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1.
Russian Journal of Infection & Immunity ; 12(4):713-725, 2022.
Article in Russian | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2040487

ABSTRACT

Objective of the research — to specify respiratory tract bacterial microflora in patients suffering from community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) during initial and repeat examination. To determine local factors affecting microflora in the cohort examined. Materials and methods. Surveillance subject — 241 patients with CAP differed by their status and age who stayed in two healthcare facilities of the Khabarovsk city. Examination of respiratory smears was performed. Results. Indices of Gram-negative enterobacteria (30.8% [22.6–39.7%]) and Gram-negative nonfermentable bacteria (14.5% [8.6–21.7%]), isolated from patients hospitalized in healthcare institution No. 1 and mostly comprised of the elderly (aged over 61 years — 82.0%;74.3–88.6%) with more severe disease state including patients at the ICU, were higher compared to data obtained from healthcare institution No. 2 (19.8% (13.4–27.0);6.1% (2.7–10.8) respectively). Prevalent pathogen was Klebsiella pneumoniae — 13.6% (7.8–20.6) and 10.7% (6.0–16.5). Identification of Acinetobacter baumannii complex — 6.4% (2.6–11.7) and 3.1% (0.8–6.7) — should be also noted. A high percentage of drug-resistant bacterial variants was observed and for Klebsiella pneumoniae totaled 66.7% (41.8–87.4) and 57.1% (32.2–80.2) at the healthcare institutions No. 1 and No. 2, respectively. A. baumannii complex drug resistant variants were found in 85.7% (52.7–99.97) at healthcare institution No. 1. All isolates of A. baumannii complex at the healthcare institution No. 2 were drug resistant. High prevalence of Candida spp. was revealed in both healthcare institutions reaching 54.5% (45.2–63.7) and 58.0% (49.5–66.3), respectively, with minimal detection rate of classic pathogens such as S. pneumoniae — 5.4% (2.0–10.4) and 5.3% (2.1–9.8) and H. influenzae — 3.6% (0.9–7.9) and 3.8% (1.2–7.7), respectively. Repeat examination of 122 patients conducted 7–10 days later showed diverse changes in microflora spectrum regardless of the healthcare institution that was manifested as loss or emergence of drug-resistant variants as well as simultaneous presence of different variants of the same pathogen. Conclusion. The results obtained evidence about complexity and variety of mechanisms underlying microorganism community formation during the course of infectious process in patients. Local factors influencing microflora characteristics of patients at the two healthcare institutions were revealed. (English) [ FROM AUTHOR] Цель исследования — определить бактериальную микрофлору респираторного тракта больных внебольничной пневмонией (ВП) при их первичном и повторном обследовании, выявить локальные факторы, влияющие на показатели микрофлоры у наблюдаемого контингента. Объект наблюдения — 241 больной ВП из двух лечебных учреждений г. Хабаровска, различающихся по статусу и возрастному составу пациентов. Исследованы респираторные мазки. В ЛПУ № 1, в котором сосредоточены пациенты старше 61 года — 82,0% (74,3–88,6) с более тяжелым течением болезни, в том числе пациенты РАО, показатели выявления грамотрицательных энтеробактерий — 30,8% (22,6–39,7) и неферментирующих грамотрицательных бактерий — 14,5% (8,6–21,7) были выше по сравнению с ЛПУ № 2 — 19,8% (13,4–27,0) и 6,1% (2,7–10,8) соответственно группам возбудителей. Ведущий возбудитель в обоих ЛПУ — Klebsiella pneumoniae — 13,6% (7,8–20,6) и 10,7% (6,0–16,5). Следует отметить регистрацию Acinetobacter baumannii complex — 6,4% (2,6–11,7) и 3,1% (0,8–6,7). Характерна высокая доля участия лекарственноустойчивых вариантов — 66,7% (41,8–87,4) и 57,1% (32,2–80,2) для K. pneumoniae, в ЛПУ № 1 и ЛПУ № 2 соответственно, и для A. baumannii complex — в ЛПУ № 1 их вклад составил 85,7% (52,7–99,97), в ЛПУ № 2 все изоляты имели лекарственную устойчивость. В обоих ЛПУ у больных отмечены высокие показатели выявления грибов рода Candida — 54,5% (45,2–63,7) и 58,0% (49,5–66,3) соответственно, и минимальные уровни классических возбудителей: S. pneumoniae — 5,4% (2,0–10,4) и 5,3% (2,1–9,8) и H. influenzae — 3,6% (0,9–7,9) и 3,8% (1,2–7,7) соответственно. Через 7–10 дней при повторном обследовании 122 больных отмечено разнонаправленное из менение микрофлоры, независимое от статуса ЛПУ, и проявляющееся как по линии утраты лекарственноустойчивых вариантов, так и в приобретении их или одновременном присутствии разных вариантов одного возбудителя. Полученные результаты свидетельствуют о сложности и множественности механизмов формирования популяции микроорганизмов в динамике инфекционного процесса у больного. Выявлены локальные факторы, влияющие на показатели микрофлоры больных в двух лечебных учреждениях. (Russian) [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Russian Journal of Infection & Immunity is the property of National Electronic-Information Consortium and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

2.
Geojournal of Tourism and Geosites ; 43(3):925-936, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2026447

ABSTRACT

Pujon Kidul, Malang is a village tourism that offers agricultural potential as a tourist attraction to prosper the communities. Pandemic Covid-19 has caused instability in all sectors, including agricultural sector. The agricultural sector is the last line of defense, but that does not mean the pandemic has no impact on farming activities. On the contrary, the pandemic has slowed global economic growth and social growth, particularly in agriculture;as a result, social capital and local wisdom must be strengthened. As a result, this study was carried out to support Covid-19's Resilience Area in the tourism village of Pujon Kidul by investigating the role of social capital and resilience. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and the Structural Equation Model (SEM) were used in this study. We employed structural equation model using AMOS program which the result of the study shows that the residents of Pujon Kidul Village Tourism already have favorable social capital circumstances, which are characterized by a high level of trust among residents and good social network. This trust and social network support the Covid-19 Resilience Village program's effectiveness. So far, the currently used model could explain the relationship between social capital and community resilience. © 2022 Editura Universitatii din Oradea. All rights reserved.

3.
Research on Social Work Practice ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2020945

ABSTRACT

Objective: To determine, by using a naturalistic experiment resulting from Covid and Cyclones Idai and Kenneth, if a previously completed comprehensive intervention within a Mozambiqian village by the Non-Governmental Organization Care-for-Life (CFL), resulted in community empowerment in the community's response to these disasters, as defined by World Bank. Method: Over a nine-month period, beginning three weeks post-cyclones (November 2019), data were collected using mixed research methods, including in-depth interviews (22), focus group discussions (four), pre–post household surveys, and nonparticipatory observations. Results: Quantitative results demonstrated that the village responded effectively by decreasing disease, increasing sanitation, and providing food security to community members. Using thematic analysis of focus group discussions and interviews, several themes were identified documenting the community's and village leaders’ responses. Discussion: This mixed-methods study demonstrated that the comprehensive CFL interventions were effective in empowering community leaders and members, and in building resiliency in responding to disasters. © The Author(s) 2022.

4.
SciDev.net ; 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1998495

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 statistics in Tanzania have remained a top secret since last May when 509 cases and 21 related deaths were reported in the World Health Organization’s situational update on the disease. The Ministry of Health, Community Development, Gender, Elderly and Children neither declined nor confirmed when asked about the release of data but emphasised that it is now advocating precautions such as wearing face masks, avoiding crowds and hand hygiene. Gerard Chami, head of government communications at the ‎health ministry, replied in a text message to SciDev.Net: “Are the data [protecting] our citizens?” This piece was produced by SciDev.Net’s Sub-Saharan Africa English desk.

5.
African Renaissance ; 17(4):187-187–206, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1988972

ABSTRACT

The study aimed to investigate the resourcefulness of young people in response to COVID-19 in Cape Town. A qualitative research method was used, and a purposive sampling technique to select the participants. The study selected 10 young people who were at the forefront against the pandemic. A participatory approach through one-on-one semi-structured interviews was used to collect data. Data were analysed using thematic analysis, and the results presented in raw data to achieve the study objective. The rapid spread of the coronavirus in South Africa affected the health and social lives of young people. Cutting off access to school because of lockdown measures resulted in malnutrition for young people who depend on school food schemes. The study findings revealed that digital dexterity, community screening, food parcel distribution, social distance monitoring, and educational awareness comprise the strong reaction that young people embarked on in response to COVID-19. In conclusion, the study recommends that the National Youth Development Agency should offer a grant for young emerging social entrepreneurs during and after COVID-19 to respond to societal issues that affect them and promote community development.

6.
Research for All ; 6(1):1-13, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1988573

ABSTRACT

During co-creation workshops, three communities in Lomé, Togo, developed their own alternative technology - do-it-yourself networks that were adapted to their specific local needs. Usually, these collaborative formats require physical proximity, not only between participants, but also between participants and their local environments. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, all physical meetings were cancelled or restricted, and the project team had to transfer their methodologies to digital formats accommodating geographical distance. Their endeavours revealed challenges regarding both local community networking in general and the adaptation of co-creation methodologies during a global pandemic. A major lesson learned was the importance of trust among participants in such an interdisciplinary and diverse consortium. This article offers insights into the collaborative development of local community networks, providing new perspectives on co-design in the restrictive settings caused by the global COVID-19 pandemic. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Research for All is the property of UCL Press and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

7.
Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems and Community Development ; 11(3):57-73, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1964347

ABSTRACT

According to prior research, local food purchases at anchor institutions (AIs) support community development and food system resilience. AIs are placed-based organizations, such as schools, universities, and hospitals, that support their communities by virtue of their mission. The COVID-19 pandemic presents a unique opportunity to examine how these institutions can support food system resilience during a period of increasing food insecurity and supply chain disruptions. This study uses mixed methods, including interview and survey data, to investigate how foodservice operations at New England AIs adapted to COVID-19 and supported local food systems throughout the pandemic. The findings demonstrate that AIs experienced shortages of everyday food items among their broadline distributors-large, national distributors that carry a wide variety of food products. However, AIs adapted to these shortages and found alternate sources for these products thanks to mutually beneficial relationships with local producers. Having relationships with both local and national distributors was an important source of functional redundancy within institutional food supply chains, reducing institutions' reliance on a single supplier and enhancing their resilience. This finding suggests that local purchasing relationships help AIs adapt to systemic disruptions, further incentivizing farm-to-institution programs. This study also found that AIs engaged in a wide array of food access initiatives during the pandemic, including pop-up grocery stores and serving free or reduced-price meals. These initiatives supported staff members and communities through food shortages and increased food insecurity. We suggest that these diverse food access initiatives, some of which were created in response to COVID-19 and many of which were in place before the pandemic, are an accessible way for AIs to support food system resilience in capacities beyond procurement.

8.
Health Soc Care Community ; 2022 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1961587

ABSTRACT

Public health responses to the COVID-19 pandemic, such as business restrictions, social distancing and lockdowns, had social and economic impacts on individuals and communities. Caremongering Facebook groups spread across Canada to support vulnerable individuals by providing a forum for sharing information and offering assistance. We sought to understand the specific impacts of Caremongering groups on individuals 1 year after the pandemic began. We used a convergent parallel mixed-methods approach that included semi-structured interviews with group moderators from 16 Caremongering groups and survey data from 165 group members. We used a constant comparative approach for thematic analysis of interview transcripts and open-ended text responses to the survey. We used source theme tables as joint displays to integrate interview and survey findings. Our results revealed five major themes: providing food, sharing information, supporting health and wellness, acquiring goods and services (non-food), and connecting communities. Respondents of our survey tended to be 35-65 years of age range, but reported helping adults of all ages. Our findings illustrate the potential of using a social media platform to connect with others and provide and access support. The Caremongering initiative demonstrates a community-driven, social media solution to issues such as isolation, loneliness and community health promotion.

9.
Int J Community Wellbeing ; 5(3): 657-678, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1943814

ABSTRACT

The world faced stark challenges during the global pandemic caused by COVID-19. Large forces such as climate change, cultural ethnocentrism and racism, and increasing wealth inequality continue to ripple through communities harming community well-being. While the global pandemic caused by COVID-19 exacerbated these forces, lessons across the globe have been captured that inform the field of community well-being long-after the end of the pandemic. While many scholars have looked to political capital, financial capital, and social capital to tackle these challenges, natural capital and cultural capital have extreme relevance. However, scholarship tends to overlook the inextricable and important links between natural capital and cultural capital in community development and well-being work. These capital forms also inform contemporary understandings of sustainability and environmental justice, especially in the fields of community development and well-being. This perspective article showcases the deep connections between natural capital and social capital through literature review and community cases across the globe. Questions are posed for future research and practice tethering together cultural capital and natural capital when looking to bolster community well-being.

10.
Handbook of research on organizational culture strategies for effective knowledge management and performance ; : 133-156, 2021.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1924376

ABSTRACT

This chapter explores the enablers and inhibitors to effective knowledge sharing practices within different contexts and fields of work. It covers the benefits of knowledge sharing and explores some of the most commonly used methods referencing the experiences within the banking and financial sector, the higher education sector, the automotive industry, and within the field of community development. Reference is also made to the experiences of knowledge sharing in light of the COVID-19 pandemic. The chapter concludes by asserting that a 'one size fits all' approach to knowledge sharing and knowledge management is not feasible, but argues that there is equally strong evidence to support the view that knowledge sharing should be a key priority for all organizations in order for them to be sustainable and relevant in the longer term. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

11.
The Extractive Industries and Society ; : 101120, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1914356

ABSTRACT

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the mining sector is believed by its proponents to be a critical element of responsible business practice, providing strategic economic advantages while helping to minimize environmental damage. In the midst of the current COVID-19 crisis, this study presents a paradigm for assessing the development of local communities through CSR initiatives by the mining sector. For the purpose of the study, data were gathered from 1209 beneficiaries living in the vicinity of Eastern Coalfield Limited (ECL). According to the findings of the study, CSR initiatives result in enhanced livelihood activities, skills, knowledge, empowerment, and community participation for the community affected by COVID-19. This study has significant implications for academics and corporate executives in the context of India's mandatory CSR laws, as it uses structural equation modelling (SEM) to evaluate the efficacy of CSR initiatives in terms of local community development and to unravel the complexity of the relationship between corporations and society. In addition, community resilience is employed to mediate various CSR initiatives and local community development as an innovative approach to managing the COVID-19 pandemic.

12.
Geografia. Malaysian Journal of Society and Space ; 18(2):223-235, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1912385

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak in late 2019 has impacted all nations, societies, and industries globally due to the closure of international borders and strict travel restrictions. As one of the community-based tourism activities that have been viewed as a tool to stimulate rural community development, the Malaysian homestay program is no exception. This paper aims to explore the COVID-19 impacts, to examine how the homestay operators strived to be resilient and to understand the sustainability strategies adopted by them in reviving the industry post-COVID-19. By using a resilience-based framework, in-depth interviews with 10 homestay operators, one (1) state tourism official, and three (3) Homestay Chairman of the local homestay tourism association were conducted. Findings revealed that COVID-19 has affected the homestay operators' livelihoods, where they experienced a total loss of incomes due to booking cancellations and the complete halt of tourist arrivals. Operators began to re-visit their business models and mapped out the 'new norms of hospitality by leveraging technology and social media to promote their businesses online.' All these innovative strategies need to be undertaken collectively and therefore leadership and the formation of strong human resources proved to be the best solutions. Diversifying and venturing into other businesses as second income generation provides a safety net in sustaining their livelihoods. It is suggested that the creation of new business models and pragmatic community tourism policies will essentially determine the homestay program's chances of survival, particularly during crisis or disaster, by transforming it into a much more sustainable form.

13.
Indian Journal of Applied Hospitality & Tourism Research ; 13:17-22, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1904404

ABSTRACT

Tourism is a booming industry all over the globe. It is known to uplift rural population. As protected areas are located in rural areas, the local communities have been experiencing an increasing flow of tourists over the years. This has made tourism a suitable career choice for local's livelihood. India is rich in flora and fauna which are spread all over the country. Among various sites, Sunderbans Tiger Reserve is a location with a global significance which is a huge attraction point for tourists from all over the globe. The reserve is densely packed with mangrove forest where there is a tiger habitat;making is one of a kind destination. This paper studies the impact of tourism on the local community of Sunderbans Tiger Reserve. The data was collected through a non-probability convenient sampling method with the help of a structured questionnaire followed by an interview from 100 local residents living in the surrounding land of the reserve in November 2020. The Cronbach's Alpha test was applied to check the reliability and the result suggesting that the data is reliable. Descriptive statistics are applied to evaluate the impact of tourism on the local community and the Kruskal - Wallis H-test is applied to calculate the difference between the impact and gender perception. The findings of the study show that the local community is experiencing both a positive and negative impact of tourism in the study site, hence making the impact neutral in nature but there is no statistically significant difference between gender and the impact of tourism. The covid-19 pandemic has also made a significant impact on the tourism industry all over the world, hence highlighting its importance for local community development in rural areas.

14.
Journal of Innovation and Applied Technology ; 7(2):1298-1305, 2021.
Article in Indonesian | GIM | ID: covidwho-1898011

ABSTRACT

Efforts to prevent the spread of the COVID-19 virus and overcome the impact of the pandemic require the participation of community elements. The incidence of Covid-19 in RW 09, Tanjung Rejo Village, Sukun District, amounted to 15 cases with a death toll of 1 resident in December 2020. The lack of community knowledge about COVID-19 and its prevention efforts can be seen from the many residents who do not comply with health protocols, make the importance of community-based health interventions in the RW area. The intervention was carried out with 3 main programs, namely: the movement for the formation of the COVID-19 Task Force (Satgas);healthy living communities (GERMAS);and the movement for people to use masks, antiseptics, and disinfectants (GEMAD). The results of the intervention showed the formation of a COVID-19 task force tasked with disseminating the right information and increasing social support in efforts to prevent COVID-19, and increasing knowledge of the COVID-19 task force and health cadres after counseling activities were carried out. After the intervention, it is hoped that all RWs in Sukun District can empower the community to form a COVID-19 task force in an effort to prevent the spread of COVID-19.

15.
Sustainability ; 14(11):6724, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1892977

ABSTRACT

No “one size fits all” approach exists for local sustainability and food systems planning. Such planning must balance needs for being both comprehensive and place-based. The current study explores this tension by examining Integrated Community Sustainability Plans (ICSP) developed by municipalities in British Columbia (BC), Canada. The research examines items and actions related to food systems (focusing on agriculture and food production) in the ICSPs of municipalities in different regions across BC to (1) identify how municipalities “integrate” food systems with other sustainability objectives, (2) elucidate how place and geography influence integrated planning, and (3) reveal gaps in integrated approaches to developing local food systems. The study employs document analysis and thematic coding methodology. The results indicate that common areas of food systems integration in ICSPs include local economy and education. Many plans outline goals for bolstering local food economies and building local food capacity through community participation and engagement. Findings also show how foci and approaches for developing sustainable food systems vary by region. The study elucidates how food systems are integrated within place-based sustainability plans as well as reveals gaps that local governments can address when adopting and implementing integrated sustainability plans for improving food systems.

16.
Gerontologist ; 2022 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860856

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Age-friendly community initiatives (AFCIs) strive to make localities better for long and healthy lives by fostering improvements across social, physical, and service environments. Despite the heightened need for community supports during the COVID-19 pandemic, very little research has addressed the work of AFCIs in the context of this crisis. We aimed to develop theory on how AFCI core groups have contributed to community responses during the pandemic, as well as what contexts have influenced the initiatives' ability to contribute. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: As part of a multi-year, community-partnered study on the development of philanthropically supported initiatives in northern New Jersey, we conducted qualitative interviews with eight AFCI core groups during the winter of 2020-2021. The interviews focused on the leaders' efforts at that time, with probing questions concerning enabling factors of their community responses. We analyzed the data using an inductive coding process encompassing open, axial, and subcoding. RESULTS: The analysis indicated four distinct roles of AFC core groups: good community partner, creator, advocate, and communications broker. We further found that AFC leaders primarily drew on three types of capital-human, social, and tangible-to enact these roles, oftentimes in cumulative ways. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS: We interpret our study's findings and their implications by integrating insights from theories of social impact. We further highlight the importance of continued research on community-centered approaches to promote aging in community during times of societal crisis, and otherwise.

17.
Disaster Prevention and Management ; 31(2):144-157, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1853328

ABSTRACT

Purpose>This paper is to contribute to addressing the knowledge gap on the roles of rural cooperatives in disaster risk reduction and management (DRRM).Design/methodology/approach>This study adopts a mixed-methods approach highlighting indigenous strategies of community engagement – the pantatabtaval/tong tongan (brainstorming and dialogs), pan-iestorya/dad-at (storytelling session) and field observations with 50 village-level cooperatives in Benguet, Philippines to understand their contributions to local DRRM.Findings>Rural cooperatives in Benguet have evolved on their context of service from mere rural development to now include DRRM donations and aid for disaster-affected families, credit and loans are the most common services of these rural cooperative extended to their members to deal with risks of disasters.Originality/value>Most research on cooperatives focuses on their contribution to socio-economic development and only few dealt with DRRM. This paper explores the link of these rural organizations with DRRM drawing evidence from cooperatives in the rural communities of Benguet, Philippines.

18.
Cityscape ; 24(1):27-51, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1849310

ABSTRACT

This paper presents a qualitative evaluation of how Opportunity Zones (OZs) have attracted capital and economic development to highly distressed neighborhoods in West Baltimore. Based on 76 interviews with community and government officials, program managers, developers, businesses, and fund managers, we assess the strengths and weaknesses of OZs in West Baltimore and Baltimore City. We find that OZs are stimulating new investment conversations and building local economic development capacity. However, we also find OZs fail at oversight and community engagement, do not spur new development, and are a missed opportunity to incentivize actors and institutions critical to revitalizing distressed neighborhoods. To spur development in distressed neighborhoods, OZs require reporting standards, the removal of non-distressed census tracts, dollars for education and infrastructure, the incorporation of Community Development Financial Institutions, and incentives for non-capital gains holding investors.

19.
Cityscape ; 24(1):133-148, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1848960

ABSTRACT

Established by the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (TCJA),1 qualified Opportunity Zones (OZs) are a new place-based community development program that attempts to help economically challenged areas by encouraging private capital investment through the use of tax incentives. Although the program started at the beginning of 2018, implementation of the program has been slow, creating challenges for investors. The program's structure may have also inadvertently created an environment ripe for surging property prices. This unintended consequence has the potential to reduce or eliminate investor tax benefits, stimulate community gentrification, and diminish affordability for residents. Recent studies have found evidence of material price "premiums" for some commercial real estate properties located in OZs (Pierzak, 2021;Sage, Langen, and Van de Minne, 2019). Recognizing the policy's potential in driving increased investor interest in single-family home rentals, the authors of this study explore the impact of the program on existing single-family house prices and find that the community development program has led to excess home price appreciation totaling 6.8 percent from 2018 to 2020.

20.
Cityscape ; 24(1):117-132, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1848685

ABSTRACT

Objective: Opportunity Zones (OZs) are the first major place-based economic development policy from the federal government in nearly two decades. To date, confusion persists among planners and policymakers in some places as to what features of OZ tracts matter for their inclusion, and, secondly, what features of OZ tracts make them attractive targets for potential investment. The authors developed a typology of OZ tracts in order to offer planners and policymakers alternative ways of organizing a highly variable set of tracts. Methods: This study employs model-based clustering, also known as latent class analysis, to develop a typology OZ tracts from the population of all eligible tracts in the United States. The authors use publicly available data from the U.S. Census Bureau and Urban Institute in developing the typology. Descriptive statistics and graphics are presented on the clusters. Using Portland, Oregon, as an example city, the authors present a cartographic exploration of the resulting typology. Results: OZs present with immense variation across clusters. Some clusters, specifically cluster 3 and 9, are less poor, have a greater number of jobs and higher development potential than other clusters. Additionally, these exceptional clusters have disproportionate rates of final OZ designation compared to other clusters. In Portland, these less distressed clusters make up the majority of ultimately designated OZ tracts in the city and are concentrated in the downtown area compared to the more deprived eastern part of the city. Conclusions: We find that OZ designation is disproportionately seen in particular clusters that are relatively less deprived than the larger population of eligible tracts. Cluster analysis as well as other forms of exploratory or inductive analyses can offer planners and policymakers a better understanding of their local development context as well as offering a more coherent understanding of a widely variant set of tracts. OZs, the newest federal government place-based economic development tool since the New Markets Tax Credit in the early 2000s, has reportedly marshaled more than $50 billion in investment in the 2 years since its passage (Drucker and Tipton, 2019). Opportunity zones allow investors to defer taxes on their capital gains if they invest in qualified Opportunity Zone funds in development-starved census tracts. Recent investigations show a disproportionate amount of investment being steered into a minority of tracts that formally qualified for the program based on their income but are not suffering from a lack of development (Buhayar and Leatherby, 2019;Drucker and Lipton, 2019;Ernsthausen and Elliott, 2019). A central tension in those articles concerning Opportunity Zone investment is that the Tax Cut and Jobs Act of 2017 used a broad qualifying rule for Opportunity Zone designation based only on tract income to maximize flexibility. It resulted in variations within designated Opportunity Zones in terms of their socioeconomic characteristics but also redevelopment attractiveness. An important issue for economic development researchers and analysts is to find alternative ways of organizing Opportunity Zones into more useful categories of analysis than simply qualified or non-qualified Opportunity Zone designations. This paper presents model-based clustering, also known as latent class analysis. This unsupervised machine learning technique is one way to address the difficulties of classifying designated Opportunity Zone tracts. The remainder of this article will offer background on some troubling OZ issues, a description of latent class analysis through model-based clustering, and the results of cluster analysis and its relationship with Opportunity Zone designation. The findings contribute to a better understanding of the variation of eligible tracts and what features make the zones attractive for designation.

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