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1.
Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences ; 83(9-A):No Pagination Specified, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1957737

ABSTRACT

Educators have applied the Center for Research on Education, Diversity, and Excellence (CREDE) standards to classrooms of children and youth for over 30 years. However, few studies have focused on applying the strategies in higher education. Therefore, this multiple-case study investigated one of those standards, Instructional Conversations, with adult students. Instructional Conversations are small group discussions between an instructor and students that promote students' conceptual understandings. Participants included four higher-education instructors and their students, who were studying for associate, undergraduate, and graduate degrees. Instruction took place one year into COVID-19 pandemic and used online formats. Discourse Analysis revealed how ideas were co-constructed, as well as speech acts by four participant instructors with varying understanding and experience in use of Instructional Conversations. Results indicated that instructors who applied Instructional Conversation used specific speech actions in comparison to other instructors who used alternative methods of class instruction. The two instructors with experience in Instructional Conversation assisted students to clarify their thoughts and reframe thinking. Further, they paraphrased student comments, co-created ideas with learners, and created opportunities for students to share their lived experiences. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

2.
BMJ Leader ; 4:A14, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1956814

ABSTRACT

Background Social disadvantage is associated with problems in child development and studies have found this was largely mediated by maternal mental health (Ban et. al, 2012). In Southwark, 40% of children live in poverty and 30-40% of GP visits were mental health related. Yet, there is a shortage of mental health support services for their population even before the surge in demand triggered by Covid-19. Given this backdrop, support for parental mental health should be more distributed in the wider society, utilising preventative community approaches for mental well-being, particularly for disadvantaged parents. Leadership intervention Combining principles of design thinking and co-production, the root causes of the problem of maternal and more broadly, parental distress, were investigated through focus group, individual interviews, clinical observations and preliminary data from primary care database. People considered to be important in the parents' network of influence were then invited to 'parent champions' co-production sessions over zoom where champions were asked to co-design and co-deliver ways to better meet these needs. A total of 4 sessions were held to date with 60 champions from 13 sectors. Outputs Interventions co-produced from the multi-sector parent champions events include expanding a computer bank for the digitally deprived, developing culturally sensitive GP video briefings to address parents' concern about Covid-19, and building a buddy system between parent champions and social prescribers. Process outcomes 85% of the parent champions said they would do one thing differently to support self or other parents as as result of conversations during co-production. 60% said they feel more connected and less alone in coping with the crisis through the co-production process. Leadership learning When diverse and relevant people are involved in co-production, synergy happens, creating a higher point of leverage for wider impact.

3.
International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research ; 14(7):147-155, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1955737

ABSTRACT

Background: Pandemic caused by Covid 19 infection witnessed several patients suffering from severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) due to severe inflammatory response. Risk factors that contributed to severe covid 19 infection include age, diabetes, previous lung disease, liver and kidney disease. Several other risk factors like smoking, alcoholism, hypertension and obesity are also being studied to understand their contribution in causing severe covid 19 infection and death. Alcohol is well known to cause immunosuppression and multiple organ injury including liver, pancreas and lung. It is a necessity to understand the effect of alcoholism on covid severity and risk of infection to create better awareness and understand the prognosis of covid 19 infection among alcoholics. The relationship of Alcoholism and COVID-19 infection is still controversial. In the literature, fewer studies are done to assess alcoholism and covid severity. Objective: The present study is done to find out the relationship of alcohol consumption on Covid severity among individuals admitted at Covid designated tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: This retrospective, cross sectional study was carried out in a covid designated tertiary care hospital. After approval from Institute Ethics Committee (Human studies), the patients admitted for covid illness from January 2021 to June 2021 were taken up for the study and their case records from medical records department were studied. Telephonic conversation was also done for patients with inadequate data. The collected data was entered in google forms and MS excel sheet and analysis done using descriptive statistics involving SPSS (version 24). Result: A total of 1109 patients were included in the study. Most of the patients in our study were males-851(76.73). The male:female ratio was 3.2:1. The maximum patient belonged to the age range 30 to 60 years. CT severity was mild in most of the patients (32.82%). Diabetes was the most common (33.18%) comorbidity among the study population. Majority of the admitted patients were Non-alcoholics 884 (79.7%). Among alcoholics and non-alcoholics, majority showed normal, mild to moderate CT severity. There is no statistically significant association between alcoholism and CT severity score compared to non-alcoholics (p value=0.947). Also, there is no significant association between alcoholism and Covid severity among Diabetic and Hypertensive patients compared to patients without these medical morbidities. Conclusion: In conclusion, majority of the patients who required admission in hospital for covid illness treatment were non-alcoholics. There is no significant association between alcoholism and covid-19 severity compared to general population. Also, there is no significant association between alcoholism and Covid severity among Diabetic and Hypertensive patients. Further human and experimental studies with more sample size is needed for further clarification of our findings.

4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(18)2021 09 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1953247

ABSTRACT

Studies showed that introversion is the strongest personality trait related to perceived social isolation (loneliness), which can predict various complications beyond objective isolation such as living alone. Lonely individuals are more likely to resort to social media for instantaneous comfort, but it is not a perpetual solution. Largely negative implications including poorer interpersonal relationship and depression were reported due to excessive social media usage. Conversational task is an established intervention to improve verbal communication, cognitive and behavioral adaptation among lonely individuals. Despite that behavioral benefits have been reported, it is unclear if they are accompanied by objective benefits underlying physiological changes. Here, we investigate the physiological signals from 28 healthy individuals during a conversational task. Participants were ranked by trait extraversion, where greater introversion is associated with increased susceptibility to perceived social isolation as compared to participants with greater extraversion as controls. We found that introverts had a greater tendency to be neurotic, and these participants also exhibited significant differences in task-related electrodermal activity (EDA), heart rate (HR) and HR variability (HRV) as compared to controls. Notably, resting state HRV among individuals susceptible to perceived loneliness was below the healthy thresholds established in literature. Conversational task with a stranger significantly increased HRV among individuals susceptible to isolation up to levels as seen in controls. Since HRV is also elevated by physical exercise and administration of oxytocin hormone (one form of therapy for behavioral isolation), conversational therapy among introverts could potentially confer physiological benefits to ameliorate social isolation and loneliness. Our findings also suggest that although the recent pandemic has changed how people are interacting typically, we should maintain a healthy dose of social interaction innovatively.


Subject(s)
Loneliness , Social Isolation , Communication , Extraversion, Psychological , Heart Rate , Humans
5.
Front Psychol ; 13: 852692, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952622

ABSTRACT

As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, increased number of persons have been forced to limit their interactions with friends and families to contact via video, which excludes eye-contact. The aim of this study was to examine individuals' experiences of the difference between forced skewed visuality and the ability for eye-contact in conversations. Two custom-made units allowed 15 participants interacting in dyads to alternate between being able to make eye contact and having that ability removed through skewed visuality. Participants reported their experiences in semi-structured interviews. Data analyzed with qualitative content analysis resulted in three themes: Shared eye contact allows us to create our relationship together; With eye contact, we adjust to each other to feel more connected and less intimidated; and We get more self-conscious when the visuality is skewed or shifting. The results imply that skewed visuality as forced lack of eye-contact in video conversations effects embodied non-verbal processes related to sense of connectedness and participatory sensemaking, creating a sense of both emotional and physical distance, as well as heightening self-awareness about the need of actively regulating the other. We argue that this is one of the ways to understand the impact of moving interactions to online communication.

6.
Journal of Adolescent Health ; 70(4):S30, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1936666

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Compared to cisgender peers, gender diverse youth (GDY) face significant mental health disparities. Parent affirmation reduces these disparities, but there are few evidence-based support programs for parents of GDY and none centered on 1:1 parent peer support, which has shown promise in other pediatric settings. This study aimed to evaluate a 1:1 peer mentor program for parents of GDY, the Parent Outreach Program (POP). Methods: We created anonymous online surveys consisting of open-ended questions about the POP distributed via email to program mentors (parents providing support) and mentees (parents receiving support). Participants were asked why they became involved, benefits and challenges, and how this program compared to others they had participated in. Open-ended responses were coded by two authors using two iteratively developed codebooks (one each for mentors and mentees);codes were adjudicated to consensus and key themes were identified for both participant types. Results: In total, 20 participants (6 mentors, 14 mentees) completed parallel surveys. Themes identified for mentors included feeling giving back was important, their mentoring experience, challenges, and personal growth resulting from being a mentor. Mentors wanted to help other families, “[POP was] rewarding in knowing that by helping the parents you can ultimately help the kids”. They shared logistical challenges like “coordinating schedules” as well as the potential for conversations to be triggering;“Sometimes it brings up a memory of my own family that evokes an emotion”. Mentors also noted their participation was a positive experience: “[POP] offers us the opportunity to grow in our knowledge and feelings in regard to our own child”. Themes identified for mentees included the importance of finding community through the POP, receiving education, relating to their mentors, practical considerations, and qualities of a good mentor. Parent mentees shared relief in finding a “sense of community”;as one mentee said, “It was a lifeline to some sanity”. They also noted that the POP gave them specialized information and that they connected with mentors based on shared experiences: “We craved parents with a true understanding of the many feelings, changes, activities…”. They addressed practical considerations like the intimacy of 1:1 support and that recommendations from a provider mattered to them: “This [program] is more intimate and focused on our stories;” “When the social worker offered it, I had no doubt.” Mentees stressed that mentors “being non-judgmental, willing to listen” was critical. All mentees noted that they would recommend POP to other parents. Conclusions: Both parent mentors and mentees shared that 1:1 peer support was valuable and allowed mentors to give back and experience personal growth, while providing community and resources to mentees who were struggling to understand and support their GDY’s journey. The POP also provides an alternative to large support groups given the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. This program and others offering 1:1 parent peer support may fill an important gap in supporting parents of GDY, ultimately improving mental health outcomes for their young people. Sources of Support: Dr. Kidd was supported by the National Center for Advancing Translational Science of the NIH, Award Number TL1TR001858.

7.
Journal of Adolescent Health ; 70(4):S25, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1936664

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The demand for pediatric gender-affirming care has increased throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, highlighting the need for telehealth-based specialist-to-primary care provider (PCP) consultative support. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to identify PCPs’ perspectives on receiving training and consultation in pediatric gender-affirming care using three telehealth modalities, with the larger goal of informing the development of future consultative support offerings. Methods: PCPs who had previously reached out to the Seattle Children’s Gender Clinic for a gender care consultation were invited to participate in a semi-structured, one-hour Zoom interview. During the interview, three different telehealth modalities (tele-education, electronic consultation, telephonic consultation) were described and participants were asked to share their perspectives on 1) the benefits and drawbacks of each modality, 2) which modality would be most effective in supporting them in providing gender-affirming care in the primary care setting, and 3) factors that would make a consultation platform successful. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using an inductive thematic analysis framework by two authors using Dedoose qualitative analysis software. All participants provided informed consent and all study procedures were approved by the Seattle Children’s Institutional Review Board. Results: Interviews were completed with 15 PCPs. For the tele-education platform, PCPs most often identified continuing medical education (67%) and the community or network it creates (47%) as benefits and the commitment required (73%) and scheduling difficulties (40%) as drawbacks. For the electronic consultation model, timeliness of response (67%) and convenience (53%) were cited as benefits and electronic medical record system requirements (60%) and difficulty conveying the message electronically (53%) were considered the main drawbacks. For the telephonic consultation, PCPs identified the ability to have a conversation (80%) and the timeliness of response (60%) as the main benefits and phone-tag (87%) and finding time to make the initial call (40%) as the main drawbacks. Regarding the most effective platform, responses were mixed: 27% endorsed the electronic consultation, 27% the tele-education platform, and 20% the telephonic consultation, with the remaining 27% suggesting a hybrid of the three models. Finally, responses regarding what would make a platform successful were much more varied across participants, with the most common responses including being non-judgmental and supportive (33%) and flexible with the ability to pivot to other platforms as needed (27%). Conclusions: With the increasing demand to provide gender-affirming care in the primary care setting, further training and support is necessary for pediatric PCPs to deliver this time-sensitive care. The results of this study indicate the need for a more flexible suite of gender-focused specialist-to-PCP telehealth-based consultative services to facilitate the provision of pediatric gender-affirming care. Sources of Support: This project was supported by the Seattle Children's Research Institute and AHRQ (K12HS026393-03;PI: Sequeira) and a grant from Pivotal Ventures.

8.
Journal of Adolescent Health ; 70(4):S23, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1936662

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Pediatric gender centers have seen a notable increase in demand for gender-affirming care services during the COVID-19 pandemic. This increased need has contributed to delays in youth accessing this time-sensitive care and amplified the importance of primary care providers (PCPs) playing an active role supporting gender diverse youth in the post-pandemic world. To guide interventions to support PCPs in gender-affirming care, we sought to understand how often PCP’s see gender diverse youth in primary care and assess PCP comfort facilitating conversations about gender identity in this setting. The objectives of this study were to (1) understand whether PCPs are routinely discussing pronouns and gender identity with adolescents and (2) explore barriers to and the impact of having such discussions in primary care. Methods: This project integrated data from a needs assessment survey and from semi-structured, qualitative interviews with pediatric PCPs. The 15-item survey was administered to PCPs in a large, hospital-affiliated, pediatric primary care network in the northeastern US to better understand PCPs experiences providing adolescent healthcare. Hour long, semi-structured interviews were conducted with pediatric PCPs in the pacific northwest using an interview guide developed in partnership with two PCP stakeholders. Survey responses were analyzed descriptively. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed by two authors in Dedoose qualitative analysis software via inductive thematic analysis using an iteratively designed codebook that was adjudicated to consensus. Results: Of the pediatric PCPs surveyed (n=85), the majority were pediatricians (67%) and most had been in practice for more than 5 years (75%). Almost all (92%) PCPs reported caring for at least one gender diverse youth in their practice in the last year. However, PCPs reported discussing pronouns (15%) and gender identity (29%) during annual well visits with adolescent patients much less frequently than discussing mood (98%), motor vehicle safety (77%) and sexuality (61%). Relatedly, gender-affirming care (60%) was the topic most frequently selected by PCPs for additional education. In separate PCP interviews, participants (n=15) indicated that while they felt discussions about pronouns and gender identity were important, they experienced specific structural and interpersonal barriers that prevented these conversations from occurring. These barriers included poor health system infrastructure (like forms and electronic health records), staff concerns, uncertainty around language, lack of awareness and fear. PCPs also discussed that when they asked about pronouns and gender identity, it normalized conversations about gender, helped facilitate family support, created welcoming environments in the health system and allowed for earlier identification of youth in need of support. Conclusions: Pediatric PCPs recognize the critical role they play in supporting gender-diverse youth and their families, particularly around normalizing conversations about gender identity. However, multiple individual and clinic-level barriers to asking about pronouns and gender identity remain. These results highlight the continued need to provide resources, education and support to PCPs in discussing these topics in the primary care setting to facilitate access to time-sensitive gender-affirming care. Sources of Support: This project was supported by the Seattle Children's Research Institute Career Development and AHRQ K12HS026393-03 (PI: Sequeira).

9.
Supportive Care in Cancer ; 30:S22, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1935791

ABSTRACT

Introduction Due to COVID-19, preventative measures have been recommended in hospitals. At the Institute of Oncology (OI) Ljubljana visits were restricted in 2020 to dying patients at the Department of Acute Palliative Care (OAPO). Because of changing hospital policies, treatment of palliative patients has changed. Methods Analysis of patients hospitalized at OAPO from March 15th to May 15th 2020 and 2021 (1st and 2nd wave of COVID-19) in comparison to the same period in years 2018 and 2019. Results In 2020 and 2021, we treated more patients and had less re-admissions. In 2020, patients were mainly transferred from other wards, 44% were admitted in the dying phase. Death rate was high. Short conversation with relatives prevailed in 2020 but in 2021 family meetings. In 2018 and 2019, there was almost no direct approach (Table 1). Conclusions During COVID-19, preventive measures have been changing. Although transfer of dying patients is inappropriate;in 2020, dying and palliative patients from all OI were transferred to OAPO due to visits. We hospitalized more new patients and less already followed. Due to patients' clinical stage, death rate was high. Due to more admissions and preventative measures, family meetings were rare. In 2018 and 2019, there were more re-admissions and family meetings had happened beforehand. Especially in 2020 (1st wave), suboptimal treatment caused distress to team members, patients and relatives. In 2021, OI adjusted policies: visits were less restricted and we had more family meetings.

10.
Supportive Care in Cancer ; 30:S18-S19, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1935774

ABSTRACT

Introduction The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the psychological wellbeing of oncology healthcare professionals (HCPs) is an emerging field of inquiry, with new research focusing on the experiences and needs of staff. Occupational health and workforce literature places emphasis on preventive initiatives in the workplace, and the promotion of positive psychological health amongst HCPs (Boorman 2009). There is an overwhelming literature on stress, anxiety and burnout amongst HCPs using self-report questionnaires, in contrast to how individuals develop and sustain positive wellbeing under difficult circumstances through the self-management of stress and mobilisation of coping strategies (Cai et al. 2020). The effects of high stress working environments, particularly in health crises may lead to poorer psychological wellbeing outcomes amongst HCPs because of reduced peer support, low autonomy and social belonging, increased staff turnover rates and high workloads (Morgantini et al. 2020). This study explores the evolving experiences of oncology HCPs in the workplace during the COVID pandemic, and its impact on their psychological health. We captured the experiences of a wide range of staff to provide a broad understanding of their needs and where support might be required. Qualitative methods were used to explore how HCPs coped and managed their wellbeing during the pandemic. Methods The study aims were to: i) explore how oncology HCPs managed their psychological wellbeing during the pandemic, together with the support systems, coping strategies and knowledge and skills they used to maintain positive mental health, ii) identify the barriers and opportunities for psychological wellbeing, iii) inform the development of interventions and resources to promote and sustain the self-management of psychological wellbeing amongst oncology HCPs. Data was collected using diaries and semi-structured interviews over a period of 4 months from December 2020 to April 2021. A total of 102 HCPs were recruited comprising medical staff, nursing staff, radiographers, allied health professionals (non-Radiographers) and support staff (Cancer Support Workers, Healthcare Assistants). Fifty participants submitted diaries and 35 interviews were undertaken. The response rate was 64%. Thirty-five participants consented but did not submit data and two nurses requested to withdraw (37% non-response rate). Demographic data revealed the majority of participants were female (83%) and worked full-time (73%). The age range was evenly distributed between the 21-50 year groups (16% in the 51-60 age group). Most participants (62%) had been employed at the cancer centre for < 5 years, reflecting the recruitment of new staff associated with the expansion of the organisation. Transcribed diaries and interviews were analysed using Interpretative phenomenological analysis (Smith & Osborn 2015). IPA recognises individuals make sense of situations through an interpretation of events, and offers insights into how a person, within a specific context, understands and experiences a phenomenon. Results Participants experienced a myriad of emotions associated with coping during the COVID pandemic. Emotions fluctuated between positive and negative feelings, marked by the passage of time, life events and organisational changes. Regardless of professional group, individuals were dealing with similar challenges, as all were experiencing the pandemic in the context of the same organisational environment. Four main themes emerged: 1) Self-management, 2) Delivery of patient care, 3) Managing professional roles, 4) Managing the employer/ employee relationships. Self-management Participants used different strategies to manage wellbeing such as concealing emotions and speaking out. The concealment of emotions was used to maintain the appearance of coping, which was important in managing professional relationships, such as not letting colleagues down. Various strategies were used to regulate emotions, including slowing down, appreciating life more and being positive. Thought rocessing enabled the long-term consequences of the pandemic to be managed, helping to minimise the impact of fatigue and loss of concentration, however, this was not without its consequences. Sustaining the ups and downs of positive outlooks over long periods was described as an emotional 'roller-coaster'. The 'emotional roller-coaster' metaphor was used in conjunction with 'Ground Hog' day, denoting the monotony and drawn out nature of the pandemic. Seeing the bigger picture and comparing self with others aided adjustment and self-regulation, supported by the belief that others were experiencing worse situations such a job losses. Participants expressed guilt and gratitude that they had not been redeployed to the COVID front line. Delivery of patient care The provision of high quality patient care was a dominant theme in the narratives of staff. Job satisfaction was contingent on being able to meet the needs of patients and feeling that a good job had been done. The transition to remote working, loss of face-to-face contact with patients and absence of patients' families required adjustment to new ways of working. Participants described how the loss of physical contact with patients impacted negatively on patient-professional communication, in particular, not being able to interpret the person's body language as a result of mask-wearing and social distancing. The pandemic dramatically altered the cancer care landscape from reductions and cancellations in elective care and cancer treatment to protect immunosuppressed patients, to delays in diagnoses and treatment, cessation of clinical trials, and more advanced stage disease in patients with poorer health outcomes. Service pressures linked to the reinstatement and escalation of cancer services required resilience and adjustment on the part of participants. Managing professional roles The management of professional roles during the pandemic disrupted usual ways of working linked to changes in patient care, multidisciplinary teamwork and workforce organisation. Although a proportion of staff continued to work in their clinical areas during the pandemic, other teams adopted a hybrid approach, working between clinical and home environments. Working from home, dealing with technology-related issues, finding a suitable location to work in, managing home schooling and care of elderly relatives alongside the job required additional psychological resources. Participants faced redeployment from their usual places of work to help other clinical areas in greater need. As staff transitioned to working from home, corridor conversations and informal networking opportunities were lost. That said, the normality of working life and support of colleagues was a constant in the lives of participants and provided a platform on which to build positive wellbeing. Participants described the 'Dunkirk spirit' and being 'in the same boat' as others, with team solidarity and camaraderie being a core component of the wellbeing experience. Managing the employer/employee relationships A number of staff expressed frustration that management did not appear to listen to concerns and were unaware of what staff were going through, however, others felt positively supported. Although several spoke of hiding their emotions and anxieties, openly displaying feelings resulted in support being offered. Staff believed more attention should be paid to the day-to-day pressures of providing patient care. It was acknowledged that managers may have their own mental health needs, but it was less clear how these were being met. Support was believed to differ between management grades, with those closer to the workforce and more visible being valued. Communication between staff and the organisation was seen as key to understanding wellbeing needs. Email appeared to be the preferred method for conveying information during the pandemic, however, access to email was variable across staff groups, potentially leading to inequalities in staff experiences. The majority of staff in this study had not accessed wellbeing resources, mainly due to lack of time and being unfamiliar with how to use them. Conclusions This study has identified the dynamic and evolving nature of mental health and wellbeing amongst HCPs. Participants displayed enormous resilience throughout the pandemic, rising to the challenges posed by COVID, however, the study has highlighted the importance of identifying mental health issues and how these may change over time.

11.
Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research ; 46:20A-21A, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1937875

ABSTRACT

The current project explores affective rewards from alcohol in the context of virtual social interactions. The COVID-19 pandemic brought with it a radical shift toward the digital world. In light of pandemic- related changes in drinking and also emotional well-being, it becomes imperative to understand the cognitive and affective processes involved in virtual interactions and the impact of alcohol in these novel social spaces. The current study leverages an eye tracking and an alcohol administration paradigm to examine the impact of alcohol on self-focused attention and affect, as well as the interplay between self-focused attention and affective processes, in the context of a virtual social exchange. Heavy social drinkers (N = 246) were randomly assigned to receive either a moderate dose of alcohol (target BAC = 0.08%) or a non-alcoholic beverage. After beverage consumption, participants engaged in a virtual video call in pairs. Participants viewed video feed in split screen, displaying both themselves and their interaction partner, and their gaze behavior was continuously tracked using the EyeLink 1000. Participants' affect was repeatedly assessed throughout their experimental sessions. Results indicated that, on average, participants spent substantially more time looking at their conversation partner vs. themselves during the video call, b = 2.49, p < 0.0001. Of particular note, there was a significant relationship between gaze direction and alcohol, b = -0.46, p = 0.015. Specifically, relative to sober participants, those consuming alcohol spent more time looking at themselves and less at their conversation partners. There was also a significant relationship between gaze direction and negative affect, b = -0.29, p = 0.015, such that those who spent especially large proportions of their time gazing at themselves vs. their conversation partner reported higher levels of negative affect following the virtual exchange. Lastly, the powerful mood-enhancing properties of alcohol that are typically observed in in-person interaction did not emerge in this online context. Results carry potential implications for understanding factors that increase risk for hazardous drinking and negative affectivity in our increasingly virtual world.

12.
Emerging conversations in coaching and coaching psychology ; : 125-140, 2021.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1934486

ABSTRACT

Technology already has enabled coaching to scale globally and reach thousands of coaching clients. For several years, coaches and their clients have been working together by phone and videoconference. Yet there is an even larger opportunity to scale coaching. Today's technology and future innovations offer much more than convenient alternatives to in-person coaching sessions. With the onset of COVID lockdowns and mass working-from-home, coaching previously done via in-person sessions also moved rapidly to remote sessions via telephone and videoconference. Coaches and their clients have adopted new practices such as: walking sessions (coach and client are both walking in their chosen locations while talking);sessions in outdoor spaces;and sessions using virtual reality tools. They have also added a decision on which communication approach to use as a pre-session step. As organisations slowly open up their workplaces on a limited basis, permission for in-person coaching sessions is generally low priority relative to, e.g., key project team meetings. Both organisations and employees have expressed "there's no going back" to daily office life and commutes. The data on pandemic-related changes in demand for the types of digital tools discussed in this chapter is still emerging. It is also unclear whether or how the demand for digital tools will change once in-person coaching options are partially or fully restored. Like other helping professions, coaching has gone through an intense period of digital delivery. The context of this period is one of mass use of digital tools for remote working, schooling at all levels and personal, social relationships. While fighting exposure to a virus, we have been heavily exposed to digital communication in all aspects of our lives. As results from mass distribution of COVID vaccines during 2021 become clear coaching clients, their employers and coaches will have new data to use to reset how coaching sessions take place. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

13.
History of Education Quarterly ; 62(3):337-352, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1931235

ABSTRACT

Since No Child Left Behind was signed into law, test-based accountability has become a core feature of the K-12 public education system in the United States. The approach, it would seem, is here to stay. Yet that is not to say that anything resembling a consensus has emerged. Over the past twenty years, critics have continued to raise questions about the theory of change underlying test-based accountability, and scholars have detailed a variety of unintended consequences associated with it.If test-based accountability is both likely to persist and imperfect in its design, then it is critical to consider how its shortcomings might be addressed. In service of that aim, and in keeping with the mission of this feature, this Policy Dialogue explores future possibilities by starting, first, with a look at the past. In this particular case, participants were asked to address one simple question: “What have we learned from two decades of high-stakes testing?”As regular readers of HEQ are aware, these dialogues usually feature a historian in conversation with a scholar or practitioner from the world of policy. In this case, the choice of Diane Ravitch was a natural one, particularly given the fact that she is a member of HEQ's editorial board. A research professor at New York University, she is also a former assistant US secretary of education and the author of several books about measurement and accountability.Rather than select a single interlocutor, however, the editors chose to pair her with three leaders who represent the broad range of viewpoints in the field: Denise Forte, Princess Moss, and Paul Reville. Denise Forte is the interim CEO of The Education Trust. She brings to our conversation twenty years of experience in congressional staff roles, including as the staff director for the House Committee on Education and the Workforce. Princess Moss is vice president of the National Education Association and cochair of the NEA's task force on measurement and accountability. In prior work with the NEA's Executive Committee, she helped develop the group's position on reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act—from NCLB to the Every Student Succeeds Act. Paul Reville is the Francis Keppel Professor of Practice of Educational Policy and Administration at the Harvard Graduate School of Education and former secretary of education for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Nearly a decade before the passage of NCLB, he played a key role in the development of the Massachusetts Education Reform Act of 1993, which instituted standards-based accountability across the state.HEQ Policy Dialogues are, by design, intended to promote an informal, free exchange of ideas between scholars. At the end of the exchange, we offer a list of references for readers who wish to follow up on sources relevant to the discussion.

14.
9th International Conference on Learning and Collaboration Technologies, LCT 2022 Held as Part of the 24th HCI International Conference, HCII 2022 ; 13328 LNCS:304-312, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1930331

ABSTRACT

The number of online lectures has increased against the backdrop of the COVID-19 pandemic. With the increase in online lectures, more methods of evaluating their quality and improving lecture styles are being developed. We proposed a method of estimating online lecture quality using the SD-F0 values of students’ response utterances. First, we confirmed the effectiveness of the SD-F0 values of students’ response utterances in estimating students’ understanding of lectures. Through identification experiments using an online lecture video database, the precision rate of “Understanding” was found to be 80.6%. This suggests that when the SD-F0 value was high, with a high probability, the student understood the lecture content. Next, we analyzed the relationship between the SD-F0 values of the students’ utterances and lecture quality. We confirmed that during the first thirty minutes of a lecture, when the SD-F0 value was high, the lecture was considered high-quality. If the SD-F0 values of the 10% or 20% utterances in a lecture exceeded a boundary set by the SVM (the boundary between high- and low-quality lectures), the lecture could be regarded as high-quality. The identification rate was greater than 80%. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

15.
Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering ; 83(8-B):No Pagination Specified, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1929321

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of background sounds (rap music and rock music specifically) on the speed of an adult's ability to problem solve. These two popular genres of music within the adult population carry a negative relationship between rap and rock music on the listener in previous studies. For this study, participants were recruited from around the world via social media. There were no statistically significant findings in problem solving speed across all conditions (classical, rap, rock, background conversations, and silence), likely due to a small sample size as a result of Covid-19. Those who listened to rock music performed on average the fastest of the music genres. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

16.
Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering ; 83(8-B):No Pagination Specified, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1929263

ABSTRACT

The world flipped to remote work overnight with the COVID-19 pandemic. As such, current literature on the pandemic video call work environment is limited and is mainly trade articles. Previous literature used many terms, with one term per study, to evaluate deliberate behaviors where one engaged in an unrelated task with or without a conversation partner. Therefore, this study identified divided presence as the umbrella term to aggregate these behaviors. At this point, divided presence is defined as one's deliberate behavioral choice to divide one's presence between a live conversation partner and at least one other unrelated task simultaneously. This narrative study examined how 21 pharmaceutical or biotechnology professionals who worked remotely at least two days per week and experienced receiving divided presence from colleagues on work video calls in the COVID-19 remote work environment made sense of this experience. This research used real-life scenarios in video calls with 3 participants per call and a follow-up survey to validate themes. Psychological meaningfulness, safety, and availability served as this study's theoretical framework. Ten themes emerged across the call groupings. Findings suggest that when participants received divided presence, they experienced negative, empathetic, and variable emotional impact. The nature of the colleague relationship and the unrelated task were potential mitigating or compounding factors. Power dynamics had an impact and, repeat engagers in divided presence were detrimental to working relationships. Lastly, poorly organized meetings increased undesirable impact from a participant's receiving and propensity to engage in divided presence. This study's findings validated pre-COVID-19 literature, showed that the theoretical framework still works today, and provided challenges to literature with siloed lenses. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

17.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1927853

ABSTRACT

Introduction:Immunocompromised individuals, such as those with HIV and low CD4 counts, are at increased risk for opportunistic infections. Although uncommon, these patients can be infected with multiple organisms, making diagnosis and management challenging for clinicians. Mortality remains high, as the data on initiating and adjusting antimicrobials when there is concern for co-infection is lacking. We present a case of Pneumocystis jiroveci (PCP) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) coinfection resulting in severe hypoxic respiratory failure and death. Case Report:A 38-year-old male with no past medical history presented with fever, dyspnea, and nonproductive cough. Vital signs were notable for a fever of 102.3°F, respiratory rate of 24, and oxygen saturation of 77% on room air. Physical examination revealed an ill-appearing male with bilateral rhonchi who became dyspneic with minimal conversation. Laboratory studies were significant for an elevated c-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, ferritin and lactate dehydrogenase. CT chest demonstrated bilateral ground glass opacities with multifocal consolidations. The patient was admitted for hypoxic respiratory failure secondary to suspected COVID pneumonia, despite negative testing. By hospital day 4, the patient had shown little improvement. Further work-up revealed that he was HIV positive with a CD4 count of 5, so he was empirically started on oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMPSMX) for presumed PCP pneumonia. On hospital day 9, the patient underwent endotracheal intubation for worsening hypoxia and subsequent bronchoscopy for further evaluation. PCP PCR confirmed the diagnosis, and the patient was transitioned to intravenous TMP-SMX. Still with minimal improvement, micafungin was added as potential salvage therapy. After 12 days of TMPSMX, treatment was changed to clindamycin/primaquine. CMV PCR from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid came back positive at this time, so ganciclovir was added to the regimen. Despite multiple antimicrobials, the patient continued to decline. He was deemed not to be a candidate for ECMO given his profoundly immunocompromised status and ultimately died. Discussion:This case highlights the difficulties clinicians have in managing severely immunocompromised patients who worsen despite appropriate care. Little data exists providing guidelines on when to change to second and/or third-line agents in treating PCP pneumonia. Additionally, further studies need to be completed to delineate in whom empiric antimicrobials should be initiated early when co-infection is a possibility. ECMO may serve a purpose in this patient population given that lung rest is necessary to allow healing, but only a few cases of its use exist at this time.

18.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1927813

ABSTRACT

Rationale -For the aging and comorbid veteran population, COVID-19 has made “ventilator” a household word. With the excessive cost and low quality of life associated with aggressive end of life (EOL) care, the need for effective goals of care (GOC) conversations prior to development of acute illness has never been higher. Physicians are often reluctant to initiate these conversations, but patients could be prompted to broach the topic using standardized media delivered in the waiting room. Methods -We conducted a randomized controlled trial evaluating educational media in the outpatient setting. Veterans in the waiting room who were over 65 were randomized to one of two interventions or control. The interventions were a VHA produced brochure on GOC or a 7-minute video on GOC featuring a mock code. Participants were given a survey, and had a follow up phone interview to assess if they had brought up EOL care at their office visit. At 30 days, chart review assessed documentation of GOC. Primary endpoint was whether the patient initiated an EOL discussion at their office visit. Secondary endpoints included code status, GOC documentation, and evaluation of emotional response. Results -Despite hundreds of eligible patients, <10% opted to discuss enrollment, and <5% enrolled in this study. Needed sample size was 153, with only 30 enrolled at study conclusion. There was low rates of all endpoints. Only one participant initiated EOL discussions, but this discussion was not documented. Three filed new GOC documents (including one who died while CMO). Two found the material upsetting (including one in the control). None indicated that they would not trust their physician to make EOL decisions for them, though several were unsure. All participants thought that their material should be shown to other veterans. Due to underpowering, there was no statistical difference in any outcome (Table 1). Conclusion -EOL discussions remain an important job of the outpatient physician, though many patients do not discuss EOL care until they are acutely ill. A standardized patient centered format delivered in the clinic waiting room remains a promising option to facilitate these discussions, though there are still physician level barriers in documenting these conversations. Larger studies are required to demonstrate that this type of intervention is effective. Our study shows that patients have low rates of negative emotional responses to this type of material, and would universally recommend this material to other veterans.

19.
Obstetrics and Gynecology ; 139(SUPPL 1):87S, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1925191

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Pregnant women are at increased risk of severe disease with COVID-19. Despite strong recommendations from ACOG and the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine for vaccination, COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy persists. With this study, we aim to evaluate opinions about the COVID-19 vaccine in a cohort of high-risk pregnant patients. METHODS: Institutional review board approval was obtained. Patients attending a regional Maternal-Fetal Medicine clinic were surveyed about the COVID-19 vaccine using a standardized questionnaire. Demographic, obstetrical, and medical information were ed using medical records. The vaccinated and unvaccinated groups were evaluated using student t-tests and a hierarchical Bayesian logistic regression. RESULTS: Among the 157 participants, 38.2% received the vaccine. There were no significant differences between the groups in age, BMI, employment, race and ethnicity, gestational age, or gravity. There was no correlation with influenza or Tdap vaccination rates, nor tobacco or alcohol use. Education level was negatively correlated with vaccination status and had the largest effect size. Those with education at or less than eighth grade level were least likely to be vaccinated (95% CI, 24.46 to 20.41). Those with children in the home were less likely to be vaccinated (95% CI, 21.36 to 20.59). Unvaccinated patients chose lack of data in pregnancy (66%) as their primary concern. Most patients prefer to learn about vaccines via conversation with their doctor (46.7% for vaccinated and 59.8% for unvaccinated). CONCLUSION: The vaccination rate is low in our population. A provider-initiated conversation about COVID-19 vaccination included with routine prenatal care could increase the vaccination rate.

20.
Technoetic Arts ; 19(1-2):13-28, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1923721

ABSTRACT

As the first large online event of the American Society for Cybernetics, the ASC2020 Global Conversation offered an opportunity to develop new online types of cybernetic conversations on cybernetics, in cybernetic formats. This article discusses the design decisions that led to a particular organizational structure of the event, and observations on how the event unfolded from this organizational structure. Based on observations made throughout the event as well as its preparation stage, the article maps seven different types of conversations taking place before and during the event and discusses opportunities and constraints encountered in relation to each identified type. As online conferences have proliferated exponentially due to the impact of COVID-19, this article aims to contribute a cybernetic perspective to the broader discourse on scholarly international exchange in online media, and offers a new perspective on how such conversations might be designed in a cybernetic manner. © 2021 Intellect Ltd Article.

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