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1.
IEEE Transactions on Computational Social Systems ; JOUR: 1-10,
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2097657

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) preventive measures have resulted in significant lifestyle changes. One of the COVID-19 new normal is the usage of face masks for protection against airborne aerosol which creates distractions and interruptions in voice communication. It has a different influence on speech than the standard concept of noise affecting speech communication. Furthermore, it has varied effects on speech in different frequency bands. To provide a solution to this problem, a three-stage adaptive speech enhancement (SE) scheme is developed in this article. In the first stage, the tunable <inline-formula> <tex-math notation="LaTeX">$Q$</tex-math> </inline-formula>-factor wavelet transform (TQWT) features are extracted by properly setting the quality factor values and the number of levels from the input speech signal. In the second stage, the adjustable parameters of the preemphasis filter and modified multiband spectral subtraction (MBSS) are determined using bio-inspired techniques for different masking and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions. In the third stage, the weights, center values, standard deviation of the Gaussian radial basis functions, and input patterns of the radial basis function neural networks (RBFNNs) are updated to predict the optimized parameters from the input TQWT-based cepstral features (TQCFs). In the end, the performance of the proposed algorithm is compared with the standard SE algorithms using two speech datasets. IEEE

2.
Nutrition ; JOUR: 111901,
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2095860

ABSTRACT

Aims The aim of this study was to investigate the potential benefits of using an energy-dense, high-protein (HP) formula enriched with β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB), fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) and vitamin D (VitD) for enteral feeding in intensive care unit (ICU). Methods This was a nested-case control, multicenter study. Mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients in whom enteral nutrition was not contraindicated and receiving an energy-dense, HP-HMB-FOS-VitD formula (1.5 kcal/mL;21.5% of calories from protein;N=53) were matched (1:1) by age (±1 year), gender, body mass index (±1.0 kg/m2) and SOFA score (±1 point) and compared to patients fed with a standard HP, fiber-free formula (1.25-1.3 kcal/mL;20% of calories from protein;N=53). The primary endpoint was protein intake (g/kg/day) on day 4. Protein-calorie intake on day 7, gastrointestinal intolerance and clinical outcomes were also addressed as secondary endpoints. Results The use of a HP-HMB-FOS-VitD formula resulted in higher protein intake on both day 4 and 7 (P=.006 and P=.013, respectively), with similar energy intake but higher provision of calories from enteral nutrition at both time-points (P<.001 and P=.017, respectively). Gastrointestinal tolerance was superior, with less patients fed with a HP-HMB-FOS-VitD formula reporting at least one symptom of intolerance (55% vs. 74%;OR=0.43 [0.18-0.99], P=.046) and constipation (38% vs. 66%;OR=0.27 [0.12-0.61], P=.002). A lower rate of ICU-acquired infections was also observed (42% vs. 72%;OR=0.29 [0.13-0.65], P=.003), while no difference was found in mortality, ICU stay and ventilation-free survival. Conclusions An energy-dense, HP-HMB-FOS-VitD formula enabled to provide a more satisfactory protein intake and a higher provision of calories intake from enteral nutrition than a standard HP formula in mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients. Lower rates of gastrointestinal intolerance and ICU-acquired infections were also observed.

3.
Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders ; JOUR: 104371,
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2083146

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND : It remains unclear how vaccine doses and combinations of vaccination and infection affect the magnitude and quality of immune responses, particularly against novel SARS-CoV-2 variants in subjects with immune-related disorders, such as people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS). Several studies have evaluated the duration of anti-SARS-CoV-2 immune protection in healthy individuals;however clinical data suggest an attenuated short-term humoral response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in pwMS receiving disease-modifying therapies (DMTs).  METHODS : In this prospective study, we evaluated the humoral response to the third (3rd) BNT162b2 vaccine (booster) dose in a monocentric cohort of pwMS undergoing eight different DMTs, all without previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. Quantitative determination of SARS-CoV-2 IgG Spike titre was carried out by Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S assay in 65 pwMS and 9 healthy controls, all without previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. Moreover, these measurements were also compared to their relative levels at 21 days (T1) and ∼ 6 months (T2) after the second (2nd) vaccination. RESULTS : We observed that the humoral response to the booster dose in Interferon β-1a-, Dimethyl fumarate- and Teriflunomide-treated pwMS is comparable to healthy controls, while increased in Cladribine-treated pwMS. Additionally, the 3rd dose elicits a seroconversion in the 100% of pwMS under Fingolimod and in the 65% of those under Ocrelizumab. Moreover, multivariate regression analysis showed that treatment with Interferon β-1a, Dimethyl fumarate and Cladribine positively associates with an increased humoral response. CONCLUSIONS : Taken together this evidence strongly indicates the importance of the booster dose to enhance SARS-CoV-2-specific immunity especially in immunocompromised subjects, such as pwMS under DMTs.

4.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1869(1): 166584, 2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082535

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), biomarkers for evaluating severity, as well as supportive care to improve clinical course, remain insufficient. We explored the potential of d-amino acids, rare enantiomers of amino acids, as biomarkers for assessing disease severity and as protective nutrients against severe viral infections. In mice infected with influenza A virus (IAV) and in patients with severe COVID-19 requiring artificial ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, blood levels of d-amino acids, including d-alanine, were reduced significantly compared with those of uninfected mice or healthy controls. In mice models of IAV infection or COVID-19, supplementation with d-alanine alleviated severity of clinical course, and mice with sustained blood levels of d-alanine showed favorable prognoses. In severe viral infections, blood levels of d-amino acids, including d-alanine, decrease, and supplementation with d-alanine improves prognosis. d-Alanine has great potentials as a biomarker and a therapeutic option for severe viral infections.

5.
Acta Medica Iranica ; 60(8):508-512, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2081190

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of Corona virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected the university education system. Due to the development of technology in recent decades and the need for social distance to prevent the spread of the disease and to prevent interruptions in student education, education has changed to virtual. Considering the importance of education and its decisive role in improving the academic level of students, we tried to review the challenges of virtual education and the factors affecting its quality. This review study was performed by searching databases such: as Pubmed, Scopus, SID, and Magiran using keywords including virtual teaching, virtual learning, COVID-19, and Medical Sciences and limiting the search to the keywords in the title and and also according to PRISMA guidelines. In the present study, the advantages and disadvantages of e-learning were investigated. Findings showed that the factors affecting the quality of e-learning are classified into four main sections, which include: the existence of appropriate infrastructure, Class control and administration, Necessary training for using software for professors and students, and the Proportion of the volume of taught content with its evaluation. One of the most important disadvantages of e-learning in the past year is the lack of proper infrastructure for training and exams, high internet interruption, the impossibility of student interaction, and the large volume of content. Due to the existence of barriers to the formation of classes in person, it is possible to help increase the educational quality of students and advance learning by using the necessary and appropriate measures in the correct use of virtual education and increasing the quality of the required infrastructure. © 2022 Tehran University of Medical Sciences. All rights reserved.

6.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1025495, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080158

ABSTRACT

Disorders of systemic metabolism can influence immunity. Individuals with obesity are known to have increased inflammation, increased risk to select autoimmune diseases, impaired response to several infections, and impaired vaccine response. For example, over the last decade, it has become clear that individuals with obesity have increased risk of morbidity and mortality from influenza infection. Unsurprisingly, this finding is also observed in the current COVID-19 pandemic: individuals with obesity, particularly severe obesity, have increased risk of poor outcomes from SARS-CoV-2 infection, including increased rates of hospitalization, ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, and death. Several studies have now demonstrated a critical role for T cells in the context of obesity-associated immune dysfunction in response to viral infection, and one mechanism for this may be altered T cell metabolism. Indeed, recent studies have shown that activated T cells from obese mice have an altered metabolic profile characterized by increased glucose oxidation, both in vitro and in vivo following viral infection. For that reason, treatments that target abnormal immune cell metabolism in obesity may improve outcomes to viral infection. To that end, several recent studies have shown that use of the metabolic drug, metformin, can reverse abnormal T cell metabolism and restore T cell immunity, as well as survival, in response to viral infection. These findings will be discussed in detail here.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Metformin , Animals , Mice , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes , Obesity/complications , Metformin/therapeutic use , Oxidative Stress , Glucose
7.
Surg Case Rep ; 8(1): 200, 2022 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079557

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The perioperative mortality rate is high in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and infection control measures for medical care providers must be considered. Therefore, the timing for surgery in patients recovering from COVID-19 is difficult. CASE PRESENTATION: A 65-year-old man was admitted to a hospital with a diagnosis of moderate COVID-19. He was transferred to our hospital because of risk factors, including heavy smoking history, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and obesity (BMI 34). Vital signs on admission were a temperature of 36.1 °C, oxygen saturation > 95% at rest, and 94% on exertion with 3 L/min of oxygen. Chest computed tomography (CT) showed bilateral ground-glass opacities, predominantly in the lower lungs. Contrast-enhanced abdominal CT incidentally revealed a liver tumor with a diameter of 80 mm adjacent to the middle hepatic vein, which was diagnosed as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). After being administered baricitinib, remdesivir, dexamethasone, and heparin, the patient's COVID-19 pneumonia improved, his oxygen demand resolved, and he was discharged on day 13. Furthermore, the patient was initially scheduled for hepatectomy 8 weeks after the onset of COVID-19 following a discussion with the infection control team. However, 8 weeks after the onset of illness, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test was performed on nasopharyngeal swab fluid, which was observed to be positive. The positive results persisted till 10 and 11 weeks after onset. Both Ct values were high (≥ 31) out of 45 cycles, with no subjective symptoms. Since we determined that he was no longer contagious, surgery was performed 12 weeks after the onset of COVID-19. Notably, medical staff wearing personal protective equipment performed extended anatomical resection of the liver segment 8 ventral area in a negative-pressure room. The patient had a good postoperative course, with no major complications, including respiratory complications, and was discharged on postoperative day 14. Finally, none of the staff members was infected with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: We reported a case regarding the timing of surgery on a patient with persistently positive PCR test results after COVID-19, along with a literature review.

8.
Vaccine ; 40(45): 6499-6511, 2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2076793

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccination of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and kidney transplants (KTs) may achieve a less robust immune response. Understanding such immune responses is crucial for guiding current and future vaccine dosing strategies. METHODS: This prospective, observational study estimated the immunogenicity of humoral and cellular responses of two SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in different patient groups with CKD compared with controls. Secondary outcomes included adverse events after vaccination and the incidence of COVID-19 breakthrough infection, including illness severity. RESULTS: In total, 212 patients received ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (89.62 %) or inactivated vaccines (10.38 %).The antibody response against the S protein was analyzed at T0 (before the first injection), T1 (before the second injection), and T2 (12 weeks after the second injection). Seroconversion occurred in 92.31 % of controls at T2 and in 100 % of patients with CKD, 42.86 % undergoing KT, 80.18 % of hemodialysis (HD), and 0 % of patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) at T2 of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine. Neutralizing antibody levels by surrogate virus neutralization test were above the protective level at T2 in each group. The KT group exhibited the lowest neutralizing antibody and T cell response. Blood groups O and vaccine type were associated with good immunological responses. After the first dose, 14 individuals (6.6 out of the total population experienced COVID-19 breakthrough infection. CONCLUSION: Immunity among patients with CKD and HD after vaccination was strong and comparable with that of healthy controls. Our study suggested that a single dose of the vaccine is not efficacious and delays may result in breakthrough infection. Some blood groups and types of vaccine can affect the immune response.


Subject(s)
Blood Group Antigens , COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Prospective Studies , Vaccination , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Antibody Formation , Vaccines, Inactivated , Antibodies, Viral
9.
Ieee Transactions on Industrial Informatics ; 18(12):8924-8935, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2070474

ABSTRACT

Filtration to optimal exactness is mandatory since the options inundate the online world. Knowledge graph embedding is extraordinarily contributing to the recommendations, but the existing knowledge graph (KG)-based recommendation methods only exploit the correlations among the preferences and stand-alone entities, without bonding the cocurricular features and tendencies of the context. Additionally, the integration of the location-based current data of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) into the KG is necessary for the recommendation of region-aware precautionary alerts to the concerned people-an essential application of the current and future Internet of Medical Things. Therefore, in this article, we propose a novel deep collaborative alert recommendation (DCA) approach to cope with the situation. Particularly, DCA collects current online data about COVID-19, purifies, and transforms them to the KG. Furthermore, it independently encapsulates the cocurricular features and tendencies of the context in the embedding space and encodes them to the independent hidden factors via a graph neural network. The bi-end hidden factors are computed via matrix factorization to infer the potential connections. Moreover, a relevance estimator and a cross transistor are configured to enhance the generalization capability of the model. Experiments on two real-world datasets are performed to evaluate the effectiveness of DCA. Results and analysis show that the proposed approach has outperformed the baseline methods with fine improvements in providing the required recommendations.

10.
Archives of Pediatric Infectious Diseases ; 10(4) (no pagination), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067103

ABSTRACT

Background: Given that immunocompromised patients are more at risk for the infection of SARS-CoV-2, epidemiological data are critical for assessing the corresponding prevalence among health care workers (HCWs) and patients at health centers. Objective(s): This study aims to investigate the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among the staff of two hospitals that take care of immunocompromised patients, including pediatrics and adults with special medical conditions. Method(s): This cross-sectional study includes all HCWs of the two hospitals;Abu Ali Sina Transplant Hospital (AASTH) and Amir al-Momenin Burn Injury Hospital (AABIH) in Shiraz, southern Iran, conducted from April 11, 2020, to June 16, 2021. The TaqMan real-time PCR assay was used to assess the SARS-CoV-2 infection rate in the suspected HCWs. Result(s): Out of 1232 sampled HCWs, 694 (56%) were female. Two hundred sixty-five samples (21.5%) and 967 samples (78.5%) were prepared from AABIH, and AASTH, respectively. The results showed that 30% (373) of the clinically suspected employees had positive test results. There was a significant correlation between the risk of exposure to COVID-19 patients and the PCR positivity rate, which could be explained by the fact that 58% of the infected HCWs were in a high-risk group, 20% medium-risk, and the remaining 22% were low-risk (P < 0.0001). The rates of positive cases in females were higher than that among male counterparts (P < 0.05). Conclusion(s): In order to protect health care workers and reduce the prevalence and transmission of diseases, deficiencies must be identified and eliminated. Copyright © 2022, Author(s).

11.
Quant Imaging Med Surg ; 12(11): 5156-5170, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2067482

ABSTRACT

Background: The extent of lung involvement in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia, quantified on computed tomography (CT), is an established biomarker for prognosis and guides clinical decision-making. The clinical standard is semi-quantitative scoring of lung involvement by an experienced reader. We aim to compare the performance of automated deep-learning- and threshold-based methods to the manual semi-quantitative lung scoring. Further, we aim to investigate an optimal threshold for quantification of involved lung in COVID pneumonia chest CT, using a multi-center dataset. Methods: In total 250 patients were included, 50 consecutive patients with RT-PCR confirmed COVID-19 from our local institutional database, and another 200 patients from four international datasets (n=50 each). Lung involvement was scored semi-quantitatively by three experienced radiologists according to the established chest CT score (CCS) ranging from 0-25. Inter-rater reliability was reported by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Deep-learning-based segmentation of ground-glass and consolidation was obtained by CT Pulmo Auto Results prototype plugin on IntelliSpace Discovery (Philips Healthcare, The Netherlands). Threshold-based segmentation of involved lung was implemented using an open-source tool for whole-lung segmentation under the presence of severe pathologies (R231CovidWeb, Hofmanninger et al., 2020) and consecutive quantitative assessment of lung attenuation. The best threshold was investigated by training and testing a linear regression of deep-learning and threshold-based results in a five-fold cross validation strategy. Results: Median CCS among 250 evaluated patients was 10 [6-15]. Inter-rater reliability of the CCS was excellent [ICC 0.97 (0.97-0.98)]. Best attenuation threshold for identification of involved lung was -522 HU. While the relationship of deep-learning- and threshold-based quantification was linear and strong (r2 deep-learning vs. threshold=0.84), both automated quantification methods translated to the semi-quantitative CCS in a non-linear fashion, with an increasing slope towards higher CCS (r2 deep-learning vs. CCS= 0.80, r2 threshold vs. CCS=0.63). Conclusions: The manual semi-quantitative CCS underestimates the extent of COVID pneumonia in higher score ranges, which limits its clinical usefulness in cases of severe disease. Clinical implementation of fully automated methods, such as deep-learning or threshold-based approaches (best threshold in our multi-center dataset: -522 HU), might save time of trained personnel, abolish inter-reader variability, and allow for truly quantitative, linear assessment of COVID lung involvement.

12.
Cardiology in the Young ; 32(Supplement 2):S242, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2062090

ABSTRACT

Background and Aim: Since December 2019 the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been burdening all health systems worldwide. However, cardiopulmonary repercussions in paediat-ric patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) are unknown. The aim of this study is to compare changes in cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) in this patients before and after COVID-19. Method(s): Prospective observational study was lead comparing CPET results after COVID-19 in paediatric patients with stable CHD who had a previous routine CPET. All underwent for stand-ardised CPET, using Godfrey ramp protocol as recommended by the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Measured variables, expressed by predicted values, were: forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume (FEV1), ratio of minute venti-lation to carbon dioxide production (VE/VO2 slope), peak oxy-gen consumption (peak VO2), oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES), oxygen pulse (O2 pulse) and peak heart rate (pHR). Wilcoxon test was used to compare continuous variables for related samples. Result(s): Ten patients (6 boys, 60%;mean age 11,4 +/- 2,4 years) with hemodynamically stable CHD (3 Tetralogy of Fallot, 30%;2 trans-position of the great arteries, 20%;2 dilated cardiomyopathy, 20%;2 Kawasaki disease, 20%;1 cardiac tumor, 10%) were selected to repeat a post-COVID CPET. All of them had mild COVID and could follow ambulatory treatment. Comparing before/post COVID tests, there were no significantly changes in predicted res-piratory parameters: FVC (90,6 +/- 7,4 vs 98,1 +/- 23,9%;p = 0,799), FEV1 (89,5 +/- 13,8 vs 94,5 +/- 8,8%;p = 0,475), VE/CO2 slope (31,6 +/- 3,7 vs 30,6 +/- 3,9degree, p = 0,203). In the same way, no significantly changes were seen in cardiovascular predicted parameters: oxygen pulse (97,3 +/- 19,2 vs 98,5 +/- 17,4%, p = 0,798), peak VO2 (82,4 +/- 19,4 vs 76,8 +/- 13,7;p = 0,123) and OUES (1,79 +/- 0,4 vs 2,01 +/- 0,6;p = 0,066). Respect peak VO2, there was a non-significant slightly decrease in post-COVID test (82,4 +/- 19,4 vs 76,8 +/- 13,7;p = 0,123). Conclusion(s): In our series, post-COVID CPET results showed that paediatric patients with hemodynamically stable CHD had no impairment in their functional capacity in relation to Sars-CoV-2 disease. Contrary to adults with previous cardiovascular disease, children should have mild infections without sequelae in cardio-pulmonary function.

13.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 2022 Oct 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2061574

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged as a pandemic that spread rapidly around the world, causing nearly 500 billion infections and more than 6 million deaths to date. During the first wave of the pandemic, empirical antibiotics was prescribed in over 70% of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. However, research now shows a low incidence rate of bacterial coinfection in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, between 2.5% and 5.1%. The rate of secondary infections was 3.7% in overall, but can be as high as 41.9% in the intensive care units. Over-prescription of antibiotics to treat COVID-19 patients fueled the ongoing antimicrobial resistance globally. Diagnosis of bacterial coinfection is challenging due to indistinguishable clinical presentations with overlapping lower respiratory tract symptoms such as fever, cough and dyspnea. Other diagnostic methods include conventional culture, diagnostic syndromic testing, serology test and biomarkers. COVID-19 patients with bacterial coinfection or secondary infection have a higher in-hospital mortality and longer length of stay, timely and appropriate antibiotic use aided by accurate diagnosis is crucial to improve patient outcome and prevent antimicrobial resistance.

14.
Tanaffos ; 19(4):274-290, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2057731

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by a novel form of the coronavirus that caused severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). SARS-CoV-2 raised in China and has broadcast to 261 countries globally. SARS-CoV-2 a member of beta-coronavirus family and has an almost matching genome sequence to a bat coronavirus, pointing to the bat as the natural host before it was transmitted to humans. SARS-CoV-2 uses the same receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as that used by SARS-CoV and principally infects the respiratory tract. The clinical symptoms of COVID-19 patients include fever, cough and fatigue whilst small populations of patients have gastrointestinal symptoms. The old people and people with underlying metabolic and cardiovascular diseases are more affected to infection and have worse outcomes. These may be associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and a cytokine storm. In this review, we discuss the pathogenesis and clinical characteristics of disease and the pharmacologic approaches that may control COVID-19. Copyright ©2020 NRITLD, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, Iran.

15.
Zhongshan Daxue Xuebao/Acta Scientiarum Natralium Universitatis Sunyatseni ; 61(4):11-21, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2056463

ABSTRACT

To explore the early stage spatial-temporal characteristics and to assess the factors of atmospheric pollution that may affect the development of coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19)outbreak in the Chinese Mainland in 2020,we collected the daily new cases of COVID-19 in the Municipalities and Provinces from the websites of National and Provincial Health Commission of China. The spatiotemporal characteristics of COVID-19 epidemic were studied using autocorrelation analysis and trend analysis. The Spearman's correlation coefficient for ranked data and generalized additive model were used for risk assessment of air pollutants affecting the COVID-19 epidemic of Hubei Province. Daily new cases of COVID-19 in the Chinese Mainland totaled 39 877 from January 20th to February 9th of 2020. The global Moran index values of these three weeks were 0.249,0.307 and 0.297(P<0.01),respectively. There was a significant clustering phenomenon. The high incidence regions included Hunan Province,Guangdong Province,Jiangxi Province,Zhejiang Province,Anhui Province and Jiangsu Province. The epidemic hot spots were basically distributed in the area from 108° 47'-123° 10' E to 25° 31'-35° 20' N. Daily new cases of COVID-19 in Hubei Province was positively correlated with daily average concentrations of PM10,NO2 and O3 pollutants(ρ =0.515,0.579 and 0.536,P<0.05). The lag effects of air pollutions were existed. The relative risk(RR)values of PM2.5and PM10 reached to maximum with lag0,the RR value of NO2 reached to maximum with lag4,and the RR value of O3 reached to maximum with lag 0~1. We estimated that a 10 μg/m3 increase in day-before NO2 daily average concentration was associated with a 32.745% (95% Confidence Interval(CI):11.586%-57.916%)excess risk(ER)of daily new cases of COVID-19. And NO2 had a significant impact on daily new cases of COVID-19. When NO2 was introduced to PM2.5and PM10 separately,for every 10 μg/m3 rise in NO2 daily average concentration,the ER of daily new cases of COVID-19 was 23.929%(95% CI:4.705%-46.682%)and 24.672%(95% CI:5.379%-47.496%),respectively. The study showed that the southeast was the main spread direction in the early stage of COVID-19 outbreak in the Chinese Mainland in 2020. Reducing the atmospheric concentration of nitrogen dioxide in epidemic hot spots has a positive effect on epidemic prevention and control. © 2022 Journal of Zhongshan University. All rights reserved.

16.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; 28(16):221-228, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2056462

ABSTRACT

Because of the frequent occurrence of epidemics in Jiangnan since ancient times,the local medical schools have accumulated rich experience in epidemic prevention,among which Yushan medical school,Wumen medical school,and Qiantang medical school are famous. The physicians have inherited the theory in Treatise on Cold Damage Diseases and developed the therapies for febrile diseases. Adhering to the idea of integrating cold and febrile diseases,the physicians in Jiangnan flexibly adapt ZHANG Zhongjing's theory by combining regional climate,patient physique and other factors to explain the pathogenesis,which is of great significance for the prevention and treatment of epidemics. Therefore,traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) has demonstrated good curative effect on coronavirus disease-2019(COVID-19)in China. However,the SARS-CoV-2 variants(Delta and Omicron)characterized by strong infectivity,pathogenicity,and immune escape capacity keep emerging,which bring great challenges to the global prevention and control of this pandemic. To this end,we studied the ways of Jiangnan medical school for the prevention and treatment of epidemics, reviewed the evolution of TCM treatment protocols for COVID-19,and summarized China's experience in fighting against the emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants. Further,we explored the measures of TCM in treating SARS-CoV-2 variants from prevention,treatment,and rehabilitation according to the theory for epidemic prevention of Jiangnan medical school. This paper provides reference for the prevention and treatment of emerging SARS-CoV-2 variant and facilitates the development of TCM epidemiology. © 2022, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences Institute of Chinese Materia Medica. All rights reserved.

17.
Rinsho Ketsueki ; 63(9): 1067-1077, 2022.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056363

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients are at increased risk of mortality and morbidity with COVID-19 due to severe immune dysfunction. Recombinant adenovirus vector-based vaccine, such as AstraZeneca ChAdOx1, and mRNA-based vaccines, such as Pfizer BNT162b2 and Moderna mRNA-1273 have been used in Japan. COVID-19 vaccine administration to HSCT recipients was reported to result in a 68-96.5% seroconversion for the spike protein. Factors associated with the absence of humoral responses were the time-interval from HSCT to vaccination, absolute lymphocyte count, systemic immunosuppressive treatments, graft versus host disease (GVHD), B-cell count, and hypogammaglobulinemia. New onset and exacerbation of chronic GVHD have been reported as an adverse events associated with vaccination. COVID-19 vaccination of HSCT recipients is relatively safe, and recipients should be vaccinated against COVID-19 6 months after transplantation. In the future, it is necessary to consider passive immunotherapy for HSCT patients who do not benefit from COVID1-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Graft vs Host Disease , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Graft vs Host Disease/complications , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Hematopoietic Stem Cells , Humans , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccination
18.
Jisuanji Fuzhu Sheji Yu Tuxingxue Xuebao/Journal of Computer-Aided Design and Computer Graphics ; 34(8):1302-1312, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2055455

ABSTRACT

It is important for social public security and urban management to explore the spread of infectious diseases. A city-level structured prediction and simulation model for COVID-19 is proposed. This model is consisted of SEIR and social network model on the basis of latest infectious disease dynamics theory and real geographic networks. The prediction region is divided into multiple levels. Specifically, a bipartite network is applied to simulate the relationship between public facilities and community nodes at the macro level, and a modified SEIR is applied to simulate the infection within nodes at the micro level. Besides, intelligent agent is applied to track the individual transmission process. The contrast experimental results based on the confirmed and cursed cases of Wuhan and Beijing in 2020 published by National Health Commission, show that the proposed model has better flexibility and higher accuracy, and reflects the distribution and movement of people more directly. © 2022 Institute of Computing Technology. All rights reserved.

19.
Front Genet ; 13: 1008792, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2055015

ABSTRACT

Nanopore sequencing technology (NST) has become a rapid and cost-effective method for the diagnosis and epidemiological surveillance of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Compared with short-read sequencing platforms (e.g., Illumina's), nanopore long-read sequencing platforms effectively shorten the time required to complete the detection process. However, due to the principles and data characteristics of NST, the accuracy of sequencing data has been reduced, thereby limiting monitoring and lineage analysis of SARS-CoV-2. In this study, we developed an analytical pipeline for SARS-CoV-2 rapid detection and lineage identification that integrates phylogenetic-tree and hotspot mutation analysis, which we have named NanoCoV19. This method not only can distinguish and trace the lineages contained in the alpha, beta, delta, gamma, lambda, and omicron variants of SARS-CoV-2 but is also rapid and efficient, completing overall analysis within 1 h. We hope that NanoCoV19 can be used as an auxiliary tool for rapid subtyping and lineage analysis of SARS-CoV-2 and, more importantly, that it can promote further applications of NST in public-health and -safety plans similar to those formulated to address the COVID-19 outbreak.

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