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1.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 31(2):36, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2320095

ABSTRACT

This talk considers the role of social and behavioral science at every stage of the clinical trial process from design to enrolment, participation, retention and outcomes. Based on a review of the literature and three decades' experience as a social scientist conducting leading HIV and COVID studies, it argues that understanding human behavior and decision-making alongside the context in which these decisions are made are key to effective, efficient and quality clinical trials.

2.
Age and Ageing ; 51(12) (no pagination), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2320086
3.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 31(2):388-389, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2320078

ABSTRACT

Background: A prospective demonstration project in Amsterdam (AMPrEP) provided pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to people vulnerable to HIV in 2015- 2020. Data on long-term trends in sexual behavior and incidence of STIs during PrEP use are needed to inform future PrEP programs. Therefore, we assessed sexual behavior and incidence rates of STIs among MSM and transgender women on PrEP over four years. Method(s): AMPrEP participants chose between oral PrEP daily (dPrEP) or event-driven (edPrEP) at baseline and could switch regimens at each 3-monthly study visit. They were tested for STIs at these visits and if necessary in between. Follow-up began at PrEP initiation and continued until 48 months of follow-up or was censored at March 15, 2020 (start COVID-19), whichever occurred first. We assessed changes over time in incidence rates (IR) of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and infectious syphilis using Poisson regression. We estimated the IR of Hepatitis C (HCV) diagnoses per consecutive year. We described the number of HIV diagnoses, and sexual behavior (i.e. number of sex partners, condomless anal sex acts with casual partners [CAS]). Result(s): A total of 367 (365 MSM) started PrEP and contributed 1249 person-years of observation. IRs of any STI was 87[95%CI 82-93]/100PY. There was no change in the IR of any STI and infectious syphilis over time on PrEP. We observed a slight decrease in incident chlamydia and gonorrhea in daily PrEP users (Table). Two incident HIV cases were diagnosed in the first year of follow-up. IRs for HCV were 1.5[0.6-3.6], 2.5[1.3-5.0], 0.7[0.2-2.7], and 0.4[0.1- 2.8]/100PY, per consecutive year on PrEP. Median number of sex partners per 3-month period decreased from 16[IQR 8-34] and 12[6-25] (dPrEP and edPrEP, respectively) at baseline, 15[7-30] and 8[3-16] at 24 months, and 12[6-26] and 5[2-12] at 48 months. Median number of CAS acts with casual partners were respectively 7[3-15] and 4[1-9] at baseline, 14[5-25] and 4[1-12] at 24 months, and 12[4-25] and 4[1-9] at 48 months. Conclusion(s): Over the first 4 years of PrEP use overall STI incidence was high and stable. Chlamydia and gonorrhea incidence declined slightly in daily users. Numbers of sex partners seemed to decrease in both dPrEP and edPrEP users. Number of CAS acts with casual partners appeared to increase first, and then stabilized. Notably, this did not result in increased incidence of STIs. Regular testing and treatment of STIs remain a priority among PrEP users. Biomedical prevention of STIs can be examined in this context.

5.
VirusDisease ; 34(1):99, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2320065

ABSTRACT

Enteroviruses, beyond poliovirus, are important pathogens. Several non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) are causing epidemics all around the world. Limited data is available on the prevalence and diversity of these viruses from India. Objective(s): Detection and characterization of NPEVs in respiratory samples during the COVID-19 pandemic period. Material(s) and Method(s): COVID-19 negative samples from acute respiratory infections (ARI) [n = 105] and severe-acute respiratory infections (SARI) [n = 148] during the period 2021-22 were screened for NPEVs. Detection was carried out using the one step RT-PCR method targeting the 5'UTR region followed by molecular analysis. Results and Conclusion(s): Total positivity of NPEVs was noted in 35.23% and 31.08% of the ARI and SARI cases, respectively. Comparison within the two groups studied, showed significant difference in the age-wise distribution for cases>18 years of age. Year round seasonality for ARI cases while autumn seasonality for SARI cases was observed. Sequencing of representative samples of ARI cases showed prevalence of Rhinovirus A (RVA), Rhinovirus B (RVB), Rhinovirus C (RVC) and Echovirus, while predominance of RVC followed by RVA was observed for the SARI cases. Phylogenetic analysis of all the strains showed clustering of RVC strains in different clusters. Divergence was also noted in RVA and RVB strains studied. Circulation of a rare Echovirus-29 strain was noted in the ARI cases. The study highlighted significant divergence in the Rhinovirus strains studied. It warrants the need for surveillance of NPEVs, whole-genome sequencing of the circulating strains for better understanding of biodiversity among the NPEVs and the potential health burden.

6.
Kinesitherapie ; 23(257):40-46, 2023.
Article in English, French | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2320064

ABSTRACT

Health service consists in primary prevention actions carried out by multidisciplinary teams of students within schools. It also aims to promote interprofessionality. The main objective was to evaluate the contribution of Health service in the development of interprofessionality. In order to answer this question, a quantitative analysis was preferred and carried out using a French version of the Readiness Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS) questionnaire modified (cultural and language modifications). The evaluation of the students was compared before and after the completion of Health service. The mean of the modified RIPLS total score of the 'Pre-Health Service' group (232 students) was 68.5 (SD 10.12) out of 80, the mean of the 'Post-Health service' group (123 students) was 67.4 (SD 10.32) out of 80. Following the completion of Health service in 2020/2021, there was no statistically significant difference measured on the interprofessional learning. These results should be considered with the limitations of the study and context in mind (RIPLS limitation, statistical evaluation, distance learning course due to the health context, etc.). Level of Evidence: NA.Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Masson SAS

7.
Asthma Allergy Immunology ; 18:11-14, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2320055

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid 19) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS CoV 2) and causes lymphopenia, immunosuppression, inefficient T and B cell immunity, cytokine storm, and destructive tissue inflammation. Since COVID 19 is a multi-system disease predominantly affecting the lungs, there is doubt on whether chronic lung diseases place patients at higher risk and SARS CoV2 leads to asthma exacerbation. None of the studies have reported asthma or recurrent wheezing as a comorbidity or risk factor for Covid 19 in children up to now. Notably, further studies are needed to explore the relationship between Covid 19 and asthma to improve clinical practice and decrease morbidity and mortality.Copyright © 2020 Bilimsel Tip Yayinevi. All rights reserved.

8.
Journal of Investigative Medicine ; 69(1):121, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2320047

ABSTRACT

Purpose of Study The current depart process resulted in slow work-flow and patient safety and equity concerns. The QI project aimed to improve resident satisfaction with the hospital discharge process. Methods Used The QI project was designed using the Model for Improvement. Starting April 2020, Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles included: hiring clinical team coordinators;creating standard depart instructions for diabetic ketoacidosis, pyelonephritis, seizures, croup and dehydration;uploading instructions to Powerchart;and clinician reminders to use instructions with families. Measures examined monthly, included resident satisfaction and patient readmissions. Summary of Results Resident satisfaction improved from 4.8 (February 2020) to 7.8 (August 2020) for the overall discharge process;from 5.3 to 7.9 for family education on all key points;from 6.0 to 7.7 for smooth transition of care;from 3.0 to 7.4 for no language barriers;and from 3.0 to 6.7 for no unnecessary delays, on a scale of 0/strongly disagree/ terrible to 10/strongly agree/excellent. Readmissions also trended downward. Conclusions During this QI project to address the depart process, resident satisfaction improved and readmissions declined. These results are encouraging, but should be interpreted in the context of decreased patient census due to COVID-19 and non-respiratory season, which may have decreased workload and increased education time and interpreter access. Next steps include PDSAs related to health literacy and Spanish translation.

9.
VirusDisease ; 34(1):103, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2320030

ABSTRACT

Background: The ubiquitous elixir for mortality and morbidity inflicted by severe acute respiratory syndrome virus (SARS-CoV-2) has been a vaccine. These vaccines were approved for emergency use authorization by health authorities based on limited data from clinical trials. Hence, there was a need for active surveillance of vaccinees to monitor for safety. Objective(s): This study reports adverse events following immunization with Oxford-AstraZeneca's COVID-19 vaccine (COVISHIELD). Material(s) and Method(s): The present study is an observational follow- up study to assess any adverse event occurrence following immunization (AEFI) within 7 days of vaccination among all eligible participants who were vaccinated. A structured safety surveillance questionnaire was administered consecutively to 714 participants. Vaccinees were observed for thirty minutes and followed telephonically for adverse events. Result(s): The overall incidence of any AEFI within 7 days was found to be 136/1000 vaccinations for the first dose. Out of total, 97 recipients reported with adverse events, 76.3% had AEFI within 24 h with fever as the most common symptom reported. The incidence of AEFI's was found to be associated with gender (P<0.02), age group (P<0.05) and occupation (P<0.05). No cases of hospitalization, disability or death were reported. Conclusion(s): Most of the adverse events were short-lived and observed in the first 24 h of vaccination. Incidence decreased in subsequent days and as no significant life-threatening adverse event was observed, this study might help reduce hesitancy for vaccination among the population and thus help reduce transmission of this highly contagious disease.

10.
Nevrologiya, Neiropsikhiatriya, Psikhosomatika ; 14(6):33-39, 2022.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2320020

ABSTRACT

Objective: to study the causes and predictors of mental disorders during the COVID-19 epidemic in those who turned to psychiatrist for the first time, as well as in patients with already diagnosed mental illness. Patients and methods. We examined 100 patients who turned to a psychiatrist due to a deterioration in their mental state during the pandemic, 50 patients were newly diagnosed (Group 1) and 50 with previously diagnosed mental disorders (Group 2). The study was carried out by a clinical method using a specially designed map, followed by statistical processing of the obtained data. Results and discussion. Mental disorders caused by the COVID-19 pandemic more often occurred at a young age, in patients with higher and secondary specialized education, and in single patients. In the 1st group, as a result of exposure to psychogenic factors (the influence of the media, quarantine, economic changes), anxiety (36.8%) and depressive (21.1%) disorders occurred more often, and after the coronavirus infection, depressive disorders were in the first place (54.2%). The 2nd group mostly included patients with endogenous disorders (bipolar affective disorder - 24%, recurrent depressive disorder - 20%, schizophrenia - 20%), which were exacerbated more often as a result of COVID-19, to a lesser extent - psychogenic (experiences associated with a change in material status and illness of relatives). Obsessive-compulsive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, somatoform disorders have been associated with epidemic factors. Conclusion. The results obtained indicate that there are differences between the mental disorders that first appeared during the pandemic and the exacerbations of the condition in mentally ill patients, which relate to the predictors, causes and clinical manifestations of these disorders.Copyright © 2022 Ima-Press Publishing House. All rights reserved.

11.
Infectious Diseases: News, Opinions, Training ; - (1):26-33, 2023.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2320016

ABSTRACT

Aim. An online survey among social network users was conducted to assess the frequency of COVID-19 cases, the spectrum of medications used for treatment, and the subjective assessment of clinical manifestations of the disease. Material and methods. An anonymous online survey was conducted among users of various social networks using a questionnaire created on the SurveyMonkey survey and research platform. During the first month of December 2021, the survey included 23 questions regarding the clinical and demographic characteristics of respondents, the number of COVID-19 cases, clinical manifestations, and severity, as well as the need for medical help and medication. Results. 752 respondents took part in the online survey, more than 70% of them are under 50 years old. Among the respondents 59.73% had a new coronavirus infection (COVID-19). More than 40% of the participants had COVID-19 in the period from September 2020 to April 2021 (2nd wave in Russia). In 79.2% of people, the presence of a new coronavirus infection was confirmed by one of the diagnostic methods: polymerase chain reaction (PCR test), radiography, the presence of antibodies to Ig G/M, and took into account the presence of contact with infected SARS-CoV-2. 411 participants observed any clinical manifestations of the disease. Most often respondents who had COVID-19 indicated weakness, cough, dyspnea, disappearance or decrease in the acuity of smell and taste. The volume of lung tissue damage in 36.5% of cases was less than 25%. The disappearance of any clinical manifestations of the disease immediately after recovery was noted by 32.0% of respondents. Most of the patients (59.2%) sought medical help at the polyclinic, 38.9% had to self-medicate. 71.9% respondents indicated they had been vaccinated against COVID-19, but without specifying the timing and completeness of the course. Side effects after immunization (fever, weakness, soreness, and redness at the injection site) were subjectively assessed by 41.9% of respondents. Conclusion. Among the surveyed respondents, 62.7% of the disease symptoms were mild. The highest number of cases occurred in the 2nd and 4th waves of COVID-19 morbidity in Russia. Most often respondents indicated symptoms of acute respiratory infection. The complete disappearance of clinical manifestations of the disease immediately after recovery was noted by 32.0 % of respondents, and the persistence of symptoms for up to a year - 7.5. More than 70% of the participants in the online survey reported vaccination against COVID-19, but the questionnaire did not include questions about the timing of vaccinations (before or after COVID-19) and the completeness of the course.Copyright © Eco-Vector, 2023. All rights reserved.

12.
Medicina Interna de Mexico ; 39(1):66-90, 2023.
Article in Spanish | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2320012

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore the medical evidence published until April 20, 2022, about the efficacy and safety of tocilizumab in COVID-19 patients. METHODOLOGY: Scoping review that included PubMed and Scopus, searching for clinical trials and observational studies in English and Spanish. Additionally, records of clinical trials from the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform were analyzed. RESULT(S): Fifty-four documents were included: retrospective cohort studies (n = 20), randomized clinical trials (n = 16), case control studies (n = 7), non-randomized clinical trials (n = 5) and prospective cohort studies (n = 6), with a total study population of 20,007 patients. There were 15 records of clinical trials of which 10 were registered in the US National Library of Medicine. CONCLUSION(S): Tocilizumab could be effective and safe to treat patients with moderate to critical COVID-19, in conjunction with additional immunomodulators and antivirals. A greater number of randomized clinical trials, however, are needed to explore the efficacy and safety of tocilizumab.Copyright © 2023 Comunicaciones Cientificas Mexicanas S.A. de C.V.. All rights reserved.

13.
African Health Sciences ; 23(1):i-v, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2319995
14.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 31(2):357, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2319990

ABSTRACT

Background: Antiretroviral therapy is highly effective in achieving HIV viral load suppression (VLS) but requires sustained engagement in care. The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted medical care, and its impact on engagement in HIV care and VLS remains unclear. Health information exchanges (HIEs) enable examination of patient care across multiple health systems. We sought to leverage HIE data to examine the effect of pandemic-related disruptions in HIV care on VLS and to explore racial/ethnic disparities in VLS. Method(s): We performed a retrospective observational study of people living with HIV (PLWH) using de-identified data from Healthix, an HIE encompassing >20 million patients and 8,000 healthcare facilities in the greater New York City (NYC) region, between 1/1/2018 and 7/14/2022. We identified PLWH based on HIV viral load (VL) tests and HIV diagnosis codes (ICD and SNOMED). We established two cohorts: PLWH engaged in care in 2020 with >=1 VL test in 2019, 2020, and 2021(Group A) and PLWH not engaged in care in 2020 with >=1 VL test in 2019 and 2021 but 0 VL tests in 2020 (Group B). HIV VLS outcomes were categorized as suppressed (< 200 copies/mL) or not suppressed ( >200 copies/mL) using the last VL in 2019, first VL in 2021, and last recorded VL. We compared proportions using X2-tests and fit a group-stratified logistic regression to examine the effect of race/ethnicity on VLS. Result(s): We identified 711,358 VL tests representing 81,122 patients at 249 facilities. Of these patients, 36,199 met our definition of PLWH. Of those, 12,448 met the inclusion criteria for Group A, and 3,377 met the inclusion criteria for Group B. In 2019, Group B had a lower VLS proportion than Group A (85.9% vs 88.1%, X2 = 12.3, p< 0.0001). In 2021, this gap increased;the proportion of VLS was 80.7% in Group B and 88.0% in Group A (X2 = 121.8, p< 0.00001). Most recently, VLS in Group B had increased to 85.6%, but the inter-group gap in VLS had grown from 2.2% to 4.4%. Within both groups, Black and Hispanic patients had lower odds of VLS than white patients. This disparity was greatest in Group B when they reengaged in care in 2021, with 72.0% of Black patients (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.22-0.42), and 79.1% of Hispanic patients (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.31-0.63), compared to 89.5% of white patients achieving VLS. Conclusion(s): VLS remained high among PLWH who stayed engaged in care in 2020, dropped among PLWH who disengaged in care, and was lower in minoritized groups even after controlling for engagement in care.

15.
Journal of Biological Chemistry ; 299(3 Supplement):S50, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2319986

ABSTRACT

Study objective. It has been shown that human common viruses are new target genes for host cell dioxin receptor transcriptional (AhR-ARNT) complex initially proven to up-regulate mammalian genes containing dioxin-response elements (DRE) in the promoters [doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2012.05.265]. Initially, transactivation of HIV-1 and HBV by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlodibenzop- dioxin (TCDD) at low nanomolar range was demonstrated [doi:10.3109/00498259309057034]. Noteworthy, transactivation of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) was shown with 0.3 ppt dioxin, i.e. lower than its current background level in the general population (~3.0 ppt). Recently, reactivation of CMV infection was found to influence worse clinical outcome following SARS-CoV-2 infection (doi: 10.1186/s12979-020- 00185-x). Other findings showed that CMV and herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) reactivation were observed in immunocompetent patients with COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (doi.org/10.1186/s13054-020-03252-3). Addressing occurrence of Herpesviridae reactivation in severe COVID-19 patients, and still unspecified real triggers of CMV and HSV-1 reactivations, we tested TCDD, which current body burden (DBB) ranges from 20 pg/g (TEQ in fat) in general population to 100 pg/g in older people. Methods. In Silico quantitation of active DRE in promoters of viral genes. Virus DNA hybridization assay. Clinical and epidemiological analyses. Results and Discussion. In this study, a computational search for DRE in CMV and HSV-1 genes was performed by SITECON, a tool recognizing potentially active transcriptional factor binding sites. In silico analysis revealed in regulatory region of CMV IE genes from 5 to 10 DRE, and from 6 to 8 DRE in regulatory region of HSV-1 IE genes.We established that a low picomolar TCDD can trigger up-regulation of CMV and HSV-1 genes via AhR:Arnt transcription factor in macrophage(doi.org/10.1016/ j.ijid.2012.05.265) and glial human cell lines (doi.org/10.1016/j. jalz.2016.06.1268), respectively. In fact, viral reactivation may be triggered in COVID-19 ARDS patients by higher pulmonary TCDD concentrations, because "lipid storm" within lungs of severe COVID-19 patients has been recently reported (doi.org/ 10.1101/2020.12.04.20242115). TCDD is known as the most potent xenobiotic, which bioaccumulates and has estimation half-life in humans of up to 10 yr. Due to hydrophobic character (Log P octanol/water: 7.05), TCDD partitions into inflammatory lipids in lung tissue thus augmenting its local concentration. Population-based epidemiological data on SARS-CoV-2 first wave of pandemic revealed high level of CMV seropositivity and cumulative mortality rate 4.5 times in Lombardi region of Italy, where after Seveso industrial accident TCDD plasma level in pre-exposed subjects is 15 times the level in rest of Italy (doi. org/10.3389/fpubh.2020.620416). Also, Arctic Native (AN) peoples consume dioxin-contaminated fat in seafood and have TCDD DBB, i.e. 7 times that in general population. To the point of this paper, their COVID-19 mortality is 2.2 times of that among non-AN Alaskans (doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6949a3). Conclusion(s): TCDD in the picomolar range may trigger CMV expression in lung cells and commit virus to the lytic cycle, which can be applied to reactivation of Herpesviridae infection in immunocompetent patients with COVID-19 ARDS syndrome.Copyright © 2023 The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

16.
Journal of Investigative Medicine ; 71(1):89, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2319983

ABSTRACT

Purpose of Study: COVID-19 introduced a rapid shift to video telehealth patient visits. At our institution in Loma Linda, California, less than 13% of hand surgery patients were seen in person at the height of the pandemic, with the majority of patients being triaged to video telehealth appointments. This was challenging for the hand surgeon due to the complexity of a hand patient's physical examination. During this time, it was critical to rapidly develop, test, and implement a tool to assist the surgeon in evaluating and triaging patients effectively over video. The purpose of this project was to develop and implement a tool that would improve the effectiveness and efficiency of video telehealth visits for hand and wrist patients. Methods Used: We developed an informational packet that was sent to patients prior to their video telehealth visit containing a letter of explanation, a new patient questionnaire, and a step-by-step guide with photos for a virtual hand examination. The letter explained the guide's purpose and provided additional instructions to ensure visit effectiveness- remove jewelry and watches, find a space with optimal lighting, wear a short sleeve shirt, etc. In the virtual hand examination guide, we explained common physical examination maneuvers and The Ten Test to assist with virtual sensation assessment. A short "how-to" description in lay terms was given for each of the physical examination maneuvers and included corresponding photographs to maximize patient comprehension. Patients were instructed to read the guide prior to their video visit and to have it available during the visit. Summary of Results: We began to implement this tool in our hand practice for new and established patients in March 2020, and we have since found that our virtual hand examination has become more thorough and efficient. Surgeon satisfaction with this tool has been high, and patients have reported satisfaction and comfort. Patients have felt that it increased their understanding of the virtual physical examination process, decreased frustration, and have stated that they would recommend this guide to other patients scheduled to undergo a video telehealth visit. Conclusion(s): The COVID-19 pandemic necessitated a rapid shift from in-person visits to video telehealth consultations. This subsequently changed the way in which hand surgeons could evaluate their patients. The procedural changes that were adopted during the pandemic can be viewed as a sign of things to come, and we anticipate that video telehealth visits will continue to be commonplace in the future. In the wake of this change, we feel confident that this tool equips the hand surgeon well for an effective and efficient virtual examination and ultimately contributes to patient satisfaction.

17.
18.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 31(2):141, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2319964

ABSTRACT

Background: More than 12 billion doses of COVID-19 vaccine administrations and over 630 million natural infections should have developed adequate levels of herd immunity over the last three years. However, there have been many new waves of coronavirus infections. The development of safe and effective vaccines to control breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections remain an urgent priority. We have developed a recombinant VSV vector-based vaccine to fulfill this worldwide need. Method(s): We have used a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV)-based prime-boost immunization strategy to develop an effective COVID-19 recall vaccine candidate. We have constructed an attenuated recombinant VSV genome carrying the full-length Spike protein gene of SARS-CoV-2. Adding the honeybee melittin signal peptide (msp) at the N-terminus enhanced the protein expression and adding the VSV G protein transmembrane domain and the cytoplasmic tail (Gtc) at the C-terminus of the Spike protein allowed efficient incorporation of the Spike protein into pseudotype VSV. Result(s): In immunized mice, rVSV with chimeric rVSV-msp-S-Gtc induced high levels of potent neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) and CD8+ T cell responses, while the full-length Spike with Gtc proved to be the superior immunogen. More importantly, rVSV-msp-S-Gtc-vaccinated animals were completely protected from subsequent SARS-CoV-2 challenges. Furthermore, rVSV-Wuhan and rVSV-Delta vaccines, and an rVSV-Trivalent (mixed rVSV-Wuhan, -Beta and -Delta) vaccine elicited potent nAbs against live SARS-CoV-2 Wuhan (USAWA1), Beta (B.1.351), Delta (B.1.617.2) and Omicron (B.1.1.529) viruses. Heterologous boosting of rVSV-Wuhan with rVSV-Delta induced strong nAb responses against Delta and Omicron viruses, with the rVSV-Trivalent vaccine consistently inducing effective nAbs against all the SARS-CoV-2 variants tested. All rVSV-msp-S-Gtc vaccines also elicited an immunodominant Spike-specific CD8+ T cell response. Conclusion(s): rVSV vaccines targeting SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern can be considered as an effective booster vaccine in the global fight against COVID-19.

19.
Journal of Biological Chemistry ; 299(3 Supplement):S252, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2319963

ABSTRACT

Circular economy is a model of economic, social and environmental production and consumption, aimed to build a sustainable society in tune with the available resources. In the Brundtland Report, (1987, United Nations) sustainability it is defined as an approach focused on "meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs." The European Medical Association (EMA), that has currently more than 50 000 members, is involved in the advancement of health, pursuing educational and professional goals addressed to the quality of environment, lifestyle and civil society through a circular medicine approach. This is a comprehensive strategy, integrating best medical practice, bioinformatics and molecular biology with economy, artificial intelligence and machine learning. Circular Medicine is the resilient framework linking all these topics with circular economy methods. Innovative possibilities of circular medicine are many: it is a comprehensive paradigm shift, countering a non-medicine based on simplistic algorithms with guidelines of insufficient effectiveness, reliability and generalizability, often passed off as innovative Artificial-Intelligence approaches. We launched in 2020 a still ongoing survey aimed at the dissemination of information and at a greater sensitivity of all our members and followers on these topics, striving to build circular medicine in the real-world. This position document is based on its preliminary results: 1. Studying and investigating the links among health, climate change, biodiversity, circular economy, robust Artificial Intelligence and Machine learning support are goals and needed practice suitable to be pursued by EMA and other medical and scientific associations. Circular economy will be fruitfully used in health facilities, including hospitals, with health professionals and life science researchers acting also in the role of influencers and opinion leaders. 2. The interventions based on epidemiology, environmental sciences, best practice in medicine, sustainable technologies and molecular biology, the pillars of a potential framework of circular medicine, need a robust bioinformatics and Artificial Intelligence support. 3. Academic curricula and health professionals CME courses should provide stronger digital knowledge, reliable procedures trainings and expertise along these lines. Daily routine of clinical observation and participatory dialogue are key elements for the progress toward a culture, practice and accomplishments of circular economy and medicine. 4. Molecular biology, still the most innovative field of medical and life science, has a role for strengthening the pathways of the circular economy, as a reliable and resilient basis of "circular medicine." 5. The lessons of COVID19, the ongoing battles for healthier lifestyles dealing with nutrition, exercise and against alcohol and cigarette smoking, and the concept of smart cities are some of the cornerstones of the proposed strategy for a real-world circular medicine. Debunking interventions against the misuse of scientific and medical are means for the development of circular economy and medicine. Effective roadmaps, guidelines and grids for recognizing and counteracting the overlap of bullying, imposter's fear, insufficient expertise and knowledge, fake assertions and evaluations are actively developed by EMA's ad-hoc workshops. AI knowledge and skills should be implemented within innovative molecular biology and medical best-practice academic-CME curricula.Copyright © 2023 The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

20.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 31(2):367-368, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2319946

ABSTRACT

Background: Despite increased social vulnerability and barriers to care, there has been a paucity of data on SARS-CoV-2 incidence among key populations in sub-Saharan Africa. We seek to characterize active infections and define transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 among people who inject drugs (PWID) and their sexual and injecting partners from Nairobi and the coastal region in Kenya. Method(s): This was a nested cross-sectional study of SARS-CoV-2 infection from April to July 2021 within a cohort study of assisted partner services for PWID in Kenya. A total of 1000 PWID and their partners (500 living with and 500 living without HIV) were recruited for SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing, of whom 440 were randomly selected to provide self-collected nasal swabs for real-time PCR testing. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) was completed on a limited subset of samples (N=23) with cycle threshold values 32.0. Phylogenetic tree construction and analysis was performed using the Nextstrain pipeline and compared with publicly available SARS-CoV-2 sequences from GenBank. Result(s): A total of 438 (99.5%) participants provided samples for SARS-CoV-2 PCR testing. Median age was 37 (IQR 32-42);128 (29.2%) were female;and 222 (50.7%) were living with HIV. The overall prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection identified by RT-PCR was 86 (19.6%). In univariate analyses, there was no increased relative risk of SARSCoV- 2 infection related to positive HIV status, frequenting an injection den, methadone treatment, unstable housing, report of any high-risk exposure, or having a sexual or injecting partner diagnosed with COVID-19 or who died from COVID-19 or flu-like illness. Eight samples were successfully sequenced via WGS and classified as WHO variants of concern: 3 Delta, 3 Alpha, and 2 Beta. Seven were classified into clades predominantly circulating in Kenya during 2021. Notably, two sequences were identical and matched identically to another Kenyan sequence, which is consistent with, though not indictive of, a transmission linkage. Conclusion(s): Overall, the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in this population of PWID and their partners was not significantly associated with risk factors related to injection drug use. At a genomic level, the SARS-CoV-2 strains in this study were consistent with contemporary Kenyan lineages circulating during the time and not unique to PWID. Prevention efforts, therefore, must also focus on marginalized groups for control given the substantial amount of mixing that likely occurs between populations.

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