Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 136
Filter
1.
Revista de Bioetica y Derecho ; - (54):199-214, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2196769

ABSTRACT

The search for drugs and vaccines to help combat COVID-19 became a reality after the World Health Organization (WHO) declared a Coronavirus pandemic on 11/03/2020. This shocking event in our lives has emphasized the importance of science for the maintenance of life and health for all. WHO recommendations have become a constant on the News, especially since we are dealing with a new and frightening situation. In accordance with its transnational characteristic, the pandemic reinforces that investment in research in the medical and health field is vital for the maintenance and realization of the fundamental rights of the human condition itself: life and health. In this context, this article aims, without pretending to exhaust the vast subject, to identify the possibility of conflicts of interest in the prescription of drugs without scientific proof of their effectiveness in the treatment of COVID-19, which generates harmful impacts on Society. Copyright (c) 2022 Thiago de Souza Modesto.

2.
Cryobiology ; 109:11, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2177953

ABSTRACT

The importance of co-ordinated, robust sample collection for medical research has been highlighted during the COVID pandemic with the need for rapid, well curated samples and data. The knowledge and skills present within biobanks expedited such collections and the value of expert repository staff was recognised. Investing in staff is one of the most important activities a biobank can undertake as part of social sustainability. Biobank personnel are core to the success of the repository and a valued and engaged team is key to provide a solid foundation for the biobank to evolve and flourish. Supporting education gives the individual the opportunity for career development, the biobank a more stable workforce and has impact and value to both the biobank and host institution. Personnel come to biobanking via many varied routes, and it can be difficult when recruiting to benchmark an individual's knowledge of biobanking and associated processes. The Qualification in Biorepository Science (QBRS) is a new education tool that was jointly developed by the International Society for Biological and Environmental Repositories (ISBER) and the American Society of Clinical Pathology's Board of Certification (ASCP BOC). It provides a biobanking specific, international exam that 'professionalises' biobanking and allows remote learning to fit around daily tasks. All aspects of the biobanking pathway are covered in the syllabus and the exam is taken online, giving wide accessibility. The Wales Cancer Biobank sponsored a laboratory technician to take the test in 2021 and we present the impact and value of the QBRS qualification from a biobank's perspective. Funding(s): The Wales Cancer Biobank is funded by Health and Care Research Wales Conflict of Interest: None to disclose Copyright © 2022

3.
Brain Stimulation ; 15(5):1328-1329, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2176848

ABSTRACT

Background: The goal of this study was to assess whether TMS treatment outcomes for patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) were as robust post-COVID-19 as they were pre-COVID-19 and whether patient demographics, particularly the age of patients presenting for TMS, changed during the pandemic. Method(s): As part of the DONT H8 retrospective observational outcomes study (1), we further stratified the data to examine treatment outcomes for patients who were treated pre- and post-COVID-19 (prior to and after January 1, 2020). The primary outcome measure was change in Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) score at the end of treatment. A secondary outcome was to assess whether age demographics of patients seeking TMS shifted during the pandemic and whether there was correlation between patient age and clinical outcome. Result(s): T-tests for two correlated samples showed that the responder rate was 48.5% for patients treated pre-COVID-19 compared to 58.2% post-COVID-19. Chi-Square analysis found the 9.70% difference in PHQ-9 responder rates between groups to be statistically significant in favor of patients treated post-COVID-19 (Chi-Square=4.43, p=0.035, p<0.05). The mean age of patients treated pre-COVID-19 was 52.42 years compared to 47.03 years post-COVID-19 and the 5.39 mean age difference was statistically significant (p<0.0005). However, patients older than age 60 (n = 186) had statistically significant improvement in PHQ-9 scores (54%) compared to the younger patients (mean range of improvement 40-49%) (p = 0.01928). Conclusion(s): The DONT H8 study is the largest naturalistic study to date showing a statistically significant improvement in responder rates (9.70%) in favor of patients treated after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. The age of patients receiving TMS during the pandemic is significantly younger although patients older than age 60 have experienced the most clinical improvement. Conflicts of Interest: None Funding: No outside funding was obtained. Consultant statistical analysis was used to verify findings. Disclosures: Dr. Raj has served as a consultant to Eisai Inc. Reference: 1. Raj YP, Lindberg N. The Dual Observation Naturalistic TMS Study Comparing H1 and Figure-8 Coil Outcomes (DONT H8). Clinical TMS Society 10th Annual Meeting, May, 2022. Copyright © 2022

4.
Epidemiologiya i Vaktsinoprofilaktika ; 21(5):21-28, 2022.
Article in Russian | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2146373

ABSTRACT

Relevance. Vaccination is being replaced by the primary and most effective means of protecting the world's population from a new coronavirus infection. Aim. Evaluation of the effectiveness of COVID-19 immunization in Saint-Petersburg. Materials and methods: We retrospectively studied the epidemiological data on the cumulative incidence of COVID-19 in St. Petersburg among adults vaccinated (1,558,030 people) and unvaccinated (2,863,050 people) for period from December 01, 2020 to November 30, 2021 on 12.01.2021. We analyzed the data presented in the Federal Register of Persons with COVID-19 and the Federal Register of Those Vaccinated against COVID-19. Results. The risk of COVID-19 infection among vaccinated is statistically significantly lower than among unvaccinated RR = 0.11 (95% CI 0.109–0.110;p < 0.001). Infected COVID-19 Vaccinated patients were less likely to need for emergency care/hospitalization RR = 0.30 (95% CI 0.29–0.30;p < 0.001). Also among the vaccinated mortality was lower RR = 0.35 (95% CI 0.33–0.37;p < 0.001). Conclusion: We have established reliable preventive effectiveness of the use of domestic vaccines by reducing morbidity, the frequency of development of forms of the disease requiring inpatient treatment;reducing mortality among vaccinated and, accordingly, reducing the burden on the healthcare system of St. Petersburg. © 2022, Numikom. All rights reserved.

5.
Journal of Sexual Medicine ; 19(11 Supplement 4):S36, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2131725

ABSTRACT

Objectives: We aimed to investigate the difference in perceived intensity of orgasm among women experiencing clitoral or vaginally activated orgasm (VAO). Method(s): We reviewed data from the Sex@COVID online survey (Mollaioli et al, J Sex Med. 2021 Jan;18(1):35-49) to retrieve a sample of heterosexual Italian sexually active female subjects. Several validated questionnaires and inventories were used to investigate sexual and psychological health (GAD-7, Lowe et al, Med Care 2008;46:266-274;PHQ-9, Kroenke et al, J Gen Intern Med 2001;16:606-613;FSFI, Rosen et al, J Sex Marital Ther 2000;26:191-208). Result(s): 1207 women were included in analysis: 346 were in a non-cohabiting relationship (Group A, 28.7%), 581 were in a cohabiting relationship (Group B, 48.1%) and 280 were married (Group C, 23.2%). 40.9% of the study population reported being able to orgasm through both clitoral stimulation and vaginal penetration (n = 494), 35.4% through clitoral stimulation (n = 427) and 20.1% through vaginal stimulation (n = 243). Additionally, 3.6% (n = 43) reported being unable to reach orgasm at all. By analysis of variance, following adjustment for FSFI, PHQ-9, GAD-7 and age, women experiencing no orgasm had lower orgasmometer scores (beta = -0.75, p <0.001), and VAO were associated with higher orgasmic intensity compared to clitoral orgasms (beta = 0.10, p = 0.008). Experiencing both orgasms had no effect compared to VAO (beta = 0.03, p = 0.545). Women who preferred reaching orgasm through masturbation to partnered sexual activity had lower orgasmic intensity (beta = -0.28, p = 0.002). Groups B and C had better orgasmic intensity compared to group A (beta = 0.08, p = 0.009). Conclusion(s): Orgasmic intensity differs between VAO and clitoral orgasms, independently of other confounding factors. This finding provides additional insight on the role of the clitourethrovaginal complex in female sexual function. Conflicts of Interest: None of the authors report any competing interests for the present study. Copyright © 2022

6.
Journal of Sexual Medicine ; 19(11 Supplement 4):S35, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2131724

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The purpose of the study is to know the reasons that lead women to seek pornographic material less than men. Furthermore, the second objective is to detect any differences in the choice of pornographic material by women during gestation. Method(s): The research was carried out through semi-structured interviews aimed at investigating the areas of body perception, sexuality, relationship with pornography and perception of control. The sample consists of six pregnant women (age 19 >= and <= 35 years, average = 27.33, SD = 5.46). The participants, at the time of the interview, had been experiencing relationships with their current partners for an average of 5.16 years (DS = 4.16 years). The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed to allow content analysis and thematic analysis, carried out using the MAXQDA software in version 20.0.0. Result(s): In 54% of the statements, the participants negatively described their relationship with pornography, due to the experiences of shame, discomfort and guilt perceived while viewing pornography. Despite these controversial feelings, porn consumption increased during pregnancy for all participants. From the research it emerges that women, compared to men, are more likely to see negative sides of pornography, perceiving the images as excessively violent, disrespectful towards the figure of the female and above all artificial. Conclusion(s): By obtaining results in agreement with the available scientific literature, the study revealed the reasons that induce women to search for pornographic material to a lesser extent, linked to social stigma, the perception of porn as "dirty" and "repugnant", to a greater concern about the negative effects of massive pornography use (Boynton, 1999;Lewin, 1997). An important limitation of this research is caused by the extremely small sample of participants, this due to the emergency situation linked to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2, and the way it is conducted with semi-structured interviews. Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest. Copyright © 2022

7.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology ; 33:928, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2126044

ABSTRACT

Background: Few published studies focus on the effects of collaboration between nephrology and ethics. It is widely accepted by nephrologists that there are ethical concerns which arise in daily practice. In addition to the impact on the individual, societal concerns include equitable access to care for kidney disease. The American Society of Nephrology, with the European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association and International Society of Nephrology Joint Working Group released ten topics, which should serve as an ethical priority (2020). These include: Equity in access to integrated kidney failure care;Setting priorities in kidney disease prevention and care;Supporting shared decision making about kidney failure care;Avoiding futile or overly burdensome dialysis treatment;Reducing the cost of dialysis care without compromising quality;Preventing organ trafficking and transplant tourism;Evaluating the risks and outcomes of living kidney donation;Addressing the ethical implications of genetic kidney disease;Managing conflicts of interest in nephrology;Advocating responsibly for kidney health. Yet, there is no clear guidance on how to manage these concerns. Additionally, training does not focus on this in a standardized manner. This pilot study sought to describe the ethical framework necessary towards improving overall outcomes. Method(s): IRB approval was obtained to perform a retrospective chart review of bioethics consults for renal patients treated in a tertiary medical system in New York State. This included pediatric and adult patients. The authors reviewed the consults. Reasons for consult were extracted and categorized based on the priorities set forth in 2020. This included: organ transplantation;genetic kidney disease;avoidance of futile/ overly burdensome dialysis;shared decision- making. Result(s): Population-level concerns did not emerge in consults. More than one reason for consult could be identified, as well as a "none of the above" category. Continued analysis is on-going. Conclusion(s): It is likely that the concurrent COVID-19 global pandemic and its effect on renal health and resource allotment heavily impacted these results. However, it is apparent that there is a large focus on the burden of dialysis, suggesting that these should be more clear approaches to these concerns, used by practicing nephrologists. Additional studies are required to further evaluate this initiative.

8.
Prescrire International ; 31(234):54-55, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2124561
10.
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition ; 75(Supplement 1):S28-S29, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2057807

ABSTRACT

Background Current therapies for pediatric and adult eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) include dietary elimination, proton pump inhibitors, swallowed corticosteroids, and biologics. Our aim is to systematically assess the efficacy and safety of published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of medical therapies for EoE that compare active treatments to placebo or to an active comparator. We consider RCTs that target the induction and maintenance phases of therapy, separately. Methods A search was designed by a Cochrane information specialist and included Cochrane Gut Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and clinicaltrials.gov databases, from inception to May 2022. Studies that met our search criteria were imported into Covidence for title and review. All authors participated in study screening, and each study was independently evaluated by two authors. Reports of RCTs that met the inclusion criteria were selected for full text review. Multiple reports of the same RCT were collapsed into the parent study. Data from these studies was then extracted to RevMan Web to assess study characteristics, including study design, EoE definition, inclusion / exclusion criteria, age range, interventions, number of patients randomized, number of patients who completed the study, primary and secondary outcomes and conflicts of interest. Studies were also assessed for potential sources of bias including baseline imbalance, selection, performance, detection, attrition, and reporting biases. We used Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) to assess the overall certainty of evidence supporting the primary outcome. Results As of May 2022, we identified 2,638 reports that met our search criteria of which 14 were duplicates, giving a total of 2,624 reports that were imported into Covidence for further review. Following title and screening, 259 reports were selected for full text review, which were collapsed into 46 distinct RCTs that met the inclusion criteria. The primary outcomes for our systematic review were histological improvement, endoscopic improvement, and clinical symptom improvement, all as defined by the study at study endpoint, and withdrawals due to adverse events. The secondary outcomes of our analysis were serious adverse events, endocrine complications, growth concerns, infections, and health-related quality of life. Study outcomes were analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis. Risk ratios (RRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) are reported for dichotomous outcomes, and mean difference and standard deviation are reported for continuous outcomes. The data will be presented in full. Conclusions Results of this analysis inform clinicians about the efficacy and potential side effects of different medical therapies for EoE in both pediatric and adult populations. Deficiencies in our current knowledge will be highlighted and will provide direction for design of future RCTs in the field. Future research should continue to explore factors that influence initial and subsequent medical therapy selection for people with EoE.

11.
Epidemiologiya i Vaktsinoprofilaktika ; 21(4):16-26, 2022.
Article in Russian | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2057008

ABSTRACT

Relevance. The long-term leadership of ARVI pathogens determines their significance in the damage caused to both health and the economy of the country. Aim. To identify the features of the structure of ARVI during the emergence and widespread spread of SARS-CoV-2. Materials and methods. The article uses methods used in epidemiological surveillance of acute respiratory viral infections. Results and discussion. The results of the diagnostic available ARVI pathogens monitoring during epidemic seasons 2018-2021 are presented. The tendency of greater engagement of aged group 15 y.o. and older in epidemic process by morbidity and hospitalization due to SARI was shown. 49 818 nasal swabs from patients with influenza infection, 36 044 – with ARVI and 59 062 – with SARS-CoV-2 were tested. The top three in the structure of ARVI were INF, HEV-D and HRSV (in the 2018–2019 season);INF, SARS-CoV-2 and HEV-D (2019–2020);SARS-CoV-2, HEV-D and HPIV/HCoV (2020–2021). The activity of viral pathogens also differed: for HPIV, HAdV, HEV-D, HMPV, a decrease in activity was noted during the appearance of SARS-CoV-2 (2019–2020) and some of its growth in the following season;in relation to HRSV and INF-a decrease in activity during the last two seasons, and for INF – extremely low activity in the 2020-2021 season;the activity of seasonal HCoV even increased slightly. The data of genetic analyses of SARS-CoV-2 positive samples showed the heterogeneity of its population with a representative of variants (Alfa, Delta) as well as endemic for Russia and Moscow variants only. The recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2021–2022 northern hemisphere influenza season and in the 2022 southern hemisphere influenza season are presented due to their drift changeability. Conclusions. SARS-CoV-2 was influenced by the activity of ARVI pathogens with the almost complete displacement of influenza viruses from the circulation in the period 2020–2021. © Burtseva EI, et al.

12.
Epidemiologiya i Vaktsinoprofilaktika ; 21(3):72-79, 2022.
Article in Russian | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2057006

ABSTRACT

Relevance. Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are a serious health problem not only because of the high frequency of their occurrence, but also because of the economic damage they cause both in the form of direct costs (the cost of diagnosis and treatment) and indirect costs (disability, reduced labor productivity, etc.). Pregnant women and children under 5 years of age are included in the group of patients with risk factors for complications of influenza and other ARI, therefore, an analysis of the etiological structure of ARI and influenza in obstetric hospitals is an urgent task. In recent years, there has been an urgent need to create a national complex diagnostic test system based on molecular genetic methods for detecting infectious agents that cause ARI. Aims. The aim of the study is to analyze the etiological structure of ARI and influenza in patients with clinical symptoms and to develop and implement a new test system for rapid screening and diagnosis of infections that cause ARI. Materials & methods. When studying the etiological structure of ARI and influenza, cultural studies of the nasal and pharyngeal mucosa were carried out, followed by identification of microorganisms using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and molecular genetic study (real-time PCR) using an experimental test panel containing primers that allow detecting the following viruses: influenza A, B viruses, parainfluenza viruses of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th types, coronaviruses OS43, HKU1, NL63, E229, respiratory syncytial virus, metapneumovirus, rhinovirus and adenovirus, as well as bacterial pathogens of ARI: Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Moraxella catarrhalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The test system was developed using the following methods: real-time PCR, a combination of reverse transcription and real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and the next generation sequencing (NGS) method. Results. The etiological structure of ARI and influenza was analyzed in patients with clinical manifestations (cough, tickling/sore throat/hyperemia of the mucous membrane of the palate and the back wall of the pharynx, shortness of breath/difficulty breathing, acute runny nose/nasal congestion). The species spectrum of bacterial and viral pathogens was revealed. A new test system based on PCR, real-time RT-PCR and NGS has been created for complex diagnostics of both viral and bacterial pathogens of ARI, consisting of three separate components: the main test system «ARI», which detects the main viral and bacterial pathogens of ARI, and two additional sets of reagents: «Oseltamivir resistance» and «Oseltamivir/ Zanamivir resistance». Conclusions. The new test system can be used to detect and differentiate nucleic acids of pathogens of ARI of humans. The test system seems to us promising for further use. As a result of the analysis of the etiological structure of acute respiratory infections and influenza, attention is drawn to a significantly smaller variety of identified pathogens in 2020 and a much more pronounced dominance of rhinovirus infection compared to our previous study in 2019. © 2022, Numikom. All rights reserved.

13.
Epidemiologiya i Vaktsinoprofilaktika ; 21(3):63-71, 2022.
Article in Russian | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2057005

ABSTRACT

Relevance. The new coronavirus infection (COVID-19), which appeared in late 2019 in China, has spread to almost all countries of the world in just a few months. The explosive nature of its spread was accompanied by the formation of large epidemic foci in organizations of various profiles, including leisure and sports. Aims. To establish the conditions and causes of the spread of SARS-CoV-2 among the members of one of the sports clubs based on an in-depth epidemiological analysis. Materials and methods. To study the features of the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in a sports organization, the following documents were used previously developed by the authors and successfully tested in practice: «Act of epidemiological investigation of group and outbreak morbidity of new coronavirus infection (COVID-19) at an enterprise/organization/institution» and «Individual card of a patient with a new coronavirus infection (COVID-19) at the enterprise / organization/institution». In the process of epidemiological investigation, in order to detect SARS-CoV-2 RNA in PCR, a laboratory examination of sports club participants (sick and contact) was conducted, followed by genome-wide sequencing of isolated SARS-CoV-2 viruses on the basis of the Laboratory of Molecular Virology of the A. A. Smorodintsev Influenza Research Institute, which performs these types of studies. Results. Within 17 days, 26 cases of COVID- 19 were registered among the sports team members and staff from the support group (coaching staff, medical staff, administrators), which was 74.3% of their actual number. The majority of patients (76.9%) had mild acute respiratory infection, two (7.7%) had no symptoms, and four (15.4%) had interstitial pneumonia. Of the clinical manifestations of the disease, the most frequent were weakness, fever, headache, muscle and joint pain, difficulty in nasal breathing and serous-mucous discharge from the nose, sore throat, cough, shortness of breath, anosmia and dyspeptic manifestations in the form of diarrhea, nausea or vomiting. The occurrence of the outbreak was the result of the introduction of infection from the opposing team at the tournament. The leading factors that contributed to the spread of COVID-19 among sports club members were the admission to games and training of athletes with acute respiratory infections, prolonged close contact between players during training and competitions, violations in the use of personal protective equipment, compliance with hygiene and hand antiseptics, disinfection measures in the premises of sports institutions and defects in the implementation of the regulations for the examination of teams for SARS-CoV-2 during tournaments. Conclusion. Based on the results of the study, data were obtained on the features of the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in sports organizations, which can be used in conducting preventive and anti-epidemic measures in sports and leisure institutions. © 2022, Numikom. All rights reserved.

14.
Journal of the Intensive Care Society ; 23(1):21, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2043055

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The worldwide COVID-19 pandemic was a major challenge for all medical actors and in particular for intensive care units.1 Its management is essentially supportive and in its severe form, requires high-flow oxygen therapy for which the ideal application modalities remain to be defined.2 Objectives: This study compares data from two waves during which the management differed substantially: early invasive ventilation during the first wave versus high flow oxygen therapy (Optiflow™ Nasal High Flow, Fisher & Paykel Healthcare) with salvage mechanical invasive ventilation during the second wave. Methods: This single-center observational study included 108 patients: 21 from the first wave and 87 from the second. The two groups were comparable in terms of age, sex, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and underlying lung disease. The study was conducted from March 2020 to March 2021. The primary outcome was length of hospitalisation. The secondary outcomes were duration of mechanical ventilation and patient mortality at 28 days. As the two groups were matched, the main difference was dexamethasone corticosteroid therapy for 10 days for the second wave. Results: The results show a higher mortality in the high flow oxygen therapy group when compared to the early mechanical ventilation group. This result could be explained by patient fatigue before being placed on mechanical ventilation but also by a higher frequency of pneumonia and bacteraemia in the latter group probably linked to the systematic administration of steroids. On the other hand, the duration of hospitalisation and the duration of mechanical ventilation are shorter in the high flow oxygen therapy group.3 Conclusion: High-flow oxygen therapy can be considered as an alternative to conventional ventilation in the event of respiratory distress following a SARS-CoV-2 infection. Further research should be co-considered. Conflict of interest: None declared. This study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki.

15.
Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine ; 26:S89, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2006376

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Although NIV is a common mode of respiratory support in hypoxic respiratory failure, its use is not adequately supported by literature and guidelines. But in recent times NIV is used extensively in COVID pneumonia patients. Earlier, H1N1 pneumonia group of patients were identified to benefit from use of NIV. But their success in preventing intubation or reducing mortality were not validated by studies. Objective: Our aim was to retrospectively look into the COVID patients admitted to our ICU, observe the outcome benefits of NIV use and compare the difference in outcome benefits of NIV use in the H1NI patients during the previous year. Materials and methods: Retrospective analysis of the COVID pneumonia patients admitted to ICU over one year period in our multi-speciality tertiary care hospital in south India was undertaken. Details were collected from the electronic charting and patient files retrospectively. The data on the usage of non-invasive ventilation as the initial mode of ventilation for hypoxic respiratory failure in these patient groups were analysed. The findings were compared with the data from the H1N1 pandemic patients in 2018 collected from our ICU. The outcome benefit in terms of subsequent invasive ventilation need, mortality and duration of ICU stay were measured. Results of COVID patients: Average age of patient was 62.6 years and male:female ratio was 50%. All patients had associated significant co-morbidities. Average duration of symptom prior to ICU admission was 5.1 days. Length of ICU days was at an average of 6.75 days with 2-18-day variation. 66% had Severe ARDS. In 83% of patients NIV was used and 16% had HFNC and 41% had both NIV and HFNC during the stay. Overall 41% needed invasive ventilation. Only 30% of those who were on NIV went to receive invasive ventilation. Overall mortality was at 41%. Results compared with H1N1 patients: 78.6% of H1N1 patients received NIV, of which 42% improved, but 57% needed invasive ventilation when compared to 30% in COVID pneumonia. However, mortality was 36%, which was lower compared to COVID patients. Conclusion: Significant proportion of COVID patients when compared to H1N1 had probably benefited from NIV usage. Whether NIV delayed the needed intubation early is not clear and would it have prevented mortality is not clear either. HFNC is newer mode of Non-Invasive ventilation mode that has gained popularity during the COVID pandemic. There is significant mortality associated with the second wave of COVID pandemic from our experience of treating patients with severe ARDS. Conflict of interest: None declared by any of the authors.

16.
Epidemiologiya i Vaktsinoprofilaktika ; 21(1):4-20, 2022.
Article in Russian | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1965075

ABSTRACT

Relevance of searching for computer methods with high efficiency of immunoepitopes recognition and predicting the longevity of the immunity they induce is determined primarily by the need to quickly create vaccines against newly emerging infections, especially during pandemic periods. Aim. To develop a new immunoinformation method for recognizing immunoepitopes, to identify in the viral proteins possible potential markers to induce long-term immunity and to evaluate by them the vaccines against Covid-19. Materials and methods. For computer analysis, an Internet-accessible databases of immunoepitopes 15 and 9 amino acids long, restricted respectively by MHC I and MHC II, and peptides not binding to MHC, as well as human and virus proteins, were used. The algorithm for discriminating immunoepitopes was based on positional distinction of specific short peptides in their primary structures. Results. The «inventory» in the training samples of di-and tripeptides or pentapeptides of immunoepitopes and nonimmunoepitopes makes it possible to accurately recognize in the control samples up to 93–97% of immunoepitopes restricted by MHC I and MHC II. Comparison of the amino acid composition of proteins of subunit vaccines causing long-term immunity revealed dominance of amino acids (especially proline), which form the basis of internally disorganized regions, and proline-containing dipeptides, that allowed them to be considered as biomarkers of the potential of a viral protein to form a long-term immune memory. In the S-protein of coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 two candidates for immunospressive domains are present and the dominance of proline and dipeptides containing it is absent. Conclusion. The immunoepitope recognition method and the biomarker for inducing longterm immune memory can be used as immunoinformative tools of computational vaccinology. Providing long-term immunity by vaccines based on the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 protein S is unlikely. © 2022, Numikom. All rights reserved.

17.
Journal of Investigative Dermatology ; 142(8):S105, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1956223

ABSTRACT

There is global interest in both the beneficial and detrimental health effects of ultraviolet-C (UVC) radiation in the wavelength range 200-230 nm (known as Far-UVC). Technology using Far-UVC is proposed as a highly effective control measure for reducing the transmission of COVID-19. Far-UVC, and other wavelengths of UVC, are well-known to efficiently inactivate pathogens in air and on surfaces. Although studies have shown irradiation of skin with 254 nm UV results in DNA damage in the epidermal basal layer, irradiation with Far-UVC (222 nm) shows minimal DNA damage and only in the granular layer, which is comprised of non-proliferating keratinocytes. Therefore, accumulation of these DNA photoproducts would not be expected to be associated with cancer risk. It has also been shown that even high doses of Far-UVC exposure to human skin do not induce erythema. However, the effects of Far-UVC on the immune system are, to the best of our knowledge, unknown. It is well-reported that both ultraviolet B (UVB 280-315 nm) and ultraviolet-A (UVA 315-400 nm) have effects on cutaneous Langerhans cells (LC), inducing migration from the epidermis to the draining lymph nodes, thereby suppressing skin immune function. Here we present data generated in a range of skin types (Fitzpatrick II-V) demonstrating little or no impact of Far-UVC on the cutaneous immune system, as assessed by Langerhans cell migration, at doses of up to 3,000 mJ/cm2 (US daily limit is 450 mJ/cm2). These results support the safety of filtered Far-UVC use, which could have a transformative effect on public health, allowing effective virus inactivation and reduction of transmission independent of human behavior. Conflict of interest disclosure: the authors state no conflict of interest. However, MJC and RPH are directors of Ten Bio Ltd, a company focused on developing human skin explant models.

18.
Epidemiologiya i Vaktsinoprofilaktika ; 21(2):17-22, 2022.
Article in Russian | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1934973

ABSTRACT

Relevance. The formation of humoral immunity is one of the most important manifestations of the protective mechanism against an infectious disease. The formation of antibodies with neutralizing activity is a key factor in preventing infection. Aims. Analysis of the esults of an ELISA study for the presence of IgM and IgG antibodies to the causative agent of a new coronavirus infection (COVID-19) in the population of the Central Orenburg region. Materials and methods. Immunoassay of blood serum for the presence of IgM and IgG antibodies using ELISA test by Vectro-Best (Novosibirsk, Russia). Results and discussion. The analysis revealed the presence of more than half of the cases of sero conversion among the examined individuals. The most surveyed was the group aged 21 to 65 years. The most typical humoral immune response to SARS-CoV-2 has been established, and the age-related characteristics of its formation have been determined. The dependence of the positivity coefficient on the age of the patients was revealed. Conclusions. According to the results of the study, the formed humoral (collective) immunity to the SARS-CoV-2 virus was registered in more than half of the studied sample. © Pankov AS et al.

19.
Epidemiologiya i Vaktsinoprofilaktika ; 21(2):4-16, 2022.
Article in Russian | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1934971

ABSTRACT

Relevance. The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic in the world, which is characterized by a long undulating course, requires an in-depth study of the features of the epidemic process, including the influence of natural, climatic and social factors on it. Aim. Compare the intensity of three waves of the COVID-19 pandemic in Russia. To identify the features of the parameters of the COVID-19 pandemic in Russia in the age groups of the population and in the federal districts. Materials and methods. Data from the computer database of the Influenza Research Institute and the Stop-coronavirus website were used. Results. The construction of the weekly dynamics of COVID-19 made it possible to clarify the start, peak and end dates of each wave in megacities, federal districts and among the population of the Russia. Conclusion. In the dynamics of the incidence of COVID-19 in the population of the Russian Federation from March 2020 to September 2021, three waves were detected: I spring-summer wave, II autumn-winter, III spring -summer. All three waves started in megacities, first in Moscow, and spread across federal districts. The rise of morbidity in Russia as a whole began and peaked in the autumn-winter wave later than in the spring-summer waves (immediately after the megacities). The total duration of the epidemic and the period of its development in the autumn-winter wave were longer than in the spring-summer waves. Morbidity, hospitalization and mortality depended on age, and in all three waves were higher among people over 65 years of age. The intensity of COVID-19 in the first spring-summer wave was the lowest. The II autumn-winter wave was the most intense in terms of morbidity, hospitalization rate and mortality in all age groups. The III spring-summer wave in terms of morbidity and hospitalization was less intensive, than the II autumn-winter wave, but there were no significant differences between the mortality rates in the II and III wave hospitalization and fatal outcomes were revealed. © Karpova LS, et al.

20.
Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging ; 26(4):423, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1914025

ABSTRACT

Backgrounds: Sarcopenia is a geriatric condition characterized by a progressive loss of muscle mass and function, having high personal, social and economic burdens when untreated. Sarcopenia increases risk of falls and fractures;impairs ability to perform activities of daily living;is associated with cardiac and respiratory disease and cognitive impairment;leads to mobility disorders;and contributes to lowered quality of life, loss of independence or need for long-term care placement, and death. It is recognized as one of the five pillars of frailty. As of today, to our knowledge, only exercise and nutrition interventions seem somewhat effective interventions. Objectives: SARA-INT study is a Phase 2 study to develop a viable option to treat community-dwelling seniors suffering from age-related sarcopenia, including sarcopenic obesity. Methods: SARA-INT is a randomized double-blind three-arm study (BIO101 175 mg bid / BIO101 350 mg bid / placebo) with planned treatment duration of 6 Months;due to COVID-related measures, 49 patients continued up to 9 months of treatment. Main eligibility criteria for sarcopenia were meeting FNIH criteria and Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) score ≤ 8/12 in men and women aged ≥ 65 years. Primary analysis was the gait speed from the 400-meter walking test (400MWT) at month 6/9 in the FAS with secondary analyses at other timepoints, secondary endpoints were other physical activity assessments, muscle strength, muscle mass and Patient Reported Outcomes (PROs). Results: 233 participants were randomized in the study, 232 and 156 participants were included in the Full Analysis Set (FAS) and Per-Protocol (PP) populations, respectively. Due to COVID-19 pandemic, end-of-treatment assessments are missing for approximately half of the participants, impacting the treatment effect detection. In the primary analysis (at month 6/9 in the FAS population) of the primary parameter, the improvement in 400MWT compared to placebo was not statistically significant (0.0363 (0.03098) m/s and 0.0385 (0.02985) m/s in the BIO101 175 mg and 350 mg groups, p=0.2437 and p=0.2000, respectively). BIO101 350 mg bid treatment after 6 months showed a clinically relevant improvement in the 400MWT of 0.07 m/s in the FAS population (not significant) and of 0.09 m/s in the PP population (nominally statistically significant, p=0.008);this is close to the Minimal Clinically Important Difference (MCID) in sarcopenia (0.1 m/s). BIO101 350mg bid treatment effect on the 400MWT is confirmed in pre-defined sub-populations at higher risk of mobility disability such as slow walkers, obese and those with chair stand sub-score ≤2 from SPPB;trends were observed with other independent endpoints. BIO101 showed no difference in adverse events or safety laboratory parameters versus placebo (), and no severe adverse event associated with BIO101 treatment. Conclusions: After 6 to 9 months of treatment, BIO101 at 350 mg bid showed promising results with a clinically relevant improvement in the 400MWT gait speed, the primary endpoint of the study, confirmed in sub-populations at higher risk of mobility disability. BIO101 showed a very good safety profile at the doses of 175 and 350 mg bid. Biophytis is preparing to start a phase 3 program with BIO101 at 350 mg bid in 2022, targeting a similar patient population. Conflicts of interests: CT, WD, CM, RL, PD, RvM and SV are employees of Biophytis SA, AZ, and SA are employees of Biophytis Inc., JM is president of the Scientific Advisory Board of Biophytis, SDS is employee of BlueCompanion Ltd.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL