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1.
Cahiers Agricultures ; JOUR, 31.
Article in French | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2082635

ABSTRACT

Cocoa farmers in Cote d'Ivoire are mostly below the poverty line. In September 2019, the Ivorian and Ghanaian governments imposed the Living Income Differential (LID) on private companies, an additional $ 400 per ton compared to the international market price, passed on to the producer price (farm gate price). At the beginning of 2020, the Covid-19 arose. In this dual context, how did prices change? Has the hope of increased income been achieved? Three approaches are used: a) monitoring of the selling price of cocoa beans and monitoring of the price of purchased cocoa farming inputs and basic necessities for households;b) monthly monitoring of farm gate cocoa price in 2020-2021;c) an analysis of national production data from Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana, the world price, variations in the demand for beans by the grinding industry, and the price paid to producers, over 20 years. The first result is a very temporary and limited rise in the farm gate price of cocoa at the end of 2020, then its fall in 2021 as the price of inputs and basic necessities soar. The 2021-2022 campaign is even more harmful with a tightening of the price scissor. It is therefore the failure of the LID, but the role of Covid-19 in this failure is very nuanced with regard to the declarations of the State and the multinationals. The drop in prices and the loss of income for cocoa farmers in 2020-2022 rather fits into the economic theory of games. Without control of their supply, an agreement between two companies or countries cannot work. The failure is part of a largely endogenous structural change: demographic growth, policies to encourage migration and deforestation, opacity of the sector and finally continued growth of the supply of cocoa from Cote d'Ivoire on the international market.

2.
Review of Integrative Business and Economics Research ; 11:144-163, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2046103

ABSTRACT

In the Philippines, Undersecretary Orlando R. Ravanera, Chairman of the Cooperative Development Authority, declared that since the founding of the Rochdale Cooperative in England in 1884, different countries have adopted this cooperative form of organization that has resulted in significant economic gains and social development. Findings in this research could offer policy makers, especially those in the Philippine Congress, insights on the importance of cooperatives as partners in community and nation-building by different governments across the globe. [...]to appreciate the role of cooperatives to the Philippine economy, especially during this COVID 19 pandemic, the two provisions in the Philippine Cooperative Code of 2008 that provide for the tax exemption and tax treatment of cooperatives are hopefully not repealed. 2. [...]some countries allow agricultural cooperatives to enjoy tax exemptions and tax holidays so that these organizations can continue their role in addressing poverty, securing food production and boost economic growth (Kireyeva, 2016) as a whole. The cooperatives' not-for-profit nature is a justification for tax advantages in some countries, however in Western agri-food systems agricultural cooperatives face the challenge of inevitably competing with investor-owned businesses where they are at a bind between raising capital and conserving their basic governance (Tortia, Valentinov and Iliopoulos, 2013).

3.
Revista de Gestão Social e Ambiental ; 16(2):1-21, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2040621

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the Cooperatives' actions regarding the SDGs in the context of COVID-19 Pandemic. Theoretical framework: For a better understanding of the research theme in question, the themes Agenda 2030, Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and Cooperativism will be briefly grounded. Method: The study consisted of a descriptive and quantitative research, with the application of an online questionnaire, via Google Forms, answered from November 2021 to February 2022 by 16 representatives of the Cooperatives. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and content analysis. Results and conclusion: The results pointed to the maintenance of partnerships with other companies/cooperatives and changes in the production chain;increase in actions related to the employees' health, and reduction of funding for actions or projects and development of new products/services;low commitment of cooperatives in relation to the SDGs;male predominance in leadership positions, except in the health sector;importance of acting in the market applying cooperative's principles and values, complying with legislation;making partnerships and listening to the society demands. Research implications: contributes to the understanding of what cooperatives consider important, in addition to drawing the attention of cooperatives to actively participate in achieving the SDGs goals. Originality/value: contributes towards linking the SDGs to the Cooperatives, with their principles and values, highlighting their importance for the population and the region where they operate, identifying the actions carried out by them regarding the SDGs in times of the COVID-19 pandemic, after all, the SDGs must be worked on by governments, organizations and the population together.Alternate :Objetivo: Analisar as ações das Cooperativas em relação aos ODS no contexto da Pandemia do COVID-19. Referencial teórico: Para melhor compreensão da temática de pesquisa em questão serão brevemente fundamentados os temas Agenda 2030, Objetivos de Desenvolvimento Sustentável (ODS) e Cooperativismo. Método: O estudo consistiu em pesquisa descritiva e quantitativa, com aplicação de questionários online, via Google Forms, respondido no período de novembro de 2021 a fevereiro de 2022 por 16 representantes das Cooperativas. Os dados foram analisados por meio da estatística descritiva e análise de conteúdo. Resultados e conclusão: Os resultados apontaram para manutenção de parcerias com outras empresas/cooperativas e mudanças na cadeia produtiva;aumento em relação às ações relacionadas à saúde dos colaboradores, e redução de financiamentos de ações ou projetos e desenvolvimento de novos produtos/serviços;baixo comprometimento das cooperativas em relação aos ODS;predominância do sexo masculino em cargos de liderança, exceto no ramo da saúde;importância de atuar no mercado aplicando os princípios e valores cooperativistas, cumprindo com a legislação;fazendo parcerias e ouvindo as reivindicações da sociedade. Implicações da pesquisa: contribui para o entendimento do que as cooperativas consideram importante, além de chamar a atenção das cooperativas no sentido de participarem ativamente para o cumprimento das metas dos ODS. Originalidade/valor: contribui no sentido de vincular os ODS às Cooperativas, com seus princípios e valores, destacando a importância das mesmas para a população e a região aonde atuam, identificando as ações por elas realizadas referente aos ODS em tempos de pandemia COVID-19, afinal, os ODS devem ser trabalhados pelos governos, organizações e população em conjunto.

4.
Canadian Journal of Nonprofit and Social Economy Research ; 12(2):13-22, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2030591

ABSTRACT

Most of Canada’s 1.2 million small-and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) have been affected by the pandemic, com-pounding serious issues facing Canada’s economy, including the potential for large-scale business closures due to the growing number of retirement-aged owners without a formal succession plan. One social economy option in Canada to save businesses and the jobs they provide is to sell them to employees or community members and convert them to co-operatives. The Conversion to Co-operatives Project set out to better understand business conversion to cooperatives (BCCs) in Canada and help the country’s co-op movement build BCC capacity. This article outlines the project’s key findings to date. © 2021, University of Alberta Library. All rights reserved.

5.
Indian Journal of Dairy Science ; 75(4):365-375, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2026620

ABSTRACT

The present study assessed the disruptions in the dairy food supply chain and associated stakeholders due to COVID-19 in Karnataka, India. A cross-sectional survey using a multistage random sampling procedure was conducted and data was collected from the dairy food supply chain associated stakeholders in Karnataka, India. The results revealed that milk providers to the co-operatives increased by 4.67 % and the quantity of milk collection increased by 25.15 % during the lockdown. On the service front, 41.3% of the dairy co-operative societies faced animal feed shortage. The average per day milk consumption increased by 42.7 % during lockdown mainly driven by the return of family members from cities to villages. However, the gross income realized through milk sales by the dairy farmers decreased during the lockdown period mainly due to reduced milk prices offered by the co-operatives. The gross income realized through the sale of milk products by the vendors declined by 5.11% due to a fall in demand for various milk products. Despite many problems faced by the co-operative sector during the lockdown, it acted as a buffer and protected the dairy food supply chain from the free market and capitalist breakdown in Karnataka.

6.
Ciriec-Espana Revista De Economia Publica Social Y Cooperativa ; 105:65-91, 2022.
Article in Spanish | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2025309

ABSTRACT

Uruguayan cooperativism is characterized by strong links with guilds and unions, and the cooperative figure has often been a tool to address their demands. This is the case of the Cooperatives of Artists and Related Trades (CAOC), a new figure in the country, created as a result of negotiations between the Performing Arts Unions and the State, which seeks to include an informal and traditionally unprotected sector in the social security system. This paper analyzes, on the basis of a qualitative case study, the singularity of the relationship between these unions and the first two established artists' cooperatives (Valorarte and Coopaudem). The objective is to understand the functioning of these organizations which, as observed in the joint approach to the COVID-19 crisis, are a clear example of the possibility of generating strategic alliances between unionism and cooperativism. The leading role played by trade unions in the process of estabishing this type of cooperatives, as well as in the founding of the aforementioned CAOCs, confirms the clear relevance of this ooperatives as a trade union tool. Likewise, it is noted that this quasi-symbiotic relationship presents strengths in the operational aspect and in the achievement of the goals of each organization, constitutes a novel and innovative modality, but also compromises the principles of free membership and cooperative autonomy. Finally, it is assessed that this relation deepens the weaknesses these organizations inclusion and links with the rest of the cooperative sector, with whom it has had little contact since its inception.

7.
CIRIEC - Espana ; - (105):93-114, 2022.
Article in Spanish | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1994444

ABSTRACT

The article gives an account of the result of the research developed in response to the call made by the International Labour Organization (ILO) and the Open Society Foundations (OSF) in 2021 to carry out a project that would identify the potential of the link between unions and cooperatives to organize workers in the informal economy in African and Latin American countries. Researchers from ODI, London, with the collaboration of researchers and practitioners from Brazil, Colombia, Ghana, Kenya and Uganda, identified and documented partnership examples through which to shed light development processes, identify learning on successes and challenges, and inform recommendations for future support. A country case study of Colombia is provided to illustrate the variety, complexity and possibilities of the topic studied. Three nascent partnership experiences, linked in different ways to the social and solidarity economy, demonstrate the potential of this approach to promote fair trade, responsible consumption and local markets, boost entrepreneurship and create decent working conditions for workers who traditionally face informality.Alternate :El artículo da cuenta del resultado de la investigación desarrollada en respuesta a la convocatoria realizada por la Organización Internacional del Trabajo (OIT) y la Open Society Foundations (OSF) en el 2021 para llevar a cabo un proyecto que permitiera identificar los beneficios del vínculo entre los sindicatos y la Economía Social y Solidaria (ESS) para organizar los trabajadores de la economía informal en países africanos y latinoamericanos. Investigadoras de ODI, de Londres con la colaboración de investigadoras de Brasil, Colombia, Ghana, Kenia y Uganda, identificaron y documentaron casos que permiten analizar los procesos de desarrollo de alianzas, proporcionando aprendizajes a partir de los éxitos y desafíos como también recomendaciones para el futuro. Se revisa en especial el caso colombiano, para ilustrar la variedad, complejidad y posibilidades del estudio desarrollado;allí, se describen tres experiencias, todas en etapas tempranas, vinculadas con diferentes expresiones de la economía social y solidaria que demuestran los potenciales de esta relación para fomentar el comercio justo, el consumo responsable y los mercados locales;dinamizar el emprendimiento en los territorios y crear condiciones de trabajo digno para los trabajadores que afrontan tradicionalmente la informalidad.

8.
CIRIEC - Espana ; - (105):65-91, 2022.
Article in Spanish | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1994443

ABSTRACT

El cooperativismo uruguayo se caracteriza por su fuerte vinculación con gremios y sindicatos, siendo la figura cooperativa frecuentemente utilizada como herramienta para abordar las reivindicaciones sindicales. Es el caso de las Cooperativas de Artistas y Oficios Conexos (CAOC), una nueva figura jurídica en el país, creada a partir de negociaciones entre los sindicatos de las artes escénicas y el Estado, que busca incluir en la seguridad social a un sector informal y tradicionalmente desprotegido. Este trabajo analiza, a partir de un estudio de caso de abordaje cualitativo, la singularidad de la relación entre estos sindicatos y las dos primeras cooperativas de artistas establecidas (Valorarte y Coopaudem). El objetivo es comprender el funcionamiento de estas organizaciones que, tal como se observa en el abordaje conjunto ante la crisis COVID-19, configuran un claro ejemplo de la posibilidad de generar alianzas estratégicas entre sindicalismo y cooperativismo. El rol protagónico de los sindicatos en el proceso de conformación de esta clase de cooperativas, así como en la fundación de las dos mencionadas CAOC, confirma la clara vigencia de estas cooperativas como herramienta sindical. Asimismo, se constata que esta relación cuasi simbiótica presenta fortalezas en lo operativo y en la consecución de los fines de cada organización, constituyendo una modalidad novedosa e innovadora, pero también tensiona los principios de libre membresía y autonomía cooperativa. Finalmente, se valora que profundiza debilidades en la inserción y vínculo con el resto del sector cooperativo, con quien mantienen un escaso contacto desde su génesis.Alternate :Uruguayan cooperativism is characterized by strong links with guilds and unions, and the cooperative figure has often been a tool to address their demands. This is the case of the Cooperatives of Artists and Related Trades (CAOC), a new figure in the country, created as a result of negotiations between the Performing Arts Unions and the State, which seeks to include an informal and traditionally unprotected sector in the social security system. This paper analyzes, on the basis of a qualitative case study, the singularity of the relationship between these unions and the first two established artists' cooperatives (Valorarte and Coopaudem). The objective is to understand the functioning of these organizations which, as observed in the joint approach to the COVID-19 crisis, are a clear example of the possibility of generating strategic alliances between unionism and cooperativism. The leading role played by trade unions in the process of estabishing this type of cooperatives, as well as in the founding of the aforementioned CAOCs, confirms the clear relevance of this ooperatives as a trade union tool. Likewise, it is noted that this quasi-symbiotic relationship presents strengths in the operational aspect and in the achievement of the goals of each organization, constitutes a novel and innovative modality, but also compromises the principles of free membership and cooperative autonomy. Finally, it is assessed that this relation deepens the weaknesses these organizations inclusion and links with the rest of the cooperative sector, with whom it has had little contact since its inception.

9.
Sustainability ; 14(15):9607, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1994190

ABSTRACT

The agri-food and forestry sectors are under increasing pressure to adapt to climate change, consumer concern, technological and economic change, and complex global value chains. In turn, such challenges require that the necessary skills and competences are identified at various levels and within specific areas of the sectors. For that purpose, eleven focus groups in nine different EU-countries and two at EU-level were organized within the ERASMUS+ project “FIELDS” with the participation of farmers, cooperatives, agri-food companies, foresters, forest industries, advisors, and education providers to identify the skills needed in the agri-food and forestry sectors. The focus group participants identified business and strategic management skills, communication skills, and other skills related to sustainability, entrepreneurship, digital and soft skills to be most important for the agri-food and forestry sectors as a whole.

10.
Journal of Accounting and Finance ; 22(3):44-57, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1989729

ABSTRACT

This paper aims to present Social and solidarity entrepreneurship as a credible model for the emergence of new managerial practices for the solidarity economy companies (SSE, now). This model, especially in times of crises (Covid-19 health, economic, etc.) is an "alternative" to other forms of entrepreneurship specific to the traditional economy due to their double and sometimes triple ultimate goal - achieving financial, social and environmental goals. In recent years, innovative financing mechanisms such as guarantees, impact investing, Crowdfunding and complementary currencies have emerged to address these challenges and enable SSE organizations to thrive. Our study realized in between 2018-2019, on the various initiatives and financing mechanisms with a population of 390 Moroccan cooperatives in the Agadir Souss-Massa region, underline that the financing mechanisms are diversified and presented on the one hand, a certain potential to create and preserve decent jobs, create wealth, reduce social inequalities and advance local development. On the other hand, results showed also a deficiency in the management and diversification of these modes of financing.

11.
Boletin De La Asociacion Internacional De Derecho Cooperativo-International Association of Cooperative Law Journal ; 60:157-190, 2022.
Article in Spanish | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1988720

ABSTRACT

In the current Social and Economic situation generated by the COVID-19 pandemic, we have to highlight the primary role that Cooperative Societies have adopted in our Society. However, they are not alien to the con-flicts that usually arise between them and their partners and vice versa. There-fore, in the event that the matters of the conflicts are freely available between the parties, they could be solved by extrajudicial means, which have gained a special role in our society. In this way, this author considers it opportune to make a series of improvement proposals regarding the Arbitration Procedure of the Higher Council of Cooperatives of Euskadi (SVAC-BITARTU) to provide it with even greater guarantees than it currently has.

12.
New Labor Forum ; 30(3):20-28, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1986665

ABSTRACT

We are in the midst of cascading political, economic, health, and environmental crises. Perhaps most evident is the Republican Party's introduction of over 360 legislative bills primarily aimed at making it harder for people of color and urban residents to vote. Meanwhile, we are slowly emerging from the Covid-19 pandemic that exacerbated the pre-existing economic crisis stemming from out of control wealth inequality. All of these problems have common origins in elite control of an economy organized around capital accumulation, and popular racism cultivated over centuries by elites to divert white workers away from multi-racial solidarity with workers of color.

13.
Vinimaya ; 43(1):36-50, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1970575

ABSTRACT

In this regard, the Local Circles Survey conducted in April 2020 suggests that, 47 per cent small borrowers had just one month of cash left to run their business1 Similarly, as per Money Outlook survey, almost 25 per cent of micro enterprises in rural areas faced a closure due to lack demand2 Also, the recent RBI publication states that, 65 per cent of loans were under moratorium as on April 30, 2020 and, borrowers including farmers, traders and micro enterprises engaged in food processing etc. experienced difficulties to repay bank dues subsequently3. [...]RBI announced a series of relief measures including moratorium on payment of loan installments, asset classification allowing to remain standstill, restructuring of loans etc., while helping rural cooperatives to continue to provide credit to agriculture and allied activities. [...]DCCBs were less dependent on borrowings due to higher share of deposits whose percentage to total liabilities was around 18.5 as against around 25.5 as in the case of St.CBs. [...]owned funds formed to be another major source to lend on long term basis whose percentage to total liabilities stood at 18 and 12 for St.CBs and DCCBs respectively. [...]St.CBs were relative more active in short term lending while DCCBs were known for long term credit. The amount of profit per St.CB, DCCB and PAC amounted to Rs. 52.24 crores, Rs.2.41 crores and Rs. 0.02 crore respectively. [...]among the Short Term Cooperatives, St.CBs were better placed in raising low cost of funds and using the same for lending to a larger extent which enabled them to maintain higher profits.

14.
RELIGACIÓN. Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades ; 6(28), 2021.
Article in Spanish | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1955625

ABSTRACT

The problem of this study is the scarce analysis of the behavior of the cooperative client or digital partner from the financial perspective, their needs, desires, and requirements. The main objective is to define the behavior of the digital client during the pandemic in the cooperative sector Tungurahua-Ecuador. The methodology, being a descriptive exploratory study, uses methods such as historical-logical and deductive to support the state of the art. The samples of this research are the savings and credit cooperatives that correspond to segment 2 and 228 potential members of the city of Ambato-Tungurahua to whom the data collection instrument was applied, and statistical tools are used to reach the final conclusions. The results contain four sections that allow characterizing the behavior of the digital cooperative member. And as conclusions, it is evident that savings and credit cooperatives need to establish consumer needs and aspects to focus business strategies and actions, which supports their loyalty.Alternate :La problemática de este estudio es el escaso análisis del comportamiento del cliente o socio digital cooperativista desde el enfoque financiero, sus necesidades, deseos y requerimientos. El objetivo principal es definir el comportamiento del cliente digital durante la pandemia en el sector cooperativista Tungurahua-Ecuador. En la metodología, al ser un estudio descriptivo exploratorio utiliza métodos como el histórico-lógico y el deductivo para la sustentación del estado del arte. Las muestras de esta investigación son: las cooperativas de ahorro y crédito que corresponden al segmento 2 y 228 socios potenciales de la ciudad de Ambato- Tungurahua a quienes se aplicó el instrumento de recolección de datos y se utiliza herramientas estadísticas para llegar a las conclusiones finales. En los resultados constan cuatro apartados que permiten caracterizar el comportamiento del socio cooperativista digital. Y como conclusiones, se evidencian que las cooperativas de ahorro y crédito requieren establecer las necesidades y aspectos de consumo para enfocar las estrategias y acciones empresariales, lo cual apoya en su fidelización.

15.
JOURNAL OF ASIAN FINANCE ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS ; 9(6):1-9, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1939437

ABSTRACT

The study aims to determine the factors and their influence on the income from using public agricultural land of households. Public agricultural land is agricultural land, including land for growing annual crops, perennial crops, and land for aquaculture, leased by commune-level People's Committees with a lease term of not more than 5 years. Secondary data were collected for the 2017-2021 period at state agencies. Primary data were collected from a survey of 150 households renting public agricultural land. The regression model assumed that there were 28 factors belonging to 7 groups. The test results show that 25 factors affect income, and 03 factors do not. The group of COVID-19 pandemic factors has the strongest impact, followed by the groups of agricultural product market factors, land factors, capital factors, production cost factors, labor factors, and climatic factors. The impact rate of COVID-19 pandemic factors is the largest (23.00%);The impact rate of climatic factors is the smallest (6.04%). Proposals to increase income include good implementation of disease prevention and control;increasing the land lease term;accurately forecasting the supply and demand of the agricultural market;raising the level of the household head;ensuring sufficient production capital, and adapting to the climate.

16.
Journal of the American Planning Association ; : 8, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1927153

ABSTRACT

The global COVID-19 pandemic has led households to find creative ways to share resources to address isolation, stress, and anxiety. We build on these social experiments to suggest that sharing in housing and neighborhoods can lead to better mental health and wellbeing. The capabilities approach, popularized by philosophers Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum, provides a theoretical perspective for integrating sharing options into housing and neighborhood design, regulation, and investment. We offer a framework delineating dimensions of sharing that has the potential to encourage more sharing and shift planning emphasis from housing as an outcome to one that promotes sharing.

17.
Journal of Agricultural Extension ; 26(1 (Annual Conference):11-20, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1911910

ABSTRACT

This study examined the adaptation strategies to the consequence of COVID-19 pandemic on Poultry Farmers in Oyo State. Multistage sampling procedure was employed to select five Key Informants and five Focus Group Discussion from the respondents respectively. Data on effects of lockdown, coping strategies and role of PAN were collected and analysed using constant comparison analysis. The effects of pandemic in severity order include, poor marketing due to collapse of the standard delivery system (85%);glut of the poultry products (80%), laying stock reduction (25%)and folding up of the enterprise (15%) burying of unsold bad eggs (5%). Coping strategies employed were sourcing financial support from cooperative societies (85%), sold produce on credit (75%) and sourcing ICT-based marketing information (70%). The role played by PAN include taking exemption letter from Police (Police wireless message) to move poultry products for sale;mediating unfavourable government taxation and relevant information dissemination via WhatsApp group platform. There is the need to develop an emergency's-smart resilience programme for the poultry industry. Measures adopted to manage emergencies such as COVID-19 should not impede the flow of agricultural products and inputs from the onset.

18.
Sustainability ; 14(12):7321, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1911551

ABSTRACT

The goal of this study is to determine the level of adaptation of agro-industrial cooperatives of small producers of alternative crops, and it considers the hierarchy of patterns to evaluate their systemic responses to accelerated change following the COVID-19 pandemic by evaluating the risk of their structures adapting to the digital environment. With a total of (n = 90) volunteer responders, the study is experimental, transactional, descriptive, and correlational, with a control group (CENFROCAFE) and an experimental group (ACEPAT) (24 producer partners, 14 producer managers, and 7 employees for each cooperative). In Step 1 (SOFT aspect), it measures the organizational memory (OM) of Y0 = 0.32 in the (control group) and Y1 = 0.59 in the (experimental group) by measuring hidden plots in the formal and informal interrelations of its members with the correlation of the holistic competencies of innovation. In Stage 2 (HARD aspect), the impact of the digital operational risk (DOR) is measured in the adaptation of the organization structure, which results in the control group with a Digital Operational Risk (DOR) = (3.4), which is “High” and greater than the experimental group with DOR = (3.3), which is “Moderate”. In conclusion, Hypothesis 1 is met with a greater adaptation of the experimental group, greater organizational memory, and lower digital operational risk, which reflects that the memory of the organization would reflect the temporal memories of the human brains of its members, and that, in the same way, its behavior could be predicted linearly.

19.
Japanese Journal of Political Science ; 23(2):188-191, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1908056

ABSTRACT

By analyzing the implementation of national-level agricultural policy from a local perspective, this book shows that practice at the local level is influential on the substantiality of policy changes at the national level. [...]the author tries to ‘move beyond the dual picture of change and stability’ (p. 9) in Japan's agricultural policies and, more generally, institutions. According to the author, the way in which a local agricultural regime is organized is largely determined by its integration with village institutions, which point to ‘local social ties and (hamlet-based) norms and practices’ (p. 85). [...]this book brings social network analysis back into the study of Japanese politics. [...]this book leads us to reassess the iron triangle of Japanese agriculture, which has been used to describe the close political relationship among three actors – politicians, bureaucrats, and industry.

20.
Journal of Food Distribution Research ; 53(1):5-6, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1904813

ABSTRACT

The American Rescue Funds Program seeks improvements to infrastructure, capacity, and diversification in meat and poultry processing, with clear prioritization of increased competition via small- and medium-sized processing facilities. The need to euthanize animals at a time when retailers were rationing meat sales was one of several examples of market failures during the COVID-19 pandemic, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture estimated the disruptions to agricultural meat, poultry, and egg production at $15 billion based on CFAP and CFAP2 payments. Marani et al. (2021) estimate the probability of a repeat event at 1% to 2% per year, justifying the use of these public funds to add surplus capacity and infrastructure to mitigate disruptions in case of recurrence. Economics of scale are modest beyond slaughter of more than 125 head per hour in beef plants and 2,000 head per day in pork plants (Duewer and Nelson, 1991;Ollinger, MacDonald, and Madison, 2005). Dozens of such "medium-sized" U.S. pork and beef processing plants have survived since 2000, typically relying upon niche market connections. Given historic processing plant construction costs for medium-sized plants (Aherin, 333333 2021) and an assumed 20% USDA grant to incentivize construction, a $100 million expenditure on each of the beef and pork plants creates an opportunity to add as much as 5% additional capacity for each species, easing current capacity as the industries prepare for local and export growth. Whether producer-ownership of capacity can generate stability and additional benefits in the supply chains is of key interest. Models of producer ownership-including cooperatives and carefully structured LLCs-allow livestock producers to capture processing margins and remove some of the price uncertainty around live animal prices to the plant and producer. It follows, too, that producer-ownership can therefore reduce the ability of existing larger plants to poach supply from medium-sized plants during the crucial startup phase and ensure that plants run at optimum capacity. A significant portion of the additional capacity added to the pork industry in the last 15 years exhibited some form of producer ownership. Anecdotally, the pork and beef sectors may be moving away from commodity production and into systems that maintain animal identity from farm to consumer. Producers have an opportunity to capitalize on this shift by collectively investing in medium-sized plants with the ability to preserve identity and be more responsive to evolving consumer preferences. An overarching concern is of the need to maintain capacity into the future and the potential of existing packers to acquire this subsidized capacity should medium sized processing fail.

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