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1.
BJOG ; 129(2): 282-290, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1831885

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess associations of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and pregnancy outcomes considering testing policy and test-positivity-to-delivery interval. DESIGN: Nationwide cohort study. SETTING: Sweden. POPULATION: From the Pregnancy-Register we identified 88 593 singleton births, 11 March 2020-31 January 2021, linked to data on SARS-CoV-2-positivity from the Public Health Agency, and information on neonatal care admission from the Neonatal Quality Register. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) were estimated stratified by testing-policy and test-positivity-to-delivery interval. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Five-minute Apgar score, neonatal care admission, stillbirth and preterm birth. RESULTS: During pregnancy, SARS-CoV-2 test-positivity was 5.4% (794/14 665) under universal testing and 1.9% (1402/73 928) under non-universal testing. There were generally lower risks associated with SARS-CoV-2 under universal than non-universal testing. In women testing positive >10 days from delivery, generally no significant differences in risk were observed under either testing policy. Neonatal care admission was more common (15.3% versus 8.0%; aOR 2.24, 95% CI 1.62-3.11) in women testing positive ≤10 days before delivery under universal testing. There was no significant association with 5-minute Apgar score below 7 (1.0% versus 1.7%; aOR 0.64, 95% CI 0.24-1.72) or stillbirth (0.3% versus 0.4%; aOR 0.72, 95% CI 0.10-5.20). Compared with term births (2.1%), test-positivity was higher in medically indicated preterm birth (5.7%; aOR 2.70, 95% CI 1.60-4.58) but not significantly increased in spontaneous preterm birth (2.3%; aOR 1.12, 95% CI 0.62-2.02). CONCLUSIONS: Testing policy and timing of test-positivity impact associations between SARS-CoV-2-positivity and pregnancy outcomes. Under non-universal testing, women with complications near delivery are more likely to be tested than women without complications, thereby inflating any association with adverse pregnancy outcomes compared with findings under universal testing. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Testing policy and time from SARS-CoV-2 infection to delivery influence the association with pregnancy outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Apgar Score , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Prenatal Care/methods , Prenatal Care/standards , Risk Assessment/methods , Risk Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Stillbirth/epidemiology , Sweden/epidemiology
2.
Slovenian Journal of Public Health ; 61(2):124-132, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1834252

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has strongly affected global healthcare systems. Prior epidemiological studies on different infectious diseases have shown a strong correlation between serum vitamin D levels and the incidence of certain infectious diseases. Vitamin D has an important immunomodulatory effect on innate immunity and exhibits several other mechanisms in the pathogenesis of the cytokine storm, which is one of the main contributing factors to fatality in COVID-19 patients.

3.
Journal of Ethnic Foods ; 9(11), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1833392

ABSTRACT

The tourist-catering subsector plays an important role in the consolidation and attraction of tourism products and services offered. This research aims to ascertain the importance of synergies, and proactive collaborative and co-operational relations between agri-food suppliers and the restaurants. This is a qualitative, exploratory and descriptive methodology, data source triangulation, information processing using NVIVO12 software. This study identifying that the city of Cordoba offers a variety of gastronomic products and services, and that the supply sector is semi-structured and still in need of improvements of quality, safety and having a wider commercial network. Despite the COVID-19 pandemic, suppliers have reinvented themselves and created new market opportunities to benefit from rapid growth in some sectors;furthermore, they are in a position to offer restaurants a competitive advantage in post-pandemic recovery.

4.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice ; 15(21), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1833359

ABSTRACT

Background: Community pharmacists (CPs) are one of the frontline healthcare workers (HCWs) working diligently to provide much-needed services during the COVID-19 pandemic. Burnout was one of the detrimental outcomes of the pandemic on the mental health of Lebanese CPs. To assess the extent of this syndrome among Lebanese CPs, a psychometrically reliable and valid tool is needed. Objectives This study aimed to validate the Arabic version of the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI-A) for use in the assessment of burnout among CPs. Methods A web-based cross-sectional study was conducted among Lebanese CPs over February 2021. Data were collected using an anonymous Arabic self-administered questionnaire that includes information on socio-demographic characteristics, work-related variables, in addition to the measurements: the CBI which includes personal, work-related, and patient-related dimensions of burnout, and the hospital anxiety and depression scale. Data were analyzed using SPSS and Amos software. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were performed to explore the factorial structure and to measure model fit. Cronbach's alpha was used to assess internal consistency. The criterion validity of the CBI was assessed. Multivariable linear regression analyses were used to explore the association between different aspects of burnout and mental health outcomes such as depression and anxiety. Results The CBI-A showed high internal consistency with Cronbach's alphas varied from 0.774 to 0.902 and a low floor and ceiling effect (1-9%). As for the CBI-A construct validity, the exploratory factor analysis showed three factors with good factor loadings and explained 72.17% of the variance. The confirmatory analysis supported the three-factorial structure of the CBI that presented a good overall fit based on the goodness-of-fit indices. Ad hoc modifications to the model were introduced based on the modification indices to achieve a satisfactory fit by allowing one covariate error between one pair of items within the personal burnout domain. All of the 19 items were kept in the construct since they showed a good factorial weight. The CBI-A is associated with burnout-related factors in expected directions, including extensive working hours, sleeping hours, and job satisfaction, indicating, therefore, the criterion validity of the tool. CBI subscales were also found positively associated with mental health outcomes such as depression and anxiety demonstrating, in turn, a predictive validity. Conclusion This study provides evidence for the validity and reliability of the Arabic version of CBI as an adequate tool for assessing burnout among CPs. Such an instrument could be useful for assessing such syndrome among other healthcare workers.

5.
Infectious Diseases of Poverty ; 11(32), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1833357

ABSTRACT

Background: Nucleic acid test (NAT) could effectively control the spread of COVID-19 caused by large-scale sports competitions. However, quantitative analysis on the appropriate frequency of NAT is scarce, and the cost-effectiveness and necessity of high-frequency NAT remain to be fully explored and validated. This study aims to optimize the COVID-19 surveillance strategies through cost-effectiveness analysis for the Tokyo 2020 Olympic Games and the upcoming Beijing 2022 Olympic Winter Games.

6.
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine ; 22(56), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1833306

ABSTRACT

Background: Novel Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is closely associated with cytokines storms. The Chinese medicinal herb Artemisia annua L. (A. annua) has been traditionally used to control many inflammatory diseases, such as malaria and rheumatoid arthritis. We performed network analysis and employed molecular docking and network analysis to elucidate active components or targets and the underlying mechanisms of A. annua for the treatment of COVID-19.

7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1):448, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1833287

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The etiopathogenesis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) stem partially from the abnormal activation of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Here in the current investigation, the mRNA expression levels of toll-like receptors (TLRs) were evaluated in the nasopharyngeal epithelial cells from COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Epithelial cells were obtained using nasopharyngeal swab samples from 90 COVID-19 patients and 50 controls. COVID-19 cases were classified into those without symptoms, with symptoms but not hospitalized, and with symptoms and hospitalized. To determine the mRNA expression levels of TLRs, first RNA was extracted and cDNA was synthesized, and finally Real-time PCR was exerted. RESULTS: It was seen that the transcript levels of TLR3, TLR7, TLR8, and TLR9 were overexpressed in the COVID-19 patients with clinical symptoms needing hospitalization as well as in those with clinical symptoms without needing for hospitalization compared to controls. Upregulation of TLRs was associated with clinical presentations of the patients. CONCLUSIONS: Modulation of TLR3, TLR7, TLR8, TLR9 in the epithelial cells of COVID-19 cases may estimate the disease severity and requirement for hospitalization.

8.
BMC Infectious Diseases ; 22(319), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1833284

ABSTRACT

Background: Since the first official report of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Iran on 19 February 2020, our country has been one of the worst affected countries by the COVID-19 epidemic in the Middle East. In addition to demographic and clinical characteristics, the number of hospitalized cases and deaths is an important factor for evidence-based decision-making and disease control and preparing the healthcare system to face the future challenges of COVID-19. Therefore, this cohort study was conducted to determine the demographics, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Kermanshah Province, west of Iran.

9.
Big Data and Society ; 9(1), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1833179

ABSTRACT

Growing interest is being directed to the health applications of so-called ‘passive data’ collected through wearables and sensors without active input by users. High promises are attached to passive data and their potential to unlock new insights into health and illness, but as researchers and commentators have noted, this mode of data gathering also raises fundamental questions regarding the subject's agency, autonomy and privacy. To explore how these tensions are negotiated in practice, we present and discuss findings from an interview study with 30 members of the public in the UK and Italy, which examined their views and experiences of the coronavirus disease 2019 contact tracing apps as a large-scale, high-impact example of digital health technology using passive data. We argue that, contrary to what the phrasing ‘passive data’ suggests, passivity is not a quality of specific modes of data collection but is contingent on the very practices that the technology is supposed to unobtrusively capture. © The Author(s) 2022.

10.
BMJ Global Health ; 7(3), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1832421

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The global COVID-19 pandemic has presented extraordinary disruption to healthcare services and exposed them to numerous challenges. Newborn screening (NBS) programmes were also affected;however, scarce data exist on the impact of COVID-19 on NBS.

11.
International Journal of Prisoner Health ; 17(3):189-193, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1831639

ABSTRACT

This special issue contains 20 articles that discuss that prisons can react quickly and implement new procedures that helped to protect the health of prisoners during the COVID-19 pandemic, focusing on political will, innovative practice and collaboration demonstrated during this time continue and begin to address other longstanding prison issues such as overcrowding and diversion from custody.

12.
International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare ; 15(2):105-117, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1831638

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This study aims to clarify the role of Muslim women in managing their families during the corona pandemic crisis. To achieve this aim, the researcher applied the descriptive and analytical approach. Design/methodology/approach: The Muslim women have had a prominent position consistent with the physical, psychological and mental characteristics that Allah has created them. This status is shown by: affirming their rights in all areas of life;affirming everything that preserved the dignity of women before Islam;and correcting all the conditions that detracted their dignity before the advent of Islam and making them responsible in public Islamic life on the level of: preserving Islam, spreading the Islamic call and achieving the civilization advancement of the Muslim nation. Findings: The study resulted in many significant results. The most important one of the study results was that, in the context of woman rights and responsibilities she had assumed in Islam, the Muslim woman had a prominent position in Islam. In addition, the mother in the Muslim family had a significant role as a leader, who is capable of managing the family in corona crisis and supporting family members in all aspects such as faith, intellectual endeavors, psychological, social and health, so that they are real leaders. Originality/value: The study recommends carrying out educational studies that identify and show the role of institutions other than the family in managing emergency crises.

13.
International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare ; 15(2):203-210, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1831634

ABSTRACT

Purpose - Nurses are at the front line in facing the COVID-19 outbreak and are at increased risk of becoming infected and might be the source of transmission in health-care facilities and the community. The purpose of this study is to assess the knowledge and attitude toward COVID1-19 among nurses in acute care settings in Jordan. This is expected to help with the global initiative to combat the COVID-19 epidemic. Design/methodology/approach - A cross-sectional design was used to survey nurses' knowledge and attitude of COVID-19 among Jordanian nurses working in acute care settings. Findings - The grand mean of knowledge items response was 8.94, implying that respondents possessed a high level of knowledge. The overall attitude score was positive for the participants, with a mean score of 5.93. Moreover, the results showed a significant relationship between knowledge and attitude scores. Originality/value - The findings suggest that nurses in Jordan showed a high level of knowledge and a positive attitude toward COVID-19 during the outbreak's rapid rise period. This study showed specific aspects of knowledge and attitudes that should be focused on in future awareness and educational programs to promote all preventive and safetymeasures of COVID-19.

14.
International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare ; 15(2):177-187, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1831633

ABSTRACT

Purpose - The purpose of this study, accordingly, is to not only offer insights about Arab international students' stress management and adjustment mechanisms while abroad but also bring to light the extent to which these digital citizens' use of social media networks reinforces their citizenship values and preserves their national identity during the COVID-19 global health crisis. Design/methodology/approach - The researcher adopted the descriptive approach, which is the appropriate scientific method for this type of research studies, grounded on an examination of the reality or phenomenon, depending on its quantitative analysis and its accurate description by means of collecting data, using the measurement tool of questionnaire to identify the role of social media in relation to citizenship during the COVID-19 global health crisis. Findings - Jordanian exchange students heavily rely on social media during the pandemic, choosing Facebook as their most favorable choice during the pandemic to connect with family and friends near and far, while choosing WhatsApp as the most favorable choice for promoting citizenship values during the pandemic, with an average willingness to actually discuss citizenship through social media. The findings affirm results and conclusions of previous studies about the crucial role of social media in international students' cross-cultural experiences, especially during stressful events like the COVID-19 global health crisis. Originality/value - Unfortunately, and even before the outbreak of the COVID-19 global health crisis, Arab international students, including exchange students, are already underrepresented in studies of international students' adjustment and stress management in hosting countries (Farrugia et al., 2017;Meleis, 1982). This marginalization, or partial exclusion, of Arab international students' experiences abroad should alert scholars of missed research opportunities that should alter existing knowledge about international students, especially when we realize, for example, that Arab international students showed the highest stress level among international students - including Asians who, according to previous studies, usually struggle the most (Bai, 2016:103).

15.
International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare ; 15(2):137-150, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1831632

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The emergence of COVID-19 pandemic in the late 2019 was accompanied by various consequences that included almost the entire life aspects worldwide. To cope with the pandemic, imposing restricted measures was required, such as quarantine, lockdown and social distancing. The purpose of this paper is to identify the houses' interior designs responses in Jordan under Covid-19 Pandemic. Design/methodology/approach: Under such conditions, people have to spend long periods inside their houses. This issue highlighted the importance and the vital role of houses interior design in meeting the various needs of residents under emergent and changing conditions. Findings: This study revealed current and future responses that may be implemented to cope with the pandemic consequences in terms of houses' interior design. Moreover, a conceptual model was proposed. Number of suggestions and further research were introduced considering the revealed findings. Originality/value: This study aimed at identifying the houses' interior design responses in Jordan under COVID-19 pandemic. The study methodology adopted both inductive and qualitative approaches to achieve its goals. Under the qualitative approach, semi-structured interviews were undertaken by interviewing ten interior designers and academics.

16.
Access Microbiology ; 4(3), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1831588

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic emerged as a global health crisis in 2020. The first case in India was reported on 30 January 2020 and the disease spread throughout the country within months. Old persons, immunocompromised patients and persons with co-morbidities, especially of the respiratory system, have a more severe and often fatal outcome to the disease. In this study we have analysed the socio-demographic trend of the COVID-19 outbreak in Nagpur and adjoining districts.

17.
Nutrition Today ; 57(2):70-73, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1831539

ABSTRACT

When the authors, in an article 2 years ago, explored early communication lessons from COVID-19, it was thought that the world would likely have gotten past the pandemic by publication date. Now, nearly 2 years later, the virus continues to wreak public fear and seemingly confound policy makers, the health/medical community, and risk communicators about how to address the virus. It is time to take stock again of what has worked and what has made matters worse in communicating about severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-in other words, what may have gone wrong and what seems to have gone right. In the present article, the authors review existing risk communication guidelines and offer suggestions for additions/revisions in light of the world's COVID-19 experience. Specifically, they discuss how communicators might mitigate the politicization of pandemic messages, the need for balancing effective messaging, potential harms to public well-being, risk/benefit analysis, and the necessity of what the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine has called "radical transparency.".

18.
Advances in Nutrition ; 13(2):388-423, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1830958

ABSTRACT

The lockdowns resulting from the first wave of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic impacted deeply on all life activities, including diet. We performed a systematic review to investigate changes in food intake, eating behaviors, and diet quality during lockdown as compared with before the lockdown. A literature search was performed using 3 electronic databases from inception until 13 June 2021. Observational studies evaluating changes in general populations during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown were eligible. Of 1963 studies retrieved from the search strategy, 95 met inclusion criteria (85 in adults, 10 in children/adolescents), and the majority were of high quality (72.6%). Most of the studies were web-based surveys using convenience sampling, mainly focused on variations in the consumption of foods and eating behaviors during lockdown, whereas only 15 studies analyzed diet quality through dietary indices. On the basis of the definition of a healthful diet as reflected by a traditional Mediterranean diet, an increase in recommended foods such as fruit and vegetables, legumes, cereals, and olive oil was observed, although a sharp decrease in fish intake and an increase in dairy products were documented. Accordingly, a reduction in foods that should be eaten less frequently was reported-namely, red and processed meat. However, a higher consumption of unhealthy foods (e.g., snacks and sweets) was also observed. Results indicated improved diet quality in Europe, especially among Mediterranean countries, with the exception of France, while a switch to poor nutrient patterns was observed in Colombia and Saudi Arabia. Analyses of eating behaviors suggest an increase in food intake, number of daily meals, and snacking. In conclusion, changes in intake of major food groups, apart from fish intake, were in line with the definition of a traditional Mediterranean diet, indicating a consistent moderate improvement in dietary habits worldwide. This review protocol was registered at < https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/ > as CRD42020225292.

19.
Surgical Infections ; 23(3):298-303, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1830953

ABSTRACT

Background: Maxillofacial soft tissue injuries (STIs) are common and frequent in emergency departments. The aim of this study was to analyze factors causing infection of maxillofacial STIs. Patients and Methods: Patients with maxillofacial STIs who received sutures and had complete medical records were evaluated. Gender, age, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade, diabetes mellitus, wound age, wound length, wound contamination, wound type, and sites were analyzed using univariable analysis and binary logistic regression.

20.
Embase; 2022.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-335156

ABSTRACT

Sublineages of SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) Omicron variants continue to amass mutations in the spike (S) glycoprotein, which leads to immune evasion and rapid spread of the virus across the human population. Here we demonstrate the susceptibility of the Omicron variant BA.1 (B.1.1.529.1) to four repurposable drugs, Methylene blue (MB), Mycophenolic acid (MPA), Posaconazole (POS), and Niclosamide (Niclo) in post-exposure treatments of primary human airway cell cultures. MB, MPA, POS, and Niclo are known to block infection of human nasal and bronchial airway epithelial explant cultures (HAEEC) with the Wuhan strain, and four variants of concern (VoC), Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), Gamma (B.1.1.28), Delta (B.1.617.2) (1, 2). Our results not only show broad anti-coronavirus effects of MB, MPA, POS and Niclo, but also demonstrate that the Omicron variant BA.1 (B.1.1.529.1) sheds infectious virus from HAEEC over at least 15 days, and maintains both intracellular and extracellular viral genomic RNA without overt toxicity, suggesting viral persistence. The data underscore the broad effects of MB, MPA, POS, and Niclo against SARS-CoV-2 and the currently circulating VoC, and reinforce the concept of repurposing drugs in clinical trials against COVID-19.

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