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1.
New Armenian Medical Journal ; 16(2):14-24, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067786

ABSTRACT

Researches aimed at finding effective means of pathogenic therapy for this viral infection are extremely relevant. Researches of the last three years have established that some human pathogenic coronaviruses - MERS, SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, contain aliphatic polyamines in their structure, which participate in the packaging of genetic material (DNA, RNA), as well as the nucleocapsid. Virus-host cell interactions also provide adhesion processes on the surface of the cytoplasmic membrane of target cells. In the intra-cellular space, aliphatic polyamines actively affect the translation and replication processes of the genetic material and necessary proteins of the virus itself, as well as the formation of daughter viruses. Long-term persistence in the SARS-CoV-2 infected organism is largely due to the absorption of polyamines by corona-virus localized in target cells of the blood and parenchymatous organs. Unfortunately, the above new facts did not serve as a prerequisite for finding effective means of pathogenetic therapy for COVID-19, based on the inhibition of polyamine-dependent processes that ensure long-term persistence of SARS-CoV-2 in the infected organism. We are talking about specific drugs such as alpha-difluoromethylornithine and its ana-logues, which are successfully used in oncology in the complex treatment of malignant neoplasms with the aim of lowering the level of aliphatic polyamines in the affected areas of malignantly transformed organs. We recommend the use of polyamine-free and polyamine-deficient diets for COVID-19 for the first time. In the planned study, we will present tables with food products of animal and vegetable origin, characterized by extremely low content and/or absence of aliphatic polyamines in them. At the same time, food products with a high content of aliphatic polyamines should be excluded from the general list of products recommended for COVID-19 patients. We also recommend the use of a polyamine-deficient diet (with a preventive purpose) during the COVID-19 pandemic to a wide contingent of practically healthy individuals, convalescents, medical staff of specialized infectious disease clinics, as well as family members of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. Copyright © 2022, Yerevan State Medical University. All rights reserved.

2.
Journal of Acute Disease ; 11(4):156-160, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2066826

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore risk factors of mucormycosis in COVID-19 recovered patients. Methods: A total of 101 patients, who were diagnosed with mucormycosis after recovery from COVID-19 and admitted to the Indira Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Patna, a tertiary care hospital in India, were included in the study. The presenting clinical features and associated risk factors were assessed and analyzed subsequently. Results: Of 101, 68 (67.3%) were males, and 33 (32.7%) were females. A total of 89 (88.1%) patients were between 46 and 65 years old. The most common subtypes were rhino-ocular (61.4%), followed by paranasal sinuses (16.8%), rhino-ocular cerebral (16.8%), ocular (3.0%), and pulmonary (2.0%). Diabetes mellitus was present in 71% of cases of mucormycosis as co-morbidities. A total of 76.2% of patients were given systemic corticosteroids in oral or intravenous form during COVID-19 treatment. Severe COVID-19 was present in 45.5% of patients with mucormycosis, while the moderate infection was present in 35.6% of mucormycosis. Most patients had gap between the onset of mucormycosis and COVID-19 <15 d. Conclusions: A lethal confluence of uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, corticosteroid usage, and COVID-19 could cause a dramatic rise in mucormycosis. So, clinicians must be aware of these risk factors in patients suffering as well as recovering from COVID-19 to prevent mucormycosis.

3.
BMJ Open ; 12(9), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2064156

ABSTRACT

Purpose To investigate the robustness and longevity of SARS-CoV-2 immune responses conferred by natural infection and vaccination among priority populations such as immunocompromised individuals and people with post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 in a prospective cohort study (Stop the Spread Ottawa - SSO) in adults living in the Ottawa region. In this paper, we describe the study design, ongoing data collection and baseline characteristics of participants. Participants Since October 2020, participants who tested positive for COVID-19 (convalescents) or at high risk of exposure to the virus (under surveillance) have provided monthly blood and saliva samples over a 10-month period. As of 2 November 2021, 1026 adults had completed the baseline survey and 976 had attended baseline bloodwork. 300 participants will continue to provide bimonthly blood samples for 24 additional months (ie, total follow-up of 34 months). Findings to date The median age of the baseline sample was 44 (IQR 23, range: 18-79) and just over two-thirds (n=688;67.1%) were female. 255 participants (24.9%) had a history of COVID-19 infection confirmed by PCR and/or serology. Over 600 participants (60.0%) work in high-risk occupations (eg, healthcare, teaching and transportation). 108 participants (10.5%) reported immunocompromising conditions or treatments at baseline (eg, cancer, HIV, other immune deficiency, and/or use of immunosuppressants). Future plans SSO continues to yield rich research potential, given the collection of pre-vaccine baseline data and samples from the majority of participants, recruitment of diverse subgroups of interest, and a high level of participant retention and compliance with monthly sampling. The 24-month study extension will maximise opportunities to track SARS-CoV-2 immunity and vaccine efficacy, detect and characterise emerging variants, and compare subgroup humoral and cellular response robustness and persistence.

4.
American Journal of Transplantation ; 22(Supplement 3):1016-1017, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063502

ABSTRACT

Purpose: COVID-19 has poor outcomes in transplant recipients with reduced antibody responses. However, the exact cellular immune response against SARS-CoV-2 remains largely unclear. We developed novel assays to analyze differential cellular immune responses in individual subjects and groups. Method(s): We assessed the T cell proliferative responses against spike, membrane, and nuclear proteins of SARS-CoV-2, or a mixture of all these peptides (mix) using 3H-thymidine incorporation and CFSE dilution assays. We have also established a SARS-CoV-2-specific multiplexed cytokine IsoLight at single-cell resolution. This is a very powerful technology that employs IsoPlexis' IsoCodechip with 12,000 micro-chambers. Each microchamber is pre-coated with a 32-plex antibody array to capture secreted cytokines. The results were evaluated using IsoSpeak software. Result(s): COVID-19 convalescent subjects (n=3) showed a very strong proliferative response to S/M/N and mix peptides of SARS-CoV-2 when compared to uninfected normal subjects who had only marginal proliferative responses. CFSE dilution assays demonstrated that spike and mix proteins markedly increased the proliferation of CD3 cells comprised of both CD4 and CD8 subsets. In the IsoLight assay, single-cell functional heterogeneity mapping 3D tSNE analysis showed a distinct combinatorial cytokine secretion pattern in stimulated cells compared to unstimulated controls (Fig.1). Polyfunctional activity topography-Principal component analysis (PAT-PCA) revealed that IFN-g, IL2, and MIP-1b drove the polyfunctional heterogeneity. When the percentage of polyfunctional cells (>=2 cytokines/cell), and polyfunctional strength index (PSI) were evaluated, CD8 cells secreted high levels of effector and chemoattractive cytokines while CD4 cells secreted effector and stimulatory cytokines. Most importantly, the depth and breadth of T cell responses, particularly the cytokine polyfunctionality correlated with the severity of the disease the patients had experienced. Conclusion(s): This novel COVID19-specific IsoLight cytokine assay is a powerful technology that can be utilized for in-depth analysis of T cell polyfunctionality at the single-cell level and for further differentiating the anti-SARS-CoV-2 immune capabilities of vulnerable individuals such as transplant patients.

5.
American Journal of Transplantation ; 22(Supplement 3):1066, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063484

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to study our cohort of adult solid organ transplant recipients who had been infected with SARS-CoV-2 to describe the incidence density of SARS-CoV-2 re-infection, as well as the clinical features and convalescent immunity profile. Method(s): Incidence density was calculated as the total cases of re-infection divided by total days after initial diagnosis with active graft. We included those with initial infection diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction before or after transplantation, and cycle threshold values were obtained when possible. Two recipients had immunity evaluated in the weeks prior to re-infection, by measuring IgG antibody titer to the SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain and virus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell reactivity following stimulation with SARS-CoV-2 peptide pools and using activation induced marker assays. Result(s): Out of 210 infected recipients, 5 (2.4%) developed re-infection, including two that had received full mRNA vaccination, but none developed hypoxia. The incidence density was 9.4 (95% confidence interval 3.9-22.6) cases/100,000 patient days. Two cases of re-infection had participated in our immunity study and had convalescent immunity data from a blood draw approximately six months after initial infection and prior to re-infection. Both mounted virus specific CD4 T cell responses prior to re-infection (1.19% and 0.28% of total CD4 T cells) and both had reactive IgG testing (1.30 and 4.99 signal/cut off ratio). Conclusion(s): This suggests that SOT recipients infected with SARS-CoV-2 remain at high risk for re-infection even after generating reactive cellular and humoral immune responses.

6.
American Journal of Transplantation ; 22(Supplement 3):766, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063482

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This study compares SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses between the twodose mRNA-1273 and BNT162b2 vaccine series across groups of incrementally immunosuppressed patients. Method(s): Semiquantitative testing for antibodies against the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein was performed using the Roche Elecsys anti-SARS-CoV-2 S enzyme immunoassay (EIA), 15-45 days after the second vaccine dose for SARS-CoV-2 naive patients with rheumatic and musculoskeletal disease (RMD), and solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) from an observational cohort. Anti-RBD titers were divided into categories of >=50, >=100 and >=250 U/mL based on levels associated with plasma neutralizing capacity in COVID-19 convalescent patients. Participants were stratified by increasing intensity of immunosuppression: RMD not on immunosuppression, RMD on immunosuppression, SOTR not on mycophenolate (MMF), and SOTR on MMF. Response rates between mRNA-1273 and BNT162b2 recipients were compared using modified Poisson regression weighted for age, time since vaccination, and number of immunosuppressive medications. This analysis was repeated for several thresholds of positive response: 50, 100, and 250 U/mL. Result(s): Of 1868 participants, 55.8% of RMD and 52.7% of SOTRs received BNT162b2;the remainder received mRNA-1273. Demographics, diagnoses, and immunosuppressive regimens were similar across vaccine groups. Among RMD participants not on immunosuppression, the chance of anti-RBD >=250U/ml was comparable among BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 recipients (IRR= 0.91 1.03 1.16 p= 0.67). mRNA-1273 recipients had a higher chance than BNT162b2 recipients to achieve anti-RBD >=250U/ml among RMD participants on immunosuppression (IRR = 1.15 1.241.34, p<0.001);SOTRs not on MMF (IRR = 1.24 1.561.96, p <0.001);and SOTRs on MMF (IRR=1.28 2.625.37, p= 0.01). Similar trends were observed with titer cutoffs of >=100 and >=50 U/mL (Table 1). Conclusion(s): The two-dose mRNA-1273 vaccine series was more likely to induce stronger humoral immunogenicity compared to BNT162b2 in immunosuppressed patients;this effect was more pronounced with greater immunosuppression. These findings suggest importance in the choice of mRNA vaccine platform in optimizing immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and can help inform vaccination strategies for booster doses in high-risk, immunosuppressed populations.

7.
American Journal of Transplantation ; 22(Supplement 3):768, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063440

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Short-term adaptive immune memory has been reported among immunocompetent (IC) and convalescent Solid Organ Transplant (SOT) individuals following SARS-CoV-2 infection as well as after active vaccination. However, quality and longevity of anti-viral immune memory comparisons between natural and active immunization has not been thoroughly assessed among SOT. Method(s): SARS-CoV-2-specific adaptive immune memory was assessed at different compartments (serological, memory B cells [mBC] and cytokine [Th1: IFN-gamma, IL-2, IFN-gamma/IL-2 and Th2: IL-21 and IL-5] producing T cells) by ELISA and FluoroSpotbased assays, respectively, in 41 convalescent patients with severe COVID-19 (22 SOT and 19 IC) and 39 vaccinated patients (19 SOT and 20 IC) with a mRNA-based vaccine) at different time-points post immunization (T1=21days after infection/1st dose;T2=3months after infection/2nd dose;T3=6months after infection/2nd dose). Additionally, a group of convalescent mild (19 SOT and 19 IC) and asymptomatic patients (9 SOT and 10 IC) were also evaluated at T3. Result(s): Overall, statistically significant higher immune responses in all immune compartments were observed in convalescent patients than among those after vaccination. After vaccination, low seropositivity rates (5,88%) were observed among SOT after 1st dose, whereas seroconversion was fully achieved in IC patients and SOT with severe COVID-19 (p<0.001). Similarly, while the presence of mBc after vaccination progressively increased over time, it was less pronounced and significantly delayed among SOT than convalescent patients in all time points (p<0.001 T1, T2 and T3). SARS-CoV-2-specific Th1 and Th2 frequencies were significantly higher among vaccinated IC patients than SOT, being these responses significantly lower than those observed in convalescent among SOTT and IC patients (p<0.001 T1, T2 and T3). At 6 months after vaccination, IgG titers, mBc frequencies and Th1/ Th2 T-cell responses after two-dose vaccination in SOT mimicked those observed in convalescent SOT with an asymptomatic/mild clinical COVID-19 infection. Conclusion(s): The type of immunization against SARS-CoV-2, either natural or active after vaccination, clearly differentiates the quality and length of adaptive immune memory, with a clear weaker immune response observed among SOT.

8.
Chest ; 162(4):A492, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060609

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Medications and Pulmonary Rehabilitation in COVID-19 Posters SESSION TYPE: Original Investigation Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 01:30 pm - 02:30 pm PURPOSE: Millions of people have survived COVID 19 infection and are living with post-acute sequelae of COVID (PASC). Multi-disciplinary programs have been established to provide follow-up to these patients. Currently, there are limited data regarding the effectiveness of these programs and it is uncertain if there is a mortality benefit. Here, we explore if the enrollment of Veterans into a multi-disciplinary COVID-19 follow-up program influences long term all-cause mortality. METHODS: We designed a retrospective cohort study at the South Texas Veteran Health Care system (STVHCS) from April 1, 2020, to December 31, 2020. Participants in the study were Veterans who survived a COVID 19 infection after 30 days and were eligible for enrollment in the STVHCS Convalescence Program (“The Program”), which conducts multi-disciplinary follow up care. Patients who died <30 days after COVID 19 diagnosis were not eligible. The primary outcome of long term all-cause mortality was defined as mortality within 31-365 days after the diagnosis of a COVID 19 infection. Demographic differences and primary outcome between the two groups (enrolled versus non-enrolled in The Program) were analyzed using Chi square for categorical variables. Continuous variables were analyzed using Student’s t-test. RESULTS: In total 2253 patients were eligible for enrollment, of which 557 were enrolled and 1696 were not enrolled. Long term all-cause mortality between the groups was 6/557 (1.07%) in the enrolled group compared to 78/1696 (4.59%) in the non-enrolled group with a p value of <0.001. There was no statistical difference between the groups based on the average Charlson comorbidity index score, 2.12 vs 2.09 respectively, with a p value = 0.85. CONCLUSIONS: Enrollment of Veterans in a COVID 19 multidisciplinary follow-up program is associated with a significant decrease in long term all-cause mortality. These differences could not be explained by inherent differences between groups. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Our study shows the potential effectiveness of COVID-19 multidisciplinary follow-up programs to reduce long term all cause mortality in survivors of COVID. In addition there may be other benefits not yet explored such as reduction in symptom burden from COVID and decreased psychosocial distress. The generalizability of this study is limited by its observational study design, the voluntary nature of enrollment in the program and lack of non veterans in the population. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Ye Aung No relevant relationships by Ryan Choudhury No relevant relationships by Michael Mader No relevant relationships by Marcos Restrepo No relevant relationships by Sandra Sanchez-Reilly No relevant relationships by Monica Serra No relevant relationships by Ana Lucia Siu Chang No relevant relationships by Hanh Trinh

9.
Embase; 2022.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-344475

ABSTRACT

Background: A large number of studies have been carried out involving passive antibody administration for the treatment and prophylaxis of COVID-19 and have shown variable efficacy. However, the determinants of treatment effectiveness have not been identified. Here we aimed to aggregate all available data on randomised controlled trials of passive antibody treatment for COVID-19 to understand how the dose and timing affect treatment outcome. Method(s): We analysed published studies of passive antibody treatment from inception to 7 January 2022 that were identified after searching various databases such as MEDLINE, Pubmed, ClinicalTrials.gov. We extracted data on treatment, dose, disease stage at treatment, and effectiveness for different clinical outcomes from these studies. To compare administered antibody levels between different treatments, we used data on in vitro neutralisation of pseudovirus to normalise the administered dose of antibody. We used a mixed-effects regression model to understand the relationship between disease stage at treatment and effectiveness. We used a logistic model to analyse the relationship between administered antibody dose (normalised to the mean convalescent titre) and outcome, and to predict efficacy of antibodies against different Omicron subvariants. Finding(s): We found that clinical stage at treatment was highly predictive of the effectiveness of both monoclonal antibodies and convalescent plasma therapy in preventing progression to subsequent stages (p<0.0001 and p=0.0089, respectively, chi-squared test). We also analysed the dose-response curve for passive antibody treatment of ambulant COVID-19 patients to prevent hospitalisation. Using this quantitative dose-response relationship, we predict that a number of existing monoclonal antibody treatment regimens should maintain clinical effectiveness in infection with currently circulating Omicron variants. Interpretation(s): Early administration of passive antibody therapy is crucial to achieving high efficacy in preventing clinical progression. A dose-response curve was derived for passive antibody therapy administered to ambulant symptomatic subjects to prevent hospitalisation. For many of the monoclonal antibody regimens analysed, the administered doses are estimated to be between 7 and >1000 fold higher than necessary to achieve 90% of the maximal efficacy against the ancestral (Wuhan-like) virus. This suggests that a number of current treatments should maintain high efficacy against Omicron subvariants despite reduction in in vitro neutralisation potency. This work provides a framework for the rational assessment of future passive antibody prophylaxis and treatment strategies for COVID-19. Copyright The copyright holder for this preprint is the author/funder, who has granted medRxiv a license to display the preprint in perpetuity. All rights reserved. No reuse allowed without permission.

10.
Embase; 2021.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-344432

ABSTRACT

The latest SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern Omicron, with its immune escape from therapeutic anti-Spike monoclonal antibodies and WA-1 vaccine-elicited sera, demonstrates the continued relevance of COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) therapies. Lessons learnt from previous usage of CCP suggests focusing on early outpatients and immunocompromised recipients, with high neutralizing antibody (nAb) titer units. In this analysis we systematically reviewed Omicron-neutralizing plasma activity data, and found that approximately 47% (424/902) of CCP from unvaccinated pre-Omicron donors neutralizes Omicron BA.1 with a very low geomean of geometric mean titers for 50% neutralization GM(GMT50) of about 13, representing a more than 20-fold reduction from WA-1 neutralization. Two doses of mRNA vaccines in nonconvalescent subjects had a similar 50% percent neutralization with Omicron BA.1 neutralization GM(GMT(50)) of about 27. However, plasma from vaccinees recovered from either previous pre-Omicron variants of concern infection, Omicron BA.1 infection, or third-dose uninfected vaccinees was nearly 100% neutralizing against Omicron BA.1, BA.2 and BA.4/5 with GM(GMT(50)) all over 189, 10 times higher than pre-Omicron CCP. Fully vaccinated and post-BA.1 plasma (Vax-CCP) had GM(GMT50) over 450 for BA.4/5 and over 1500 for BA.1 and BA.2. These findings have implications for both CCP stocks collected in prior pandemic periods and plans to restart CCP collections. Thus, Vax-CCP provides an effective tool to combat ongoing variants that defeat therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. Copyright The copyright holder for this preprint is the author/funder, who has granted medRxiv a license to display the preprint in perpetuity. It is made available under a CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International license.

11.
Journal of Comprehensive Pediatrics ; 13(Supplement 1):34-35, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2057453

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can involve children of all ages, although less frequently and with a milder presentation than adults. Cardiovascular abnormalities (myocardial injury, acute myocarditis, cardiomyopathy, heart failure, arrhythmias, pericarditis, cardiogenic shock, pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction) may accompany, especially with the multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children and adolescents (MIS-C). Severe disease is managed in the hospital setting. Supportive care is the mainstay of therapy. Antiviral therapy, immune-mediated therapies, empiric antibiotics, and therapy for influenza infection are used in selective patients. Cardiac management focuses on maintaining hemodynamic stability and providing adequate systemic perfusion. Children presenting with shock should be resurrected according to standard protocols. Vasoactive agents such as epinephrine or norepinephrine and, if possible, milrinone is used in fluid-refractory shock. Children with Kawasaki disease (KD) features should receive standard therapies for KD, including intravenous immune globulin (IVIG), aspirin, and glucocorticoids. Patients with severe LV dysfunction, intravenous diuretics and inotropic agents, such as milrinone, dopamine, and dobutamine are suggested. Continuous cardiac monitoring is essential. In cases of the fulminant disease, mechanical hemodynamic support may be necessary. For moderate or severe manifestations (shock, left ventricular systolic dysfunction, elevated troponin or brain natriuretic peptide, arrhythmia, coronary artery aneurysm, or presentations requiring PICU care), therapy with combined IVIG plus a glucocorticoid is suggested. Patients may be at risk for venous thromboembolism due to COVID- 19 associated hypercoagulability. Patients with MIS-C and those with severe LV dysfunction or CA aneurysms are at increased risk. It is suggested that all patients with MIS-C receive low-dose aspirin, and severe cases requiring PICU care receive prophylactic-dose anticoagulant therapy. Patients with current or prior VTE, severe LV dysfunction, large or giant CA aneurysms, markedly elevated D-dimer should receive therapeutic anticoagulation (low molecular weight heparin) plus aspirin. Most children with cardiac involvement have recovery of function by hospital discharge. The overall mortality rate for MIS-C is approximately 1 to 2 percent. Cardiology follow-up after discharge is recommended.

12.
Infektsionnye Bolezni ; 20(2):16-22, 2022.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2044282

ABSTRACT

New coronavirus infection (COVID-19) is highly contagious viral disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 leading to the pandemic. The autopsy of COVID-19 patients often showed features of previous brain diseases including neurodegeneration, previous strokes, demyelinating diseases and atherosclerosis. Patients with acute cerebrovascular accidents and severe COVID-19 had higher numbers of lethality in comparison to non-severe course of infection without cerebrovascular accidents. A comparative analysis of morphological changes in lungs of deceased patients who died in different periods of first clinical symptoms is to be conducted. Objective. Description of pathomorphological changes in deceased patients during the period of reconvalescence. Patients and methods. The analysis of 15 fatal cases which took place in Botkin Hospital with the diagnosis of ischemic stroke and new coronavirus infection in the previous 2-4 months has been held. Macro and microscope examination of brain, lungs, brachiocephalic arteries, kidneys and liver has been carried out. Results. All patients had morphological features of ischemic damage of grey matter in the brain. Beside necrosis of neurocytes with diffuse infiltration in the grey matter, hematoxylin cycles were found, in some cases they were placed in a perivascular way in choroid plexus. Also 5 patients suffered a myocardial infarction up to 3 days. 10 patients had structures disorganisation in areas of lung parenchyma with hystoacrchitectonic changes because of the fibrosis. Alveoli in some places collaborated mostly with single airway clearance. The fact that most patients had lung hemosiderosis can prove coronavirus infection suffered earlier with microcirculatory bed damage. Conclusion. Thus, morphological changes seen in the period of reconvalescence of COVID-19 is a result of pathomorphosis of changes described earlier for acute period of coronavirus infection and affect not only lungs, but also other organs and tissues. This proves systematic characteristic of the infection.

13.
Frontiers in Medicine ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2043475

ABSTRACT

Background and Aims: Adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) has been associated with a decreased risk of developing a variety of chronic diseases that are comorbidities in COVID-19 patients. However, its association to the severity and symptoms of COVID-19 are still unknown. This study aimed to examine the association between adherence to the MD pattern and COVID-19 severity and symptoms in Iranian hospitalized patients. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 250 COVID-19 patients aged 18 to 65 were examined. We employed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to obtain data on dietary intake of participants in the year prior to their COVID-19 diagnosis. COVID-19 severity was determined using the National Institutes of Health's Coronavirus Disease 2019 report. Additionally, symptoms associated with COVID-19, inflammatory markers, and other variables were evaluated. The scoring method proposed by Trichopoulou et al. was used to assess adherence to the MD. Results: The participants' mean age was 44.1 ± 12.1 years, and 46% of them had severe COVID-19. Patients who adhered more closely to the MD had lower serum C-reactive protein levels (7.80 vs. 37.36 mg/l) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (14.08 vs. 42.65 mm/h). Those with the highest MD score were 77% less likely to have severe COVID-19 after controlling for confounding variables. The MD score was also found to be inversely associated with COVID-19 symptoms, including dyspnea, cough, fever, chills, weakness, myalgia, nausea and vomiting, and sore throat. Conclusion: Higher adherence to the MD was associated with a decreased likelihood of COVID-19 severity and symptoms, as well as a shorter duration of hospitalization and convalescence, and inflammatory biomarkers.

14.
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science ; 21(4):719-730, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2043410

ABSTRACT

Objective. The need for scientific understanding of the revolutionary changes that have occurred associated with the situation of the COVID-19 pandemic, both in the organization of psychological and psychiatric care, and in the direction of developing effective treatment and prevention measures, determines the relevance of this study, the purpose of which is to study the clinical manifestations of psychopathological symptoms in patients, survivors of the COVID-19 disease, and develop a conceptual model for providing them with medical care in telemedicine. Materials and methods. We studied the psychopathological manifestations of post-covid syndrome in 129 patients who had recovered from COVID-19 and who applied to us for remote medical counseling psychological and psychiatric help for 10 months, from March to December 2020, using clinical psychopathological and psychodiagnostic test research methods. Results and Discussion. The high level of stress, anxiety and depression identified in the studied patients is primarily associated with the negative situation of the pandemic and the COVID-19 disease. A follow-up study proved the effectiveness of a treatment carried out in a telemedicine setting and combining cognitive-behavioral therapy with antidepressants and non-benzodiazepine tranquilizers. In patients who underwent a severe form of COVID-19, in the presence of premorbid chronic bronchopulmonary pathology, in addition to long-lasting psychopathological symptoms, somatic post-covid complications were also observed, and the stressfulness of the situation was perceived at a deeper personal level. For such patients, the course of treatment in telemedicine conditions should be extended and medical and psychological support provided during the entire period of convalescence. Conclusion. Chronic premorbid diseases of the bronchopulmonary and immune systems are predictors of long-term psychopathological symptomatology and the occurrence of post-covid somatic complications. The treatment tactics of patients with post-covid mental health disorders in telemedicine should be based on the protocols of cognitive-behavioral therapy for hypochondriacal and generalized anxiety disorder, in combination with antidepressants and tranquilizers of the non-benzodiazepine series, which ensures the stability of the positive results of therapeutic interventions, confirmed by our studies. The conceptual patientcentered model developed by us for the provision of psychological and psychiatric care for post-covid syndrome in telemedicine can be recommended as a universal algorithm for psycho-psychiatric interventions when providing remote assistance to patients with post-covid mental disorders.

15.
Scand J Clin Lab Invest ; 82(6): 481-485, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2042400

ABSTRACT

Persisting inflammation has been discovered in lungs and other parenchymatous organs of some COVID-19 convalescents. Calprotectin, neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), syndecan-1 and neopterin are general key inflammatory markers, and systemically enhanced levels of them may remain after the COVID-19 infection. These inflammatory markers were therefore measured in serum samples of 129 COVID-19 convalescent and 27 healthy blood donors or employees at Oslo Blood bank, Norway. Also antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen were measured, and timing of sampling and severity of infection noted. Whereas neopterin and NETs values remained low and those for syndecan-1 were not raised to statistically significant level, concentrations for calprotectin, as measured by a novel mixed monoclonal assay, were significantly increased in the convalescents. Antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen were elevated, but did not correlate with levels of inflammatory markers. Difference between the groups in only one biomarker makes evaluation of ongoing or residual inflammation in the convalescents difficult. If there is a low-grade inflammation, it would in that case involve neutrophils.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracellular Traps , Biomarkers , Blood Donors , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Inflammation/diagnosis , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex , Neopterin , SARS-CoV-2 , Syndecan-1
16.
Swiss Medical Weekly ; 152:7S, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2040924

ABSTRACT

Infection by SARS-CoV-2 leads to diverse symptoms, which can persist for months beyond the acute phase of the disease. While antiviral antibodies are protective, the presence of antibodies against interferons and other immune factors is associated with adverse COVID-19 outcomes. Instead, we discovered that antibodies against specific chemokines are omnipresent after COVID-19, associated with favorable disease, and predictive of lack of long COVID symptoms at one year post infection. Autoantibody levels against some chemokines are sustained or even increasing over time. Anti-chemokine antibodies are present also in HIV-1 and autoimmune disorders, but they target different chemokines than those in COVID-19. Finally, monoclonal antibodies derived from COVID-19 convalescents that bind to the chemokine N-loop impair cell migration. Given the role of chemokines in orchestrating immune cell trafficking, naturally arising anti-chemokine antibodies that are associated with favorable COVID-19 may be beneficial through modulation of the inflammatory response and thus bear therapeutic potential.

17.
Swiss Medical Weekly ; 152:11S, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2040823

ABSTRACT

Most SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies described to date target the receptor binding and N-terminal domains (RBD and NTD) of the Spike (S) protein. However, mutations such as those found in SARSCoV- 2 variants of concern (VOC), cause amino acid (aa) changes in the RBD and NTD that diminish or abrogate the effectiveness of vaccines and antiviral monoclonal antibodies that are currently in the clinic. We hypothesized that regions of S may be under selective pressure to maintain their aa sequence unchanged because they are essential for its function. We identified 15 regions with infrequent aa changes and devoid of aa changes in SARS-CoV-2 VOC: one coldspot includes the S2' cleavage site and a portion of the fusion peptide (FP), a second one is at the stem helix that precedes the heptad repeat 2 region (HR2). We specifically searched for and identified human antibodies targeting FP and HR2 coldspots in plasma samples from a COVID-19 convalescent cohort. Neutralizing antibodies to the FP are broadly cross-reactive against all human coronaviruses and non-human coronaviruses of the four genera (alpha to delta). Antibody hr2.016, which binds to a conserved epitope near the HR2 helix, neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern and is superior to previously described antibodies to this region. Thus, coldspot-guided antibody discovery reveals natural neutralizing antibodies that are broadly cross-reactive with Orthocoronavirinae, including SARS-CoV-2 variants.

18.
J Tradit Chin Med ; 42(5): 803-809, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2026022

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of the Shugan Jieyu capsule on improving sleep and emotional disorder during Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) convalescence. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, and recruit 200 COVID-19 convalescence patients and then divide the subjects into two groups respectively: the experimental group ( 100) and the control group ( 100). Patients in the control group were given doses as a placebo, while those in the experimental group were given Shugan Jieyu capsule. The investigators mainly observed the differences between the two groups before and after treatment in terms of the rate of reduction and the rate of efficiency in Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD-17) total scores from baseline, and recorded the scores of Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA), Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) and Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale at 2 week, the 4 week and the 6 week respectively after treatment, and compared the differences between the groups. And the occurrence of adverse events was recorded. RESULTS: After 6-week treatment, there were statistically significant differences in the rate of reduction as well as efficiency in HAMD-17 scores, HAMA Total Scores, PHQ-15 Score, ISI Score from baseline in the experimental group and control group (< 0.05). There were 4 adverse events in the experimental group and 1 in the control group. CONCLUSION: Shugan Jieyu capsule could significantly improve sleep and emotional disorder in patients during COVID-19 convalescence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Convalescence , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Sleep , Treatment Outcome
19.
Russian Archives of Internal Medicine ; 12(4):302-309, 2022.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2010561

ABSTRACT

Background: assessment of type, prevalence and duration of residual symptoms after COVID-19 in recent studies is controversial because of differences in design. Aim: to assess the prevalence and severity of symptoms in the long-term period after COVID-19. Materials and methods: patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in the period 13.04.2020-10.06.2020 were interviewed by phone: 195 (58,2 %) convalescents at 143 (131-154) days after disease onset and 183 (54,6 %) of them at 340 (325-351) days. Results: The subjective assessment of health status with 100-point scale before and after the COVID-19 was 95 (80-100) and 80 (70-96) points, p <0,001, at first interview;90 (80-100) and 80 (60-90) points, p <0,001, at second one. Various complaints were detected in 63 % of respondents at the first interview and in 75 % at the second, the number of identified symptoms was 2 (0-6) and 4 (1-8) respectively. The most frequent complaints were weakness/fatigue (31.3 and 47.5 % of respondents), joint pain (31.3 and 47.5 %) and dyspnoe/shortness of breath (31.3 and 43.2 %). The growth of these indicators can be associated with a change in the interview methodology. The severity of the symptoms at second interview was low: fatigue — 3 (0-6) points, shortness of breath — 0 (0-3) points;joint pain, weakness and dyspnoe — 0 (0-5) points each. Conclusion: a decrease of health status can sustain for a long time after COVID-19. Symptoms persist in a significant proportion of convalescents, but their severity in the end of follow-up is quite low.

20.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 81:954, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009014

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is characterized by a wide range of clinical manifestations 1. Although COVID-19 was initially considered a respiratory infection, it was shortly recognized as a multisystemic disorder associated with heightened infammatory responses, including autoimmune phenomena 1. The presence of autoantibodies (AAbs) has been described in COVID-19 patients, highlighting the state of immune dysregulation in COVID-19 1. The clinical signifcance of AAbs, however, is still elusive. Objectives: To assess the prevalence of AAbs in critically ill, mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and investigate whether AAbs influence the clinical outcome of these patients. Methods: The current study evaluated prospectively from March 8th, 2021 to May 10th, 2021 the presence of AAbs against nuclear antigens (ANA), extracta-ble nuclear antigens (ENA), neutrophil cytoplasmic antigens (ANCA), cyclic cit-rullinated peptides (anti-CCP), double stranded-DNA (anti-dsDNA), cardiolipin (anti-CL), β2-glycoprotein-I (anti-β2-GPI), thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO), and thyroglobulin (anti-TG) in critically ill COVID-19 patients upon admission in the ICU (n=217). Samples from 60 COVID-19 patients that were available 15 days after ICU admission were further analyzed for the evaluation of de novo AAbs production. Serum samples of age and sex matched healthy individuals before the COVID-19 pandemic were used as a control group (n=117). Results: COVID-19 patients treated in ICU had more commonly at least one AAb compared to age and sex matched controls (174/217, 80.2% vs 73/217, 62,4%, p< 0,001). More specifcally, COVID-19 patients expressed more frequently ANAs (48.4% vs 21.4%, p<0.001), anti-dsDNA (5.1% vs 0%, p=0.01), anti-CCP (8.3% vs 1.7%, p=0.014) and anti-CL IgM AAbs (21.7% vs 9.4%, p=0.005) than controls. The majority of critical COVID-19 patients who were positive for AAbs (144, 82.8%) expressed reactivity in up to three autoantigens with the most prominent being ANA, anti-phospholipid, ANCA and anti-TPO AAbs. AAbs-positive patients demonstrated more robust anti-SARS-CoV-2 humoral responses compared to AAbs-negative patients [detectable anti-SARS-CoV-2 S1-protein IgG antibodies: 150 (86.2%) vs 28 (65.1%), p=0.001;adequate neutralizing activity: 159 (91.4%) vs. 33 (76.7%), p=0.007]. The two groups, however, did not differ in terms of clinicoepidemiologic characteristics or the incidence of death in the ICU. Convalescent COVID-19 patients (n=111) compared to those who died (n=106), did not differ in the prevalence of serum AAbs or antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2. Differences were only shown in clinicolaboratory parameters including patients' age, comorbidities, O2 saturation, infammatory markers, and in-hospi-tal prognostic scores as expected. Paired samples testing (n=60) revealed that 45 patients had at least one newly induced AAb, 28 patients lost at least one reactivity and only 6 patients didn't show any seroconversion. The most common new-onset AAb reactivity was against anti-CL (IgG isotype) (n=21) followed by ANA (n=20), anti-β2-GPI (IgG isotype) (n=11), myositis-related antigens (n=13) and ENAs (n=9);nevertheless, no associations with clinicoepidemiologic features or COVID-19 outcome were revealed. Conclusion: Patients with severe COVID-19 express AAbs more commonly than age and sex matched controls, suggesting that SARS-COV-2 infection may induce a hitherto unknown B-cell autoreactivity. The presence of autoantibodies does not play a role in the outcome of SARS-COV-2 infection. However, further studies are needed to defne their role in future development of systemic autoimmune disorders or the long-COVID syndrome.

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