multiple reviews have summarized the critical roles of the tripartite-motif (TRIM) protein family, a subgroup of RNF proteins, in various diseases, including cancer, inflammatory, infectious, and neuropsychiatric disorders. Except for TRIMs, since numerous studies over the past decades have delineated that other RNF proteins also exert widespread involvement in several diseases, their importance should not be underestimated. This review summarizes the potential contribution of dysregulated RNF proteins, except for TRIMs, to the pathogenesis of some diseases, including cancer, autoimmune diseases, and neurodegenerative disorder. Since viral infection is broadly involved in the induction and development of those diseases, this manuscript also highlights the regulatory roles of RNF proteins, excluding TRIMs, in the antiviral immune responses. In addition, we further discuss the potential intervention strategies targeting other RNF proteins for the prevention and therapeutics of those human diseases.

5.
Pathology - Research and Practice ; : 154131, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2031631

ABSTRACT

The emergence of a novel coronavirus, COVID-19, in December 2019 led to a global pandemic with more than 170 million confirmed infections and more than 6 million deaths (by July 2022). Studies have shown that infection with SARS-CoV-2 in cancer patients has a higher mortality rate than in people without cancer. Here, we have reviewed the evidence showing that gut microbiota plays an important role in health and is linked to colorectal cancer development. Studies have shown that SARS-CoV-2 infection leads to a change in gut microbiota, which modify intestinal inflammation and barrier permeability and affects tumor-suppressor or oncogene genes, proposing SARS-CoV-2 as a potential contributor to CRC pathogenesis

6.
Giornale Italiano di Endoscopia Digestiva ; 2021(2):7-9, 2021.
Article in Italian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2030765

ABSTRACT

Professor Michal Kaminski is a professor of gastroenterology at the Maria Sklodowska-Curie Me-morial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, in Warsaw, Poland. Since his landmark study, published on the The New England Journal of Medicine in 2010, which demonstrated the association between the quality of colonoscopy (namely, the adenoma detection rate) and the risk of interval colorectal cancer, he has published over a hundred peer-reviewed articles, mainly focused on colonoscopy and colorectal cancer screening. His main clinical and research activities include population screening methods and surveillance for colorectal cancer, quality and advanced tech-nical developments in colonoscopy, and the treatment of colorectal polyps and the early stages of intestinal cancer. Today, he is considered a leading international expert in this field. As a member of the Governing Board of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE), he has been actively involved in the development of many ESGE guidelines. In this interview with Professor Kaminski, the impact of SARS-COV2 pandemic on colorectal screening and the new technological innovations in colonoscopy will be discussed.

7.
PLoS One ; 17(9), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2029776

ABSTRACT

Background The incidence of colorectal cancer is rising in adults <50 years of age. As a primarily unscreened population, they may have clinically important delays to diagnosis and treatment. This study aimed to review the literature on delay intervals in patients <50 years with colorectal cancer (CRC), and explore associations between longer intervals and outcomes. Methods MEDLINE, Embase, and LILACS were searched until December 2, 2021. We included studies published after 1990 reporting any delay interval in adults <50 with CRC. Interval measures and associations with stage at presentation or survival were synthesized and described in a narrative fashion. Risk of bias was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, Institute of Health Economics Case Series Quality Appraisal Checklist, and the Aarhus Checklist for cancer delay studies. Results 55 studies representing 188,530 younger CRC patients were included. Most studies used primary data collection (64%), and 47% reported a single center. Sixteen unique intervals were measured. The most common interval was symptom onset to diagnosis (21 studies;N = 2,107). By sample size, diagnosis to treatment start was the most reported interval (12 studies;N = 170,463). Four studies examined symptoms onset to treatment start (total interval). The shortest was a mean of 99.5 days and the longest was a median of 217 days. There was substantial heterogeneity in the measurement of intervals, and quality of reporting. Higher-quality studies were more likely to use cancer registries, and be population-based. In four studies reporting the relationship between intervals and cancer stage or survival, there were no clear associations between longer intervals and adverse outcomes. Discussion Adults <50 with CRC may have intervals between symptom onset to treatment start greater than 6 months. Studies reporting intervals among younger patients are limited by inconsistent results and heterogeneous reporting. There is insufficient evidence to determine if longer intervals are associated with advanced stage or worse survival. Other This study’s protocol was registered with the Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO;registration number CRD42020179707).

8.
Telehealth and Medicine Today ; 6(2), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2026467

ABSTRACT

Background: The complexity of today’s healthcare system has led to the growth of an emerging healthcare function known as healthcare advocacy. A telephonic healthcare advocate or advisor can play an essential role in care coordination, a better understanding of health benefits, and ease in navigating the healthcare system. A healthcare advocate’s role may be filled by clinical staff (i.e., registered nurses), non-clinical staff, or both, with varying levels of training depending on the intended scope of service. Objective: With a higher number of employers seeking customized health advocacy programing, this study serves to determine if more favorable healthcare outcomes offset the additional operating costs associated with a more dedicated delivery system. Therefore, this study’s primary objective was to evaluate the impact of patient access to a customized health advocacy program on downstream medical costs and healthcare utilization compared to a control (CON) group without access to this service. The secondary aim was to provide information to employers on whether a higher investment in a more complex customized delivery model provides significant value compared to a less customized program. Methods: The study treatment (TRT) group included 89,372 individuals with access to a customized advocacy program for employees, while the CON group of 115,465 had access to a non-customized program. Key outcomes included total healthcare expenditures, hospital admissions, emergency room visits, and physician office visits 12 months after the advocacy start date compared to 6 months before the start date. Researchers evaluated the impact the customized advocacy intervention had on expenditures by comparing differences in pre- and post-expenditures between customized health advisor and non-customized health advisor groups after controlling for various demographic, socioeconomic, and health status characteristics. Inverse propensity score weighting helped minimize differences in characteristics between the TRT and CON groups. Results: With the customized advocacy product, healthcare expenditures increased by only $2.03 per member per month (PMPM) compared with a $26.35 PMPM larger increase for controls with a non-customized product. Also, customized health advisor participants experienced reduced hospital admissions and ER visits compared with the CON group. Conclusions: Study participants with access to customized healthcare advocacy services experienced significant healthcare cost savings, along with fewer ER visits, and reduced inpatient admissions compared with the CON group. Thus, these findings suggest that healthcare advocacy programs justify the increased delivery cost and can lead to reduced healthcare costs and utilization, along with the potential to improve health outcomes and quality of life.

9.
Cancers ; 14(16):4021, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023194

ABSTRACT

Simple SummaryEarly-onset cancers, defined as cancers in adults aged 18 to 49 years, are increasing in a number of cancer sites in developed countries. Cancers commonly seen in older people are now being diagnosed in younger adults, for example bowel, breast, stomach and pancreatic cancers. In this review, we report statistics about early-onset cancers using exemplar data from a UK region and discuss issues unique to this age group. Topics covered include the long-term consequences of cancer treatment, how cancer treatment affects fertility and the use of social media by patients, healthcare professionals and researchers. We also outline important future research priorities for early-onset cancers.Rising incidence of specific types of early-age onset cancers in adults aged 18–49 years has been reported in high-income countries. In this review, we summarise the epidemiology of early-onset cancers using exemplar data from a high-income UK region, discuss supportive care needs for young patients and outline future research directions. The incidence rate of early-onset cancers increased by 20.5% from 1993 to 2019 in Northern Ireland. Differences in types of cancer were observed between sexes and across age groups of 18–29, 30–39 and 40–49 years. One and five-year net survival was mostly better in 18–29-year-olds for all cancers combined compared to older age groups for both sexes, but there were variations in specific cancer types. Poorer survival was observed for patients with brain/central nervous system, connective and soft tissue or lung cancers. Patients with early-onset cancers face unique supportive care needs and require holistic care. The impact of cancer treatment on fertility and fertility preservation treatments is an important consideration. Social media can be used for patient support, information, fundraising, advocacy work and recruitment to research studies. We also outline suggested future research priorities for early-onset cancers, spanning prevention, diagnosis, treatment and supportive care needs.

10.
Gut ; 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2020118

ABSTRACT

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) continues to carry an increased risk of colon cancer and national protocols for endoscopic surveillance are in place. [...]we propose the patient factors to consider when withdrawal of surveillance may be contemplated. Alternative strategies, such as the qFIT and virtual colonoscopy (either via CT or capsule), have not been used in IBD surveillance. qFIT, which measures the concentration of degraded haemoglobin and is raised in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients with active inflammation,12 13 has not been validated as a marker of IBD-related dysplasia. A faecal calprotectin threshold of >250 [micro]g/g to indicate disease activity is based on consensus and published evidence. 31-33 A three-point colonoscopy indicates a 45-minute procedure. 1st DR, first degree relative;CRC, colorectal cancer;FH, family history;IBD, inflammatory bowel disease;PSC, primary sclerosing cholangitis;qFIT, quantitative Faecal Immunochemical Test for haemoglobin The Gastroenterology GIRFT report has recommended the use of stool biomarkers to aid in the prioritisation of colonoscopy procedures on waiting lists.

11.
Gut ; 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2020114

ABSTRACT

The Asia-Pacific region has the largest number of cases of colorectal cancer (CRC) and one of the highest levels of mortality due to this condition in the world. Since the publishing of two consensus recommendations in 2008 and 2015, significant advancements have been made in our knowledge of epidemiology, pathology and the natural history of the adenoma-carcinoma progression. Based on the most updated epidemiological and clinical studies in this region, considering literature from international studies, and adopting the modified Delphi process, the Asia-Pacific Working Group on Colorectal Cancer Screening has updated and revised their recommendations on (1) screening methods and preferred strategies;(2) age for starting and terminating screening for CRC;(3) screening for individuals with a family history of CRC or advanced adenoma;(4) surveillance for those with adenomas;(5) screening and surveillance for sessile serrated lesions and (6) quality assurance of screening programmes. Thirteen countries/regions in the Asia-Pacific region were represented in this exercise. International advisors from North America and Europe were invited to participate.

12.
BMJ Open ; 12(9), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2020042

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo obtain annual incidence trends, understand clinicopathological characteristics, and forecast the future burden of colorectal cancer (CRC) in Indonesia.Design11-year retrospective cross-sectional study.SettingA national referral hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia.ParticipantsData from 1584 eligible cases were recorded for trends and forecasting analyses;433 samples were analysed to determine clinicopathological differences between young (<50 years) and old (≥50 years) patients.MethodsTrend analyses were done using Joinpoint software, expressed in annual percentage change (APC), and a regression analysis was executed to generate a forecasting model. Patients’ characteristics were compared using χ2 or non-parametric tests.Main outcomesAnalysis of trends, forecasting model, and clinicopathological features between the age groups.ResultsA significant increase in APC was observed among old patients (+2.38%) for CRC cases. Colon cancer increased remarkably (+9.24%) among young patients;rectal cancer trends were either stable or declining. The trend for right-sided CRC increased in the general population (+6.52%) and old patients (+6.57%), while the trend for left-sided CRC was stable. These cases are expected to be a significant health burden within the next 10 years. Patients had a mean age of 53.17±13.94, 38.1% were young, and the sex ratio was 1.21. Prominent characteristics were left-sided CRC, tumour size ≥5 cm, exophytic growth, adenocarcinoma, histologically low grade, pT3, pN0, inadequately dissected lymph nodes (LNs), LN ratio <0.05, no distant metastasis, early-stage cancer, no lymphovascular invasion, and no perineural invasion (PNI). Distinct features between young and old patients were found in the histological subtype, number of dissected LN, and PNI of the tumour.ConclusionsEpidemiological trends and forecasting analyses of CRC cases in Indonesian patients showed an enormous increase in colon cancer in young patients, a particularly concerning trend. Additionally, young patients exhibited particular clinicopathological characteristics that contributed to disease severity.

13.
BMJ Open ; 12(9), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2020036

ABSTRACT

IntroductionColorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cancer in Malaysia and cases are often detected late. Improving screening uptake is key in down-staging cancer and improving patient outcomes. The aim of this study is to develop, implement and evaluate an intervention to improve CRC screening uptake in Malaysia in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. The evaluation will include ascertaining the budgetary impact of implementing and delivering the intervention.Methods and analysisThe implementation research logic model guided the development of the study and implementation outcome measures were informed by the 'Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance' (RE-AIM) framework. This CRC screening intervention for Malaysia uses home-testing and digital, small media, communication to improve CRC screening uptake. A sample of 780 people aged 50–75 years living in Segamat district, Malaysia, will be selected randomly from the South East Asia Community Observatory (SEACO) database. Participants will receive a screening pack as well as a WhatsApp video of a local doctor to undertake a stool test safely and to send a photo of the test result to a confidential mobile number. SEACO staff will inform participants of their result. Quantitative data about follow-up clinic attendance, subsequent hospital tests and outcomes will be collected. Logistic regression will be used to investigate variables that influence screening completion and we will conduct a budget impact-analysis of the intervention and its implementation. Qualitative data about intervention implementation from the perspective of participants and stakeholders will be analysed thematically.Ethics and disseminationEthics approval has been granted by Monash University Human Research Ethics Committee (MUHREC ID: 29107) and the Medical Review and Ethics Committee (Reference: 21-02045-O7G(2)). Results will be disseminated through publications, conferences and community engagement activities.Trial registration numberNational Medical Research Register Malaysia: 21-02045-O7G(2).

14.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 40(16), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009591

ABSTRACT

Background: In a national survey 40.9% of 4,975 adults reported delaying or avoiding care due to concerns over COVID-19. Avoidance of medical care with lockdown and a decrease in access to services carries the possibility of increased morbidity and mortality from metastatic disease due to delays in diagnosis. We examine the trends in cancer diagnosis in admitted adult patients, comparing the incidences of diagnoses before lockdowns, after lockdowns, and as restrictions were lifted. Increase in diagnoses linked with metastatic disease in the late pandemic compared to early when lockdowns occurred would show delays in care due to decreased access from the pandemic, and likely increase in morbidity and mortality. Methods: Data was retrospectively analyzed patients admitted to HCA hospitals March 2020 to December 2021, separated to three periods: pre (Mar 2019-Feb 2020), early (Mar 2020-November 2020) and late pandemic (Dec 2020-December 2021). 66,022 patients with ICD-10 codes matching malignancies of lung, small intestine, colorectal, pancreas, breast, or cervix were included and patients that additionally had ICD-10 codes for metastatic disease were identified. Patients with unlinked metastatic disease codes were removed. Population demographics including sex, race, ethnicity, insurance were also included. Results: There was a decrease in lung cancer diagnoses in the pre-pandemic period from 6,546 to early at 3,248, and an increase in the late period to 4,763. Diagnoses of metastatic disease with lung cancer decreased from 4,143 in pre-pandemic to 3,357 in late pandemic. Colorectal cancer (CRC) patients without metastatic disease pre-pandemic numbered at 5,836;3,717 early pandemic;and 5,672, late pandemic. Diagnoses with metastatic disease decreased from 2,980 to 2,511 in the late period. Pancreatic cancer diagnoses decreased from 1,623 pre-pandemic to 1,508 late pandemic. Associated metastatic disease decreased from 1,181 pre-pandemic to 1,061 late pandemic. Breast cancer diagnoses decreased from 2,241 pre-pandemic to 1,915 late pandemic, and diagnoses with metastatic disease decreased from 2,334 to 1,711. Cervical cancer diagnoses increased from 385 pre-pandemic to 444 late pandemic and diagnoses with metastatic disease decreased from 252 to 187 in the late pandemic. Conclusions: Delays in access to care due to the pandemic are reflected in decreases of diagnoses seen. There was a decrease in lung, colorectal, pancreatic, breast, and cervical cancer diagnoses in the early pandemic period likely due to lockdown and diversion of medical effort. In the late pandemic period, diagnoses of these cancers rose, reflecting loosened restrictions. Our study is not able to determine the impact of delayed diagnosis, but likely results in increased morbidity and mortality. These effects could be mitigated in the future with uninterrupted access to telehealth and cancer screening.

15.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 40(16), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009564

ABSTRACT

Background: Social media platforms such as Twitter are highly utilized to communicate about cancer care. Although surgery is the primary treatment for solid malignancies, little is known about public perceptions or communication behaviors regarding this treatment modality. Further, prolonged lockdowns and widespread delays of planned operations during the COVID-19 pandemic have magnified the importance of virtual communication about surgical cancer care. Methods: Tweets referencing cancer surgery were collected from January 2018 to January 2022 using Twitter's Application Programming Interface. Account metadata was used to predict user demographic information and to compare tweeting metrics across users. Natural language processing models were applied to tweet content to resolve common topics of conversation and to classify tweets by cancer type. Results: There were 442,840 original tweets about cancer surgery by 262,168 users. Individuals accounted for most users (65%) while influencers accounted for the least (1.4%). Influencers made the most median impressions (19,139). Of 240,713 tweets discussing surgery for specific cancers, breast (20%) and neurologic (17%) cancers were most mentioned. When adjusting for national rates of procedures performed, tweets about surgery for neurologic cancers were the most common (231 tweets per 1000 procedures) whereas those for urologic cancers were the least common (15 tweets per 1000 procedures). Discussions about cancer surgery research made up 31% of tweets before the pandemic but only 11% of tweets during the pandemic. During the pandemic, concern regarding COVID-19 related delays was the most tweeted topic (23%). Cancer surgery research was most cited by oncologists, as well as in tweets about hepatopancreatobiliary and colorectal cancers. The cost of surgery was commonly mentioned in tweets about breast and gynecologic cancers and contained the most negative sentiment score (-0.7). Conclusions: Twitter was highly utilized to discuss surgical cancer care during the COVID- 19 pandemic. During the pandemic, conversations shifted focus from research to survivorship and reflected real-time events such as COVID-19-related surgical delays. We identified the financial burden of cancer care as a commonly held concern among patients discussing cancer surgery on social media. Future public health outreach about cancer surgery may be optimized by coordinating with influencers and by targeting topics of concern like cost of surgery and undermentioned content like urologic cancers. Twitter's role as a platform for research dissemination was disrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic, and further tracking is needed regarding online research discussions after the pandemic.

16.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 40(16), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009558

ABSTRACT

Background: The impact of clinician burnout on patient care is pervasive across medical delivery systems. The effects are also felt in preventive care where cancer screening efforts rely on clinician referrals through the electronic medical records (EMRs). Though designed to support healthcare, EMRs are a significant source of clinician burnout given the number of clicks or navigation time needed to refer a patient. This is a barrier to Patient Navigation (PN) when ordered tests do not materialize into screenings or when clinicians order labs/imaging and the pending orders are not created. This causes frustration for all clinical staff involved, delays the workflow processes, and leads to missed opportunities for PN. We implemented an 'order set' intervention to reduce the click burden linked to colorectal cancer (CRC) screening referral among clinicians in South Georgia. Methods: The 'order set' intervention was developed to facilitate PN for a Colorectal Cancer Control Program (CRCCP) aimed at implementing Evidence- Based Interventions to increase CRC screening rates in Georgia. The 'order set' was designed to address workflow issues by consolidating steps associated with CRC screening. This reduced typing input and the need to click between multiple windows within the EMR while making a referral to PN. The intervention was piloted in the Albany Area Primary Health Care (AAPHC) system after modifications were made to the EMR and clinician workflows. The monthly CRC screening rates continue to be generated and tracked post-implementation. Results: The use of the 'order set' reduced the click burden from 78 to 7 inputs and clinician EMR interaction time from 110 seconds to 29 seconds. Providers from 4/7 clinics have adopted the 'order sets' when making referrals for CRC screening. Two clinics provided post-implementation screening data. The pre-implementation screening rates for one clinic were comparable (August = 59.3%, September = 57.6%) to post-implementation (October = 56.3%, November = 56.6%, December = 57.2%), while the second clinic showed some increase (August = 58.6%, September = 60%) vs. (October = 61%, November = 62.1%, December = 62.8%). Conclusions: The 'order sets' intervention reduced the time clinicians spent creating referrals for CRC screening, including fecal immunochemical tests (FIT) and colonoscopies. Additional follow-up and rollout to clinics participating in the program is underway to evaluate further the impact of the order sets on CRC screening outcome and process measures, including qualitative interviews with clinicians. There is significant potential in the application of order sets to various workflow processes to aid in preventative health efforts. Challenges linked to the COVID-19 pandemic and staff turnover affected acquisition of patient referral data.

17.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 40(16), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009553

ABSTRACT

Background: Lynch syndrome (LS) is an inherited disorder characterized by pathogenic variants within mismatch repair genes resulting in an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). In England, the fecal immunochemical test for Haemoglobin (FIT) is currently used in non-LS symptomatic and screening populations to guide subsequent colonoscopy. Herein, we report results from a national emergency clinical service implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic which used FIT to prioritize colonoscopy in LS patients while endoscopy services were limited. Methods: Regional genetic and endoscopy services across England were invited to participate. Patient eligibility was determined by 1) Diagnosis of Lynch Syndrome 2) Planned colonoscopic surveillance between 1 March 2020 and 31 March 2021. Requests for FIT testing from participating NHS Trusts were sent to the NHS Bowel Cancer Screening South of England Hub's Research Laboratory in Surrey. The Hub sent patients a FIT kit (OC-Sensor? (Eiken, Japan)), instructions for use, a questionnaire, and a pre-paid return envelope. Lab reports with feecal haemoglobin (f-Hb) results were returned electronically for clinical action. LS patients were risk-stratified for colonoscopy based upon the following f-Hb thresholds: (1) f-Hb ≥10mg of Haemoglobin (Hb)/g (mg/g) faeces: triaged for colonoscopy via an urgent two-week wait (2WW) pathway, (2) f-Hb ≤10mg/g: schedule patients for colonoscopy within 6-12 weeks, where local endoscopy service availability permits. Results: Fifteen centers across England participated in the clinical service from 9th June 2020 to 31st March 2021. An uptake rate of 64% was observed from this cohort (375/588 invites), though 21 cases were removed from analysis due to repeat FITs, insufficient sample, missing clinical data, or FIT completed after colonoscopy. Of the remaining 354 patients analyzed, 269 patients (76%) had a f-Hb of <6mg/g. 6% (n=23) of patients had a f-Hb that was at or between greater than the limit of detection of the assay (≥6mg/g) yet below 10mg/g.18% (n=62) had FIT results of ≥10mg/g and met criteria for urgent colonoscopy triage via the 2WW pathway. Of the 62 urgently triaged patients, 22 had detectable adenomas, 6 had advanced adenomas (AAs), and 4 were diagnosed with CRC (table). Conclusions: The utility of FIT during the pandemic has demonstrated clinical value for LS patients requiring CRC surveillance. Further longitudinal investigation on the efficacy of FIT in people with LS is warranted and will be examined as part of the multi-center prospective research study “FIT for Lynch Syndrome” (ISRCTN15740250) which is presently recruiting patients in the UK.

18.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 40(16), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009550

ABSTRACT

Background: Disruptions to cancer care during the COVID-19 pandemic due to disease mitigation efforts, supply-chain issues, and fear of COVID-19 have all been reported, but study of their extent has been limited. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the extent and associations with patient reported disruptions to cancer treatment and other care during the COVID-19 pandemic using nationally representative data. Methods: This cross-sectional study uses data from the 2020 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), an annual, cross-sectional survey of US adults. Adults who reported requiring current cancer treatment or other care related to their cancer in the second half of 2020 were included. Rates of patients with self-reported changes, delays, or cancellations to cancer treatment or other cancer-related care due to the COVID-19 pandemic were calculated and their associations with demographic and other variables were analyzed. All data were adjusted using sample weights and specific variables to account for stratification and other survey characteristics using the Stata svy command. Chi-square testing was used to compare proportions across variable groups. Univariable logistic regression analysis was utilized to assess variable associations with change, delay, or cancellations to cancer care during the COVID-19 pandemic. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to create a model adjusted for select demographic variables. Results: A sample-weighted 2,867,326 adults (n=574) reported requiring cancer treatment and/or other cancer care since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. Of these, 189 (32.1%) reported any change, delay, or cancellation due to the pandemic. On univariable analysis, patients who were younger, female, had comorbidities, and uninsured were significantly more likely to report care disruptions. On adjusted analysis, younger age and female sex remained significant predictors. In a sample-weighted subset of 1,600,587 patients (n=331), 291 (87.9%) reported virtual appointment use. There was no association with disruptions across breast, prostate, lung, and colorectal cancer groups. Conclusions: Approximately 1/3 of patients experienced disruptions to cancer care during the COVID-19 pandemic. Patients with younger age or female sex were more likely to have disruptions in care, which may reflect risk stratification strategies in the early stages of the pandemic. The longitudinal impact of these disruptions on outcomes merits further study.

19.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 40(16), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009541

ABSTRACT

Background: Low-value services, which provide minimal patient benefit while entailing costs and risks, are prevalent in cancer care. Shifts in cancer care delivery during the COVID-19 pandemic to minimize exposure provided opportunities for health systems and clinicians to prioritize higher-value over lowvalue oncology services. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, we investigated the association between the COVID-19 pandemic period and low-value cancer care practices using administrative claims from the HealthCore Integrated Research Environment, consisting of ∼65 million members managed by 14 health plans across the US. We identified commercial or Medicare Advantage members diagnosed with breast, colorectal, or lung cancer between January 2015 and March 2021. Low-value cancer care practices were identified from peer-reviewed medical literature, including ASCO and ASTRO Choosing Wisely campaigns and evidence-based pathways. Five low-value practices were studied: (1) conventional fractionation instead of hypofractionation for early-stage breast cancer;(2) off-pathway systemic therapy;(3) non-guideline-based antiemetic use for minimal-, low-, or moderate-to-high-risk chemotherapies;(4) Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (PET/CT) instead of conventional CT for staging;and (5) aggressive end-of-life care (chemotherapy ≤14 days, multiple emergency department visits ≤30 days, ICU utilization ≤30 days, hospice initiation ≤3 days, and/or no hospice before death). We used linear probability models to evaluate the association between the COVID- 19 period (March to December 2020) and the 5 outcomes, adjusting for patient, facility, geographic and temporal characteristics. Results: Among 204,581 members (mean age 63.1, 139,488 [68.1%] female), 83,593 (40.8%) had breast cancer, 56,373 (27.5%) had colon cancer, and 64,615 (31.5%) had lung cancer. Rates of low-value care were similar in pre-COVID vs. COVID periods: conventional radiotherapy: 22.1% vs. 9.4%;off-pathway systemic therapy: 36.7% vs. 43.2%;non-guideline-based antiemetics: 61.2% vs. 58.1%;PET/CT imaging: 39.9% vs. 41.3%;aggressive end-of-life care: 75.8% vs. 73.3%. In adjusted analyses, the COVID-19 period was associated with no changes in off-pathway therapy (adjusted percentage point difference [aPPD] 0.82, SD 0.08, p = 0.33), PET/CT imaging (aPPD 0.10, SD 0.005, p = 0.83), and aggressive end-of-life care (aPPD 2.71, SD 0.02, p = 0.16). Small changes in conventional radiotherapy (aPPD 3.93, SD 0.01, p < 0.01) and non-guideline-based antiemetics (aPPD -3.62, SD 0.006, p < 0.01), were noted. Conclusions: The shock of the COVID-19 pandemic did not meaningfully change several metrics of low-value cancer care. Broader changes to payment and incentive design should be considered to turn the tide toward higher-value cancer care.

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Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 40(16), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009528

ABSTRACT

Background: Effective Cancer screening is critical in reducing cancer related mortality in CRC by increasing the detection in earlier stages. Worldwide, practically all cancer pathways have been negatively affected by the implications of the COVID-19 pandemic. Oncological care has not escaped the effects of reprioritization of health care services to handle the surge of COVID-19 patients adequately. Cancer screening programs are no exception as many were temporarily halted to alleviate the pressure on overwhelmed health care systems. In Uruguay, the first covid patients were detected in March 2020, and since then, the country's Public Health policies have been marked by the covid-19 public health emergency. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on CRC diagnosis. We further aimed to analyze the effect on the clinical presentation and stage at diagnosis during 2020-2021 compared with previous years. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study performed at a single tertiary center. Patients diagnosed and managed with colorectal adenocarcinoma during the years 2020-2021 were compared with patients from 2018-2019. Those enrolled in 2018- 2019 were classified as the “pre-pandemic group”, and those enrolled in 2020-2021 were classified as the “pandemic group”. The primary outcome was the rate of stage IV disease at the time of diagnosis. Mann-Whitney test was used in the comparison of quantitative variables and Fisher's exact test was used for qualitative variables. Results: A total of 370 patients were included in this study. From March 2018 to 2019 (pre-pandemic), 217 patients were considered, and from March 2020 to 2021 (pandemic), 153 patients. Median age of pre-pandemic and pandemic group was 64.4 and 65.6 years, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in cancer obstruction or perforation at diagnosis. Patient demographics and tumor clinicopathological features were comparable. The percentage of surgical candidates was lower during the pandemic (69% vs 62%). There was a significant difference in TNM tumor distribution between pre-pandemic and pandemic subgroups with a higher incidence of advanced (cT4 or cN+ or M1) tumors. T4 tumors and node positive disease were equivalent in both groups but the incidence of disseminated disease (cM1) was significantly higher in the pandemic group (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Our study demonstrates how cancer diagnostic variables, mainly stage at diagnosis, have been affected by the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on cancer screening programs. Therefore, it is of utmost importance that cancer diagnosis and treatment pathways be reinstalled in full to return to and build on pre-pandemic priority to ensure the benefits from earlier diagnosis and treatment. Future studies are needed to verify the tendency in stage migration and to optimize CRC care in the pandemic scenario.

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