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1.
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology ; 78:S30-S31, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1955953

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Antibiotic resistances are among themost threatening public health issues worldwide, being highly associated with inadequate antibiotic use. To tackle this challenge, it is crucial to educate health professionals to appropriately prescribe and dispense antibiotics. Thus, out team developed eHealthResp, an educational intervention composed by two online courses and a clinical decision support system in the form of a mobile app directed to primary care physicians and community pharmacists, aiming to improve antibiotic prescribing and dispensing in respiratory tract infections. Objectives: The main goal of this pilot study is to validate the eHealthResp online courses and the clinical decision support system (mobile app), involving a small group of health professionals. Methods: Aproximately 15 physicians and 15 pharmacists will be recruited to participate in the study. Participants will have complete autonomy to explore and evaluate the eHealthResp mobile app and online courses, composed by six modules on respiratory tract infections for physicians (i) acute otitis media, ii) acute rhinosinusitis, iii) acute pharyngotonsilitis, iv) acute tracheobronchitis, v) community-acquired pneumonia, and vi) COVID-19), and three modules for pharmacists (i) common cold and flu, ii) acute rhinosinusitis, acute pharyngotonsilitis, and acute tracheobronchitis, and iii) acting protocol). Each online course is also composed by four clinical cases and the most recommended pharmacological therapy. Additionally, for the the global validation of the online course and the mobile app, participants will be invited to complete a questionnaire including three sections of questions. The first part, consisting of five brief questions, will allow the collection of sociodemographic data. The second part contains four groups of closed questions, and the third part consists of four open-answer questions, both aiming to evaluate the online course and mobile app elements. Results: After the assessment made by the physicians and pharmacists who agreed to participate in the pilot study, the data obtained will be duly analyzed and integrated by the research team. The appropriate changes will be incorporated into the e-Health platforms to improve the quality of both the online courses and the eHealthResp mobile app. Conclusions: The findings of this pilot study will provide important information for the next stage of the project, ensuring the feasibility of the educational interventions in a group of primary care physicians and community pharmacists from the Centre region of Portugal, using a randomized controlled trial designed by clusters.

2.
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 18(9): 3568-3579, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1946497

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Community pharmacists are one of the most accessible healthcare providers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Whilst playing a vital role in medication supply and patient education, exposure to the pandemic demands and prolonged stressors increase their risk of burnout. OBJECTIVES: Using the Job Demands-Resources model, this study aims to understand the factors that led to community pharmacists' burnout and to identify their coping strategies and perceived recommendations on interventions to mitigate burnout during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A qualitative phenomenological approach was used with focus groups and interviews of community pharmacists in Qatar who were recruited using purposeful, convenience, and snowballing sampling methods. Interviews were conducted between February and April 2021, were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Using thematic analysis methodology, manual inductive and deductive (based on the model) codes from the interviews were used for synthesis of themes. 11 themes emerged from six focus groups, six dyadic interviews and mini focus groups, and four individual interviews with community pharmacists. RESULTS: The contributing factors to community pharmacists' burnout have been identified as practical job demands, and emotional demands including fear of infection. On the other hand, government and workplace-specific resources, personal characteristics such as resiliency and optimism, as well as the implementation of coping strategies, have reduced their stress and burnout. CONCLUSIONS: The use of the Job Demands-Resources model was appropriate to identify the contributing factors to community pharmacists' burnout during the COVID-19 pandemic. Based on these factors, individual, organizational, and national strategies can be implemented to mitigate burnout in community pharmacists during the pandemic and future emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community Pharmacy Services , Burnout, Psychological , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Pharmacists/psychology
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(14)2022 Jul 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938817

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pandemic preparedness of healthcare providers helps to mitigate future threats such as spread and fatality rates, as well as the management of the disease. Pharmacists are key partners with public health agencies, and the role of community pharmacists is becoming increasingly recognised in this COVID-19 pandemic. The study aimed to explore the emergency preparedness of community pharmacists (CPs) for COVID-19. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed among community pharmacists using cluster sampling followed by convenient sampling. A self-administered questionnaire was formulated using references from the previous literature and the WHO preparedness checklist. Descriptive analysis was undertaken for the participants' socio-demographic characteristics. All the data collected were entered into the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 24 (SPSS V.24), (IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 24.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.) for analysis. RESULTS: Most of the CPs had five or fewer years of practice experience, and they had all the mandatory information relating to the needs of their communities regarding the disease. The participants knew where to acquire these resources whenever needed. They were able to recognise the signs and symptoms of the disease. Most participants felt that they were confident to provide patient education and carry out their duties during these challenging times. There was a strong position correlation between preparedness and the perceived response of the participants. CONCLUSION: The community pharmacists in Malaysia are prepared enough for COVID-19 pandemic management and perceive that they can respond during any unprecedented situations, such as COVID-19. Community pharmacists were aware of the challenges that they need to face in their community regarding COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Civil Defense , Community Pharmacy Services , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pharmacists , Professional Role , Social Determinants of Health
5.
Bulletin of Pharmaceutical Sciences. Assiut ; 45(1):311-325, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1929000

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic is a global public health crisis that affected human beings, businesses and the economy negatively. Community pharmacies are the frontline of health care, and pharmacists are considered as the first point of care. However, the pandemic of COVID-19 has posed a great danger to the public health and pharmaceutical markets. Aim: To investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the community pharmacies administratively and economically. Methods: An online cross-sectional survey was conducted from 1 to 30 November 2020 among pharmacy employees in independent and chain community pharmacies. The questionnaire covered the areas of changes in different pharmaceutical business functions as pharmacy administration and management, supply chain, sales and training programs. Results: A total of 1154 respondents have participated in the survey study from different Egyptian regions. The majority of responses were from independent pharmacies 916(79.4%). Most pharmacies 1119(97%) reported an increase in the demand for pharmaceutical products. During the COVID-19 outbreak, the sales of chain pharmacies were increased compared to independent pharmacies. Several community pharmacies workforce 923(80%) were shifted towards home delivery business. Most pharmacies cancelled the training programs during the COVID-19 and only a small percentage 28(2.4%) shifted to online programs. COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a negative psychological impact on the pharmacy employees with about two-third (68.1%) of participants were seeking career shifts.Conclusion: This study identified particular influences of COVID-19 on community pharmacies services from administrative and economic perspectives. The findings of this study may help decision-makers and pharmacy professionals to impart suitable preparedness for community pharmacists and handle future pandemic waves to keep business maintenance of community pharmacies and foster pharmacy employees' satisfaction.

6.
Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences ; 31(1):109-118, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1918322

ABSTRACT

Drug consultation is an important part of pharmaceutical care. a mobile phone call or text message can serve as an easy, effective, and implementable alternative to improving medication adherence and clinical outcomes by providing the information needed significantly for people with chronic illnesses like diabetes and hypertension particularly during pandemics like the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to estimate the use of phone calls to promote pharmaceutical counseling and explore the commonest question asked by patients and do the socio-demographic or disease characteristics play any role regarding such questions. A prospective, interventional, clinical study was conducted during the period (from 5th of November 2020 to 21st of February 2021). A total of 246 patients were enrolled in the study. The mean age was 40.93 years (±15.84). The majority were female (62.6%) and age group (35-54) years (44.3%). A total of 507 questions were asked by patients, The researcher provided pharmaceutical consultations in response to 47 % of the question. There were significant associations between socio-demographic characteristics and some of the domains. In conclusion, sociodemographic characteristics influence the type of question asked by patients. Most of the patients got educational advice and some of them were referred to physicians.

7.
Ankara Universitesi Eczacilik Fakultesi Dergisi ; 46(2):194-211, 2022.
Article in Turkish | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1897335

ABSTRACT

Objective: The aim of this study is to demonstrate the effects of Covid-19 pandemic to the pharmaceutical services in community pharmacies in Turkey. Material and Method: This research is a descriptive study. In the study, a quantitative research questionnaire form prepared by the researchers was used. Questionnaires were delivered to the volunteers online. Participants were informed and participated in the study if they gave their consent with an informed consent form. Result and Discussion: It is understood that the community pharmacists in Turkey provide their pharmacy services with great devotion during the pandemic process, but they also cope with many problems. In particular, giving the masks free of charge through community pharmacies increased the workload of pharmacists and caused some disruptions in pharmacy services, in addition, the crowd of the citizens in pharmacies to buy masks increased the risk of social distancing and the possibility of transmission. Major problems faced by community pharmacists during the pandemic;Due to the high demand for personal protective equipment and hygiene materials, the increase in workload, the need for personnel, taking measures with their own means to protect against disease, not delivering drugs and products needed by the society on time, economic and / or social support, especially for the pharmacists have economic problems It is one of the important results of the study that the existence of a national emergency action plan will guide community pharmacists in combating this pandemic of unprecedented magnitude

8.
Journal of Managed Care and Specialty Pharmacy ; 27(4-A SUPPL):S122-S123, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880782

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Maintaining member adherence requires careful coordination between health plans, providers and PBMs. Too often, however, pharmacies are left without the resources they need to make a meaningful impact. As COVID-19 brings new challenges to adherence, engaging pharmacies in member health is more important than ever. OBJECTIVE: Increase member adherence for a large Medicare plan by engaging community pharmacists in a comprehensive pharmacy incentive program and improving medication access. METHODS: In 2019, Abarca reintroduced the RxTarget pharmacy incentive program and made it available to its entire pharmacy network.Through the program, pharmacies have access to: A technology platform that allows them to access advanced analytics and reporting, prioritize members who may require intervention and track their progress throughout the year;continuing pharmacy education program focused on improving patient outcomes;and daily training sessions that provide support and resources. Abarca provides the Medicare plan with weekly updates on its pharmacy network's progress in the RxTarget program, ensuring ongoing communication on the results and allowing timely decision making. In March of 2020, Abarca launched Puerto Rico's first home delivery pharmacy program to ensure members across the island had safe, reliable and convenient access to medications while social distancing amidst the global pandemic. RESULTS: In the first two years of the program, the Medicare plan saw significant year-over-year increases in adherence across three chronic conditions-even amid COVID-19. In 2020, participating pharmacies achieved a cumulative 6% increase in adherence metrics compared to 2019 and a 10% increase compared to 2018. Pharmacies that participated in the daily training sessions achieved a 20% increase in adherence in 2020, while those who did not participate achieved a 4% increase versus the previous year. 73% of prescriptions ordered through the home delivery app are 90-day supplies-a strong indicator of ongoing adherence. 7 out of 10 active pharmacies are satisfiedwith the RxTarget pharmacy program (Margin of error: 6.01%;Confidence Level: 95%). CONCLUSIONS: Engaging pharmacies and empowering them with advanced technology can significantly increase member adherence-and allow interventions to be made before a member's health has been compromised. This can also contribute to health plan CMS Star Ratings. Additionally, the availability of the home delivery pharmacy program eliminates barriers to medication access, which can also facilitate higher adherence and help members maintain their health amid unforeseen events.

9.
Saudi Pharm J ; 30(7): 1009-1017, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878301

ABSTRACT

Background: The study aimed to assess burnout, resilience, and levels of depression, anxiety, stress and fear among community pharmacists during the pandemic, and examine if fear of COVID-19 is associated with these outcomes of interest. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of community pharmacists in Qatar was conducted. Pharmacists' burnout was measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory: Human Services Survey for Medical Personnel (MBI-HSS™ for MP-Mindgarden). Resilience was assessed using the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale-10 (CD-RISC-10). Depression, anxiety, and stress were measured by the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21). Fear of COVID-19 was assessed by the Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S). Results: 256 respondents completed the survey and were included in the final study analysis (response rate: 42.7%). Overall, participants reported a moderate level of burnout as illustrated in the mean scores of the three burnout dimensions; 20.54 (SD = 12.37) for emotional exhaustion, 6.76 (SD = 6.22) for depersonalization, and 36.57 (SD = 9.95) for personal accomplishment. Moreover, depression, anxiety and stress were reported by 44.8%, 53.2% and 25.4% of particiants respectively. Participants had shown moderate resilience (mean score: 27.64 (SD = 8.31)) and their mean score fear of COVID19 was 15.67 (SD = 6.54). Fear of COVID-19 was a statistically significant and an independent predictor of depression, anxiety, and stress levels. Conclusions: The pharmacists experienced moderate burnout but moderate resilience, which indicates their potential to overcome difficulties. Future interventions at the personal, national and organizational levels are required to enhance the pharmacists' wellbeing by decreasing stress, improving self-efficacy and resilience, and preventing burnout.

10.
Drug Topics ; 165(12):19, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1865799
11.
Epidemiology ; 70(SUPPL 1):S300, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1854026

ABSTRACT

Background: Older adults visit their community pharmacy up to 8 times more frequently than a physician's office. Pharmacists have increasingly broad scope of practice and there is evidence that their involvement improves patient outcomes. A study that was implemented in Alberta was designed to recruit patients for a randomized controlled trial to study community pharmacist intervention to assess and intervene for urinary incontinence. The study was adapted for online delivery for COVID, yet there was minimal recruitment by the pharmacists. To understand the challenges we conducted a narrative review of pharmacy practice research to describe the barriers and facilitators of research in community pharmacies. Methods: A systematic search was conducted on MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Scopus to identify relevant published literature on community pharmacists' attitudes and experiences with practice research, as well as the barriers and facilitators to participation from database inception to May 2021. Data extraction and thematic analysis were performed by the main author in consultation with co-authors. Results: A total of 35 studies from 11 countries were identified and included in the review. Studies used a variety of methods such as questionnaires, interviews, and/or focus groups. Main drivers for participation included improving patient health outcomes, advancing the profession, satisfying a personal interest in research, and solidifying therapeutic knowledge. Main barriers included time, inadequate staffing, lack of remuneration, self-perceived incompetence, patient skepticism, and corporate/physician resistance. Pharmacist characteristics were also found to impact engagement. Conclusions: There are many factors that influence research participation. In addition to time, staffing, and lack of reimbursement, there are factors specific to pharmacists (i.e. mindset, characteristics), researchers (i.e. study timing and feasibility, communication), and stakeholders (i.e. patient perceptions, pharmacy environment, physician resistance). The findings of this review has informed the research team to develop a new engagement strategy, recruitment of frontline resources in the pharmacies, and an increase in empathy for frontline pharmacists.

12.
Pharmaceutical Sciences Asia ; 49:217-222, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1848090

ABSTRACT

The global focus for reducing cases during this pandemic is COVID-19 vaccination. The purpose of this study is to investigate community pharmacists’ perceptions and identify factors that influence their willingness to administer the COVID-19 vaccine. A self-administered online survey based cross-sectional study was conducted in Yogyakarta Province. The questions were created using existing questionnaire from the literature, then validated and pilot tested on a group of pharmacists. This study included pharmacists from community pharmacies. Descriptive and logistic regression analysis were used. An online survey was completed by 120 pharmacists from community pharmacies, including 58 chief pharmacists and 62 companion pharmacists. Most participants agreed on several points concerning the role, benefits, enablement, and barriers of pharmacists providing vaccinations. Our study also discovered that the willingness of community pharmacists to administer COVID-19 vaccine was significantly related to age (under 40 years old), working experience (under 10 years), pharmacy location (urban area), distance from health facilities (under 5 kilometers), and availability of service for universal health coverage (UHC) patients. The majority of community pharmacists had positive attitudes about providing COVID-19 vaccines. It is hoped that the new role of community pharmacists as vaccinators will help to accelerate COVID-19 vaccination coverage in Indonesia. © 2022. by Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University, Thailand is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 4.0. To view a copy of this license, visit https:// www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

13.
Tourism and Hospitality ; 3(1):47, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1818202

ABSTRACT

While the COVID-19 pandemic evolves and new variants emerge, destinations and cities look to tourism recovery, cautiously rebooting and re-opening borders. Since the start of the pandemic, dramatic lockdowns have been employed, resulting in dire economic and social consequences to the tourism and hospitality industry and creating the need for a more feasible and sustainable response in the post-pandemic era. Pandemic vigilance and resilience at the societal level have become key in pandemic preparedness. However, due to the complexity of managing COVID-19, no clear cross-disciplinary collaborative framework for tourism recovery has been developed. Cross-sector collaboration to collectively integrate resources, capabilities, and experiences should be prioritised to spearhead tourism recovery plans. With insight on public health, pandemic preparedness, and community access, we hypothesised that cross-industry collaboration between the tourism industry and the pharmacist profession is relevant to the measures adopted for recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic. To examine this hypothesis, this study aimed to explore perceptions from key stakeholders in the tourism and the pharmacist sectors on cross-industry collaboration towards COVID-19 management and the “know-how” in developing, adopting, and advancing such a partnership. This exploratory study adopts and advances the ‘Four Cs’ conceptual framework of communication, cooperation, coordination, and collaboration. In terms of our hypothesis, interview responses with tourism executives and CPs confirm the framework’s suitability and the importance of an interdisciplinary collaborative approach between CPs and the tourism sector to craft a sustainable pathway to recovery from COVID-19 and future pandemic measures as borders re-open and international mobility increases. A tourism recovery strategy from this pandemic can occur more judiciously through a collaborative partnership with an extensive network of pharmacists within communities and popular tourism sites, as CPs have valuable healthcare resources and the ability to track and communicate healthcare alerts to tourism destination recovery efforts.

14.
International Journal of Pharmacy Practice ; 30(SUPPL 1):i15-i16, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1816116

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Community pharmacy is one of the most accessible sectors in the health service and played a key role in responding to COVID-19 (1). Efforts to tackle COVID-19 have required an immediate response from the community pharmacy workforce. Aim: To examine views and experiences of community pharmacists regarding changes in practice/processes in preparation for and response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A telephone questionnaire was conducted across a geographically stratified sample of community pharmacists in Northern Ireland (NI). Based on the total number of pharmacies (N=528) and an anticipated response rate of 30%, up to 433 pharmacies were to be contacted to achieve a target sample size of n=130 (sampling fraction 24%). The questionnaire sections comprised: (1) measures taken to prevent COVID-19 infection;(2) response to the pandemic, i.e. immediate actions taken, effect on service provision and new/innovative ways of working;(3) pandemic preparedness;(4) communication with GPs and patients;(5) professional knowledge;(6) recovery and future outlook. Data were coded, entered into SPSS v27, and analysed descriptively. Free-text comments were summarised using thematic analysis. Results: One hundred and thirty community pharmacists (175 approached) completed the questionnaire (74% response rate). Pharmacists responded comprehensively to implementing infection control measures, e.g. management of social distancing in the shop (n=125, 96.2%), making adjustments to premises, e.g. barriers/screens (n=124, 95.4%), while maintaining medicines supply (n=130, 100.0%) and advice to patients (n=121, 93.1%). Patient-facing services such as minor ailments and smoking cessation were initially stopped by 115 (88.5%) and 93 (71.5%) pharmacies respectively during the first wave of the pandemic (March-May 2020);by the second wave (Sep-Dec 2020), modified services had resumed in 121 (93.1%) and 104 (79.9%) pharmacies respectively. Newly commissioned services were provided, e.g. emergency supply service (n=121, 93.1%), flu vaccination for healthcare workers (n=101, 77.7%) and volunteer deliveries to vulnerable people (n=71, 54.6%);new initiatives were developed, e.g. measures to flag/assist patients with sensitive issues (n=73, 56.2%). Pharmacies with a business continuity plan increased from 85 (65.4%) pre-pandemic to 101 (77.7%) during the second wave. Free-text responses indicated how pharmacists adapted practice in the front line to reassure and advise the public and maintain essential medicines supply. Pharmacists were least prepared for the increased workload and patients' challenging behaviour, but 126 (96.9%) reported that they felt better prepared during the second wave. Telephone was the main method of communication with patients (n=107, 82.3%) and GPs (n=114, 87.7%). Pharmacists felt they had sufficient training resources available (n=113, 86.9%) to maintain professional knowledge. Pharmacists agreed/strongly agreed that they would be able to re-establish normal services (n=114, 87.7%), were willing to administer COVID-19 vaccines (n=105, 80.7%) and provide COVID-19 testing (n=79, 60.8%) in the future. Conclusion: The high response rate is a strength of the study, but the impact is limited by not including patients or service commissioners. The pharmacy workforce remained accessible and maintained supply of essential medicines and advice to patients throughout the pandemic. Provision of modified and additional services such as vaccination reinforced the clinical and public health role of pharmacy.

15.
International Journal of Pharmacy Practice ; 30(SUPPL 1):i14-i15, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1816115

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The two-year, NHS Education for Scotland (NES) post-registration foundation programme supports early career pharmacists in patient-facing sectors of practice. The experiential programme, based on an eight-element competency framework, also includes webinars, online resources, and tutor support. Learners complete an online evidence portfolio and undertake a summative OSCE. Aim: The aim of this paper is to report the experiences of the community-pharmacist participants, with a focus on the fitness-for-purpose' of the programme. Methods: This was a longitudinal mixed-methods study theoretically underpinned by Miller's triangle and social cognitive theory. Eligible participants were all pharmacists registering for the programme in Scotland in September 2017 and February 2018, all participating Welsh community-pharmacists, and all tutors. Invitation packs were emailed by NES/HEIW staff with names forwarded to researchers following signed consent. Focus groups/interviews (face-to-face or virtual according to participant preference) were undertaken at start, mid-point and exit of programme, to explore expectations (benefits, social gains, professional identify), experiences (challenges, facilitators, meeting of learners' needs) and barriers. Proceedings were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim and managed using NVivo. Thematic analysis (1) was based on social cognitive theory (transferable behavioural skills and professional attitudes). An inductive analysis additionally identified emergent themes. Participants in Scotland were invited to complete an on-line base-line questionnaire to describe their self-assessed competence against the NES Foundation framework (personal and professional practice, membership of healthcare team, communication, patient centred approach to practice). Data was analysed in SPSS using descriptive statistics. Themes from qualitative and quantitative data were integrated. IRAS ethical approval was not required;NHS Research & Development approval was given. Results: 96 pharmacists registered for the programme: 18 community-pharmacists in Scotland (11 health boards);14 community pharmacists in Wales. In Scotland 15 community-pharmacists completed questionnaires: 9 expected an increase in confidence' and 11 to provide better patient care'. Self-assessed competence against the framework was generally high. Across Scotland and Wales, 12 focus-groups (involving 19 community-pharmacists), 12 community-pharmacist interviews, 10 tutor focus-groups (8 community-pharmacist tutors) and 3 community-pharmacist tutor interviews were conducted. At midpoint and exit pharmacists and tutors reported increased confidence, the ability to reflect and pride in their achievement. Barriers: included lack of protected time;workload;and lack of support (tutor and employer). There were also programme issues (practicalities of portfolio;workplace-based assessment, no access to medical records);and cultural issues in community-pharmacy (speed & safety';lack of recognition). Reasons for dropping out of the programme included: moved geographical area;too experienced;workload pressures;no incentive;no employer support. Four community-pharmacists in Scotland and none in Wales completed the programme. Conclusion: Study limitations include the small numbers, programme delivery limited to Scotland and Wales, and limited response rate to focus-groups/interviews, exacerbated by COVID19. Overall community pharmacist expectations were met, and they perceived the programme was fit-for-purpose and worthwhile. However, barriers particularly related to the community pharmacy context, may have led to the high drop-out rate. These findings should be considered as the new UK-wide RPS curriculum for foundation pharmacists (2) is implemented in Scotland, to optimise its successful delivery.

16.
International Journal of Pharmacy Practice ; 30(SUPPL 1):i9-i10, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1816113

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Practice-based pharmacists (PBPs) have been introduced into general practice across the United Kingdom (UK) to relieve some of the pressures within primary care (1,2). However, there is little existing UK literature that has explored healthcare professionals' (HCPs') views about PBP integration and how this role has evolved. Aim: To explore the views and experiences of general practitioners (GPs), PBPs, and community pharmacists (CPs) about PBPs' integration into general practice and their impact on primary healthcare delivery. Methods: Purposive and snowball sampling were used to recruit triads (a GP, a PBP, and a CP) from across five administrative healthcare areas in one region in the UK to participate in one-to-one semi-structured interviews. Sampling of practices to recruit GPs and PBPs commenced in August 2020. These HCPs identified the CPs who had most contact with the general practices in which the recruited GPs and PBPs were working. The interview topic guides were developed based on the published literature, and through discussion within the research team;they were piloted with two GPs, two PBPs, and two pharmacists. Due to the Covid-19 pandemic, interviews were conducted via telephone or Microsoft Teams platform. All interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed using inductive thematic analysis. Results: Eleven triads were recruited from across the five administrative areas. Analysis of interview transcripts is ongoing. Findings to date have revealed four main themes in relation to PBPs' integration into general practices (Table): evolution of the role, PBP attributes, collaboration and communication, and impact on care. A number of areas for development were identified such as patient awareness of the role and communication pathways between PBPs and CPs. Many saw PBPs as a central hub-middleman' between general practice and community pharmacies and between primary and secondary care. Conclusion: Participants reported that PBPs had integrated well, and perceived a positive impact on primary health care delivery. Although recruitment was limited to one UK geographical region, the triad approach provided a more comprehensive overview of the working relationships between the three HCP groups. Further work is needed to increase patient awareness of the PBP role.

17.
International Journal of Pharmacy Practice ; 30(SUPPL 1):i8-i9, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1816112

ABSTRACT

Introduction: When prescriptions are being processed in pharmacies and an activity occurs that requires the return to a previous procedural step to correct the process, this is known as rework' (1). This may include labelling errors or the incorrect dispensing of medications, and ultimately adds to pharmacists' workload. Given that increasing community pharmacists' workload negatively affects their job satisfaction, well-being, and patient care, it is vital that rework is minimised in everyday practice. To date, little is known regarding the prevalence of this rework phenomenon in community pharmacies or how this might be prevented. Aim: To evaluate the cause and frequency of prescription rework in community pharmacies. Methods: A data collection form was created for community pharmacists to self-record the instances and causes of prescription rework occurring in their workplace across a two-week period. After piloting the form with two pharmacists in different pharmacies, community pharmacists in Ireland were invited to participate in the study using convenience sampling and snowballing. Only participating pharmacists were aware of when data collection was occurring in their pharmacy to minimise the Hawthorne effect with other staff (2). Descriptive statistics were used to describe rework frequency according to the different causes, as well as the pharmacist and pharmacy characteristics. Results: Eight participating pharmacists were recruited (four male and four female;median 4 years' post-qualification experience) from five independent pharmacies and three chain pharmacies. In total, 325 reworks were recorded across 65 days between June 2021 and August 2021. Rework was recorded on 92.9% of the study days, with an average of 5 reworks/day - whereby the average per pharmacist ranged from 1.82 to 15 reworks/day. The data collection form's pre-specified rework categories captured 91.7% of reworks, with the remainder assigned as other'. The three most frequent rework categories were those due to labelling errors (22.8%), prepared prescriptions which required opening and repackaging (15.1%), and medication owed to patients (13.9%). The people involved in reworks included: pharmacists alone (33.5%), technicians alone (20.3%), pharmacists and technicians (14.8%), pharmacists and patients (10.2%), and pharmacists and prescribers (4%). Conclusion: This study shows that rework happens regularly in community pharmacies and has provided an insight into the causes of rework in this setting. While individual pharmacist and pharmacy characteristics may have influenced rework frequency, it was not possible to conclusively establish these associations with the small sample size, due to the difficulty of recruiting pharmacists during the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings are valuable as they highlight areas where pharmacy staff can reduce rework and will help inform strategies to minimise this in future - thus reducing workload and facilitating more time for staff to focus on providing care to patients in community pharmacies.

18.
International Journal of Pharmacy Practice ; 30(SUPPL 1):i21-i22, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1816102

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Community pharmacy has played a frontline role during the COVID-19 pandemic (1,2). Governments and professional organisations in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland (RoI) have acknowledged the need to support and maximise community pharmacy to maintain delivery of patient care. However, the pandemic's impact on day-to-day changes to community pharmacy practice has not been comprehensively examined across the island of Ireland. Aim: To identify changes as communicated by policy and professional bodies to community pharmacy practice across the island of Ireland in preparation for and/or response to the COVID-19 pandemic, and to compare identified changes in Northern Ireland (NI) and RoI. Methods: Government, health service, regulatory and professional organisation websites in both NI and RoI were searched using relevant search terms (e.g. pharmacist, COVID- 19). Any document (e.g. official publications/reports, website pages, circulars) containing information relating to changes to community pharmacy-related infrastructure, funding/resourcing, legislation, guidelines or policies in preparation for, and/ or response to, COVID-19, published between 1st January and 31st October 2020 was included. Guidelines on clinical use of medicines were excluded as this was considered a separate topic. Initial screening of each website was undertaken by one reviewer. Brief details of potentially relevant documents were collated in a spreadsheet. Following removal of duplicates, full-texts of identified documents were assessed for inclusion by two reviewers independently, with discrepancies resolved through discussion. A content analysis was undertaken. Results: In total, 253 documents were identified. Following removal of duplicates and screening, 98 documents were included in the analysis. Most documents were published in the first three months of the pandemic (March-May 2020). A key theme related to medication prescribing and supply, with changes implemented to ensure continued access to medicines. In both NI and RoI, significant changes were made to emergency supply arrangements (e.g. increase in allowable duration of supply at the request of patients). In RoI, legislative changes were made to recognise Healthmail as the national electronic prescription transfer system and to temporarily extend prescription validity. In NI, many community pharmacy services (e.g. Minor Ailments Service, Medicines Use Review) were 'stood down' during initial months of the pandemic. Much of the communication in NI and RoI related to operational changes to ensure business continuity. In both jurisdictions a temporary register of pharmacists was introduced to allow previously registered pharmacists to contribute to the health service response. Additionally, in NI, General Dental Practitioners were redeployed to assist with community pharmacy response. Other areas of focus across both jurisdictions included infection control within a workplace setting, dealing with situations where staff were affected by COVID-19, and the use of personal protective equipment during pharmacy service provision. Conclusion: This study examined changes in community pharmacy practice across two jurisdictions during the COVID-19 pandemic. Whilst our searches were limited to publicly accessible documents only, the overlap in identified changes reflects the similarities in challenges faced by community pharmacists in adapting and responding to COVID-19. The cross-country comparison may help pharmacists and policy-makers to identify optimal approaches for responding to any future public health crises.

19.
Pharmaceutical Sciences Asia ; 49(2):169-179, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1744402

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the preparedness and adherence of community pharmacists to the International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP) Health Advisory COVID-19 guidelines for pharmacists (July 2020) during COVID-19 pandemic. This was a cross-sectional study based on electronic survey using google form, which was distributed from November 19, 2020 to January 1, 2021 using social media platforms. The survey measured 21 pharmacy preventive measures (PM). A multivariate regression analysis was used to identify factors influencing pharmacy implementing of PM. Hand disinfection after serving patients represented the main adopted measure (89.3%). Surprisingly, only 35.4% of participants implemented the proper ways of hand disinfection during face mask handling and 35.4% could not recognize the purpose behind medical mask uses. Significant (p-value<0.05) positive association with pharmacy adoption of PM during COVID-19 was recorded for high influx of patients into pharmacy and working for extended hours, while inadequate information of pharmacists about COVID-19 (which represented the main difficulty that down regulated the adoption of PM in pharmacies) had significant negative association. This study revealed suboptimal implementation of the PM in community pharmacies, and a gap in the pharmacists’ knowledge about safety protocols to limit COVID-19 transmissions in the pharmacies. Official health organizations might need to develop a national guideline for community pharmacies to enhance the pharmacists’ and patient safety during COVID-19 pandemic. © 2022. Pharmaceutical Sciences Asia. All rights reserved.

20.
European Journal of Oncology Pharmacy ; 5(1):E00036, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1735700

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic stroke at the beginning of 2020, challenging the health systems worldwide. As hospitals became overwhelmed by the number of cases, and community pharmacies became one of the few non-stop operating services, and the work rhythm and workload of pharmacists changed importantly. Methods: To investigate which and how the changes occurred, especially among oncology pharmacists, the ESOP together with the EAHP developed a survey, translated to 9 languages, and distributed online. The questions were changed over the duration of the survey (August 2020 to March 2021), adapting to the global situation. The answers were analyzed with basic descriptive statistics. Results: Over 1000 health professionals, predominantly pharmacists (over 85%), from 64 countries participated in the monthly survey, providing information relevant to both the hospital and the community pharmacy. More than 50% of hospital pharmacists reported shortage of chemotherapeutics, while the availability of COVID-19 related medications had more fluctuations in the hospital pharmacy. Contrastingly, over 80% of community pharmacists reported medications shortages in April 2020. The survey showed the negative impact of the pandemic on chemotherapeutic preparations, with decreased productions during the first and second waves (February-May 2020, and November 2020 to January 2021). The survey also helped visualize the stress levels and workloads of pharmacists. More than 70% of participants reported in August 2020 to have needed to procure themselves with Personal Protective Equipment. Working hours increased for 43% of the respondents, and more than 60% reported to have felt emotionally stressed. Conclusions: Thus, the presented results give a broad, yet detailed overview of how the pandemic has affected health professionals both in the hospital and the community, how professionals and governments have reacted to the situation, and how the care of oncology patience and the practice of oncology pharmacy has changed and reacted during the first year of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.

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