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1.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 967493, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029957

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has posed a constant threat to human beings and the world economy for more than two years. Vaccination is the first choice to control and prevent the pandemic. However, an effective SARS-CoV-2 vaccine against the virus infection is still needed. This study designed and prepared four kinds of virus-like particles (VLPs) using an insect expression system. Two constructs encoded wild-type SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) fused with or without H5N1 matrix 1 (M1) (S and SM). The other two constructs contained a codon-optimized spike gene and/or M1 gene (mS and mSM) based on protein expression, stability, and ADE avoidance. The results showed that the VLP-based vaccine could induce high SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies in mice, including specific IgG, IgG1, and IgG2a. Moreover, the mSM group has the most robust ability to stimulate humoral immunity and cellular immunity than the other VLPs, suggesting the mSM is the best immunogen. Further studies showed that the mSM combined with Al/CpG adjuvant could stimulate animals to produce sustained high-level antibodies and establish an effective protective barrier to protect mice from challenges with mouse-adapted strain. The vaccine based on mSM and Al/CpG adjuvant is a promising candidate vaccine to prevent the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype , Viral Vaccines , Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
2.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1437, 2022 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029702

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 related lockdowns may have affected engagement in health behaviours among the UK adult population. This prospective observational study assessed socio-demographic patterning in attempts to change and maintain a range of health behaviours and changes between two time points during the pandemic. METHODS: Adults aged 18 years and over (n = 4,978) were recruited using Dynata (an online market research platform) and the HealthWise Wales platform, supplemented through social media advertising. Online surveys were conducted in August/September 2020 when lockdown restrictions eased in the UK following the first major UK lockdown (survey phase 1) and in February/March 2021 during a further national lockdown (survey phase 2). Measures derived from the Cancer Awareness Measure included self-reported attempts to reduce alcohol consumption, increase fruit/vegetable consumption, increase physical activity, lose weight and reduce/stop smoking. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to assess individual health behaviour change attempts over time, adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, employment and education. RESULTS: Around half of participants in survey phase 1 reported trying to increase physical activity (n = 2607, 52.4%), increase fruit/vegetables (n = 2445, 49.1%) and lose weight (n = 2413, 48.5%), with 19.0% (n = 948) trying to reduce alcohol consumption among people who drink. Among the 738 participants who smoked, 51.5% (n = 380) were trying to reduce and 27.4% (n = 202) to stop smoking completely. Most behaviour change attempts were more common among women, younger adults and minority ethnic group participants. Efforts to reduce smoking (aOR: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.82-1.17) and stop smoking (aOR: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.80-1.20) did not differ significantly in phase 2 compared to phase 1. Similarly, changes over time in attempts to improve other health behaviours were not statistically significant: physical activity (aOR: 1.07; 95% CI: 0.99-1.16); weight loss (aOR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.90-1.00); fruit/vegetable intake (aOR: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.91-1.06) and alcohol use (aOR: 1.32, 95% CI: 0.92-1.91). CONCLUSION: A substantial proportion of participants reported attempts to change health behaviours in the initial survey phase. However, the lack of change observed over time indicated that overall motivation to engage in healthy behaviours was sustained among the UK adult population, from a period shortly after the first lockdown toward the end of the second prolonged lockdown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pandemics , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Vegetables , Weight Loss
3.
Ann Transl Med ; 8(7): 497, 2020 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2026143

ABSTRACT

The "novel" coronavirus disease 2019 (abbreviated "COVID-19") is the third coronavirus outbreak emerging during the past two decades. This infectious disease, sustained by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been recently declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization. Despite the concerning epidemiological burden, many people, including some policymakers, are underestimating this pandemic and are remaining enigmatically inactive against a human pathology which, for a combination of reasons, can be reasonably defined as a perfect storm (i.e., the "wrong virus" at the "wrong time"). These many paradigmatic aspects include SARS-CoV-2 structure and peculiar biology of infection, high risk of inter-human transmission, long incubation time combined with early and sustained viral load, existence of asymptomatic or mildly-symptomatic carriers, viral shedding for days after symptom relief, unfavorable progression towards respiratory distress and death in up to 5-10% of patients thus causing dramatic healthcare challenges, as well as environmental contamination. Last but not least, the combination of the current case fatality rate with the extraordinary number of people that could be potentially infected by SARS-CoV-2 would permit to estimate that the worldwide deaths for COVID-19 may even approximate those recorded during World War II if appropriate restrictive measures for preventing human-to-human transmission are not readily undertaken. Everybody should be inexcusably aware that this is not a drill, and that the consequences of inadequate action will be tragedy.

4.
Journal of Social Computing ; 3(2):182-189, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2026290

ABSTRACT

Compartmental pandemic models have become a significant tool in the battle against disease outbreaks. Despite this, pandemic models sometimes require extensive modification to accurately reflect the actual epidemic condition. The Susceptible-Infectious-Removed (SIR) model, in particular, contains two primary parameters: the infectious rate parameter ß and the removal rate parameter y, in addition to additional unknowns such as the initial infectious population. Adding to the complexity, there is an obvious challenge to track the evolution of these parameters, especially ß and y, over time which leads to the estimation of the reproduction number for the particular time window, RT. This reproduction number may provide better understanding on the effectiveness of isolation or control measures. The changing RT values (evolving over time window) will lead to even more possible parameter scenarios. Given the present Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, a stochastic optimization strategy is proposed to fit the model on the basis of parameter changes over time. Solutions are encoded to reflect the changing parameters of ßT and γt, allowing the changing RT to be estimated. In our approach, an Adaptive Differential Evolution (ADE) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) are used to fit the curves into previously recorded data. ADE eliminates the need to tune the parameters of the Differential Evolution (DE) to balance the exploitation and exploration in the solution space. Results show that the proposed optimized model can generally fit the curves well albeit high variance in the solutions. © 2020 Tsinghua University Press.

5.
Przeglad Gastroenterologiczny ; 17(3):219-226, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2025078

ABSTRACT

Introduction Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms can be considered as a manifestation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Aim: Our study analysed GI symptoms depending on their occurrence, and their possible causes and impact on the course of COVID-19. Material and methods A retrospective, single-centre assessment of the frequency, risk factors, and impact of GI symptoms in 441 patients with COVID-19. Results A statistically significant reduction in the length of stay (LOS) (15 days vs. 17 days;p = 0.04), intensive care unit admission (ICU) (16.9% vs. 26.8%;p = 0.02), and need for mechanical ventilation (14.1% vs. 23.4%;p = 0.02) in the group who had experienced GI symptoms before hospitalization was noticed. For comparison, patients who developed GI symptoms during hospitalization had statistically significantly longer LOS (21 days vs. 15 days;p = 0.0001), were more frequently admitted to the ICU (38.1% vs. 18.6%;p = 0.0003), and had a higher need for mechanical ventilation (32.7% vs. 16.2%;p < 0.001). Risk factors for GI symptoms during hospitalization in COVID-19 patients included age, Clostridioides difficile infection, and receiving certain treatment (antibiotics and lopinavir + ritonavir). Conclusions The GI symptoms that developed before admission to hospital correlated with reduced severity of the course of COVID-19. However, in the group of patients who developed GI symptoms during hospitalization, attention should be paid to concomitant treatment. The use of antibiotics should be limited because they are associated with the deterioration of the course of COVID-19;one of the reasons might be changes in the intestinal microbiome.

6.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; 37(34), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2022639

ABSTRACT

Background: This study aimed to investigate the effects of comprehensive rehabilitation management on functional recovery and examine the correlation between clinical parameters and improvements in functional outcomes in severe-to-critical inpatients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a tertiary hospital. Methods: Post-acute COVID-19 patients who had a World Health Organization (WHO) ordinal scale of 5-7, underwent intensive care, and received comprehensive rehabilitation management, including exercise programs, nutritional support, dysphagia evaluation, and psychological care were included. The appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (SMI), Medical Research Council sum score, handgrip strength, number of repetitions in the 1-minute sit-to-stand test, gait speed, Berg Balance Scale (BBS), and Functional Ambulation Classification (FAC) were evaluated at hospital stay, discharge, and 1-month follow-up. The correlation between the rehabilitation dose and improvement in each outcome measure was analyzed. Results: Overall, 37 patients were enrolled, of whom 59.5% and 32.4% had a score of 6 and 7 on the WHO ordinal scale, respectively. Lengths of stay in the intensive care unit and hospital were 33.6 +/- 23.9 and 63.8 +/- 36.5 days. Outcome measures revealed significant improvements at discharge and 1-month follow-up. The SMI was significantly increased at the 1-month follow-tip (6.13 [5.24-7.76]) compared with that during the hospital stay (5.80 [5.39-7.05]). We identified dose-response associations between the rehabilitation dose and FAC (rho = 0.46) and BBS (rho = 0.50) scores. Patients with older age, longer hospitalization, longer stay at the intensive care unit, longer duration of mechanical ventilation, tracheostomy, a more depressive mood, and poorer nutritional status revealed poorer improvement in gait speed at the 1-month follow-up. Conclusion: Comprehensive rehabilitation management effectively improved muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance in severe-to-critical COVID-19 patients. Dose-response relationship of rehabilitation and functional improvement emphasizes the importance of intensive post-acute inpatient rehabilitation in COVID-19 survivors.

7.
Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition ; 71(2):129-135, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2022551

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is pandemic since 2020 and further information is necessary on the risk factors associated with the infection of SARS-CoV-2. As an entry mechanism, SARS-CoV-2 uses angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as receptor and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) to activate fusion with host plasma membrane. Because dysgeusia is an early symptom of COVID-19, we here studied the expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in the tongue and the associated tissues of mice and humans with immunohistochemistry and immunoblot analysis. ACE2 expression was low in the human tongue but was observed in the squamous epithelium, perineurium, arterial wall, salivary glands as well as taste buds. In contrast, mice showed high expression. In sharp contrast, TMPRSS2 expression was high in all the cells mentioned above in humans but relatively low in mice except for salivary glands. We then performed semi-quantitation of immunohistochemistry data of human ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and analyzed for age, sex, alcohol intake, and smoking habit with logistic regression analysis. We found that alcohol intake and female gender were the significant risk factors for increasing TMPRSS2 expression. In conclusion, TMPRSS2 is an important factor to be considered regarding SARS-CoV-2 entry and amplification in the oral cavity, which is promoted through drinking habit.

9.
Glob Health J ; 2022 Jul 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2015310

ABSTRACT

Background: The public knowledge and adherence to the established coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) precautionary measures are crucial to Nigeria's war against the pandemic. Public health education on its preventive practices at the grassroots level was initially crucial to achieving a lower COVID-19 incidence in Kwara State, Nigeria. Methods: We assessed the knowledge of, and adherence to COVID-19 precautionary measures at the community level among 795 respondents from the three senatorial zones of Kwara State. Results: 54.5% (433/795) of the respondents were aged between 21 and 40 years, and 45.9% (365/795) of the respondents had a bachelor's degree or higher. Study participants had a good knowledge of COVID-19, its symptoms, and its mode of transmission. 91.8% of the respondents (730/795) had a positive perception of the COVID-19 preventive measures while 96.1% (763/795) of the respondents agreed that maintaining social distance was important in curbing the COVID-19 pandemic. However, only 38% (302/795) of them used face masks and only 25.7% (204/795) of the respondents used hand sanitizers. In addition, only 31.9% (253/795) of the respondents isolated themselves when they were ill. Multi-variable logistic regression analysis revealed that education, occupation, gender, and ethnicity were significantly associated with positive COVID-19 preventive practices among residents of Kwara State. Civil servants were more likely (AOR: 3.14; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.67 to 14.82; P = 0.034) to have positive preventive attitudes than other respondents. Study participants with tertiary education and those that were Yoruba (ethnicity) were 14.81 times more likely (95% CI: 4.29 to 51.05; P = 0.001) and 5.19 times more likely (95% CI: 1.82 to 14.84; P = 0.007) to have positive attitudes towards the laid-down COVID-19 preventive measures respectively. Conclusion: The poor community adherence to the COVID-19 preventive practices could pre-dispose Kwara to more COVID-19 cases. More community engagement activities are needed to fully curb the spread of the COVID-19. Public health education should focus on preventive measures, vaccine acceptance, and community monitoring of COVID-19.

10.
Endocrine Journal ; 69(8):947-957, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2011755

ABSTRACT

Subacute thyroiditis is a transient inflammatory thyroid disease characterized by neck pain, fever, and typical symptoms associated with thyrotoxicosis. The incidence of subacute thyroiditis is higher in female than in male, and susceptibility is prominent in the 30-50-year age range. The variety of case reports on subacute thyroiditis associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) appears to be increasing, and subacute thyroiditis following COVID-19 vaccination has recently been reported. Herein, we report two cases of subacute thyroiditis that developed after receiving the COVID-19 mRNA vaccine, one of which exhibited remarkable liver dysfunction. The mechanism underlying the development of post-vaccination subacute thyroiditis remains unknown;however, one theory suggests that adjuvants contained in vaccines may play a role in triggering diverse autoimmune and inflammatory responses. Another possibility is the potential cross-reactivity between the coronavirus spike protein target produced by the mRNA vaccine and thyroid cell antigens. Common side effects of the COVID-19 vaccine include pain at the injection site, fever, fatigue. headache, muscle pain, chills, and nausea. These symptoms are usually resolved within a few days. Subacute thyroiditis may present symptoms similar to those of short-tenn vaccination side effects or exhibit non-specific symptoms, potentially leading to misdiagnosis or underdiagnosis. Therefore, clinicians should be aware of the possible development of subacute thyroiditis after COVID-19 vaccination.

11.
Journal of the Formosan Medical Association ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2007843

ABSTRACT

Background /Purpose: The efficacy and safety of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) booster vaccines remain limited. We investigated the immunogenicity and adverse events of the third dose of mRNA vaccines in healthy adults. Methods Volunteers vaccinated with two doses of the adenoviral vaccine (ChAdOx1) 12 weeks before were administered with an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. These were divided into three groups, full-dose mRNA-1273 (group 1);half-dose mRNA-1273 (group 2);and full-dose BNT-162b2 (group 3). Primary outcomes included serum anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers and neutralizing antibody titers against B.1.1.7 (alpha), B.1.617.2 (delta), and B.1.1.529 (omicron) variants. Secondary outcomes included the evaluation of humoral and cellular immunity and vaccine-associated adverse events after the boost. Results Totally 300 participants were recruited, and 298 participants were enrolled. For all three groups, an increase in anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG geometric mean titers (30.12- to 71.81-fold) and neutralizing antibody titers against the alpha variant (69.77- to 173.2-folds), delta variant (132.68- to 324.73-folds), and omicron variant (135.4- to 222.4-folds) were observed on day 28. All groups showed robust T- and B-cell responses after boosting. Adverse events were overall mild and transient but with higher prevalence and severity in group 1 participants than in other groups. Conclusions Third dose mRNA COVID-19 vaccines markedly enhanced cellular and humoral responses and were safe. Immunological responses and adverse events were higher in individuals receiving the full-dose mRNA-1273 vaccine, followed by a half-dose mRNA-1273 vaccine and BNT-162b2 vaccine.

12.
Medicina Clínica (English Edition) ; 159(4):171-176, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2004336

ABSTRACT

Background At present, COVID-19 is a global pandemic and is seriously harmful to humans. In this retrospective study, the aim was to investigate the interaction between CVD and COVID-19. Methods A total of 180 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 in Yichang Central People's Hospital from 29 January to 17 March 2020 were initially included. The medical history, clinical manifestations at the time of admission, laboratory test results, hospitalization time and complications were recorded. According to the medical history, the patients were assigned to the nonsevere group with non-CVD (n=90), the nonsevere group with CVD (n=22), the severe group with non-CVD (n=40) and the severe group with CVD (n=28). Results In the severe group, compared with non-CVD patients, CVD patients had a significantly higher incidence of fever (P<0.05). However, compared with the nonsevere group, the severe group had significantly higher proportions of patients with hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, CHD and HF (all P<0.05). Among the patients with nonsevere COVID-19, the WBC count and the levels of IL-6, CRP, D-dimer, NT-proBNP, and FBG were significantly higher and the Hb level was significantly lower in the CVD patients than in the non-CVD patients (all P<0.05). However, among the patients with severe COVID-19, only the level of NT-proBNP was significantly higher in CVD patients than in non-CVD patients (P<0.05). In addition, the WBC count and the levels of IL-6, CRP, D-dimer, CKMB, ALT, AST, SCR, NT-proBNP, and FBG were significantly higher and the Hb level was significantly lower in the severe group than in the nonsevere group (all P<0.05). However, among the patients with severe COVID-19, the incidences of acute myocardial injury, acute kidney injury, arrhythmia, and sudden death were significantly higher in the CVD group than in the non-CVD group (all P<0.05). The same results were found in the comparison of the nonsevere group with the severe group. Among the patients with nonsevere COVID-19, those without CVD had a mean hospitalization duration of 25.25 (SD 7.61) days, while those with CVD had a mean hospitalization duration of 28.77 (SD 6.11) days;the difference was significant (P<0.05). The same results were found in the comparison of the severe group. Conclusions CVD affects the severity of COVID-19. COVID-19 also increases the risk of severe CVD. Resumen Antecedentes La infección por SARS-CoV-2 está provocando graves consecuencias en la humanidad. El objetivo de este estudio retrospectivo fue investigar el impacto de las enfermedades cardiovasculares (ECV) en la gravedad de dicha infección. Métodos Entre el 29 de enero y el 17 de marzo de 2020, se diagnosticaron 180 pacientes con neumonía por SARS-CoV-2 en el Hospital Popular Central de Yichang. Se registraron los antecedentes, manifestaciones clínicas, resultados de laboratorio, tiempo de hospitalización y complicaciones. Los pacientes se dividieron en cuatro grupos: 1) infección no grave sin ECV (n=90), 2) infección no grave con ECV (n=22), 3) infección grave sin ECV (n=40) y 4) infección grave con ECV (n=28). Resultados La prevalencia de fiebre en los pacientes con ECV fue significativamente mayor que en aquellos sin ECV (P<0,05). Sin embargo, en comparación con los pacientes no graves, la proporción de pacientes con hipertensión, diabetes mellitus tipo 2, cardiopatía coronaria e insuficiencia cardíaca en los pacientes graves fue significativamente mayor (p<0,05). Los niveles de recuento de leucocitos, IL-6, PCR, dímero D, NT-proBNP y glucemia en ayunas (GA) en pacientes con ECV fueron significativamente mayores que en los de pacientes sin ECV, aunque los niveles de Hb fueron significativamente menores que los de los pacientes sin ECV (p<0,05). Sin embargo, los valores de NT-proBNP en pacientes con ECV fueron significativamente mayores que en los pacientes sin ECV (P<0,05). Además, el recuento de leucocitos y los niveles de IL-6, PCR, dímero D, CK-MB, ALT, AST, creatinina, NT-proBNPy GA en el grupo de pacientes graves fueron significativamente mayores que en el grupo no grave, mientras que los valores de Hb fueron significativamente menores que en el grupo no grave (p<0,05). La prevalencia de lesión miocárdica aguda, lesión renal aguda, arritmia y muerte súbita en el grupo con ECV fue significativamente mayor que en el grupo sin ECV (p<0,05). Los mismos resultados se encontraron al comparar los pacientes no graves con aquellos con infección grave. Entre los pacientes no graves, la duración media de la estancia hospitalaria fue de 25,25 (DE: 7,61) días en los pacientes sin ECV, mientras que la duración media de la estancia hospitalaria fue de 28,77 (DE: 6,11) días en los pacientes con ECV (p<0,05). Los mismos resultados se observaron al comparar los dos grupos con infección grave. Conclusiones La infección por SARS-CoV-2 es de evolución más grave en los pacientes con ECV.

13.
Middle East Current Psychiatry-Mecpsych ; 29(1), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2005622

ABSTRACT

Background Cancer patients are in the high-risk group of getting COVID-19 infection and experiencing a severe course. Anxiety of cancer patients about how they pass this pandemic process and how changes in the health system would influence their treatment has increased together with the COVID-19 pandemic. Influence of COVID-19 on psychology of cancer patients is also a subject needed to be investigated as well as its course and prognosis. Thus, it is aimed to measure fear levels of cancer patients by a validated scale. Patients accepting to fill in the validated Fear of COVID-19 (FCV-19S) scale were included in our study. Higher scores obtained from the scale means high level of COVID-19 fear was experienced. Results A total of 66.8% of 486 patients expressed that they are very afraid of coronavirus, and 66.3% expressed that they fear from losing their lives due to coronavirus. The level of fear in the patient group having adjuvant therapy has been found statistically to be significantly higher compared with groups having neoadjuvant and metastatic/palliative therapy (p: 0.004). Conclusions Because the increase of level of fear may lead to vital outcomes such as weakening of immune system, disturbance of treatment compliance, and worsening of prognosis, a psychological approach to cancer patients is compulsory in order to prevent fear of COVID-19 infection.

14.
Clinical Immunology ; : 109106, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2003938

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a severe complication of SARS-CoV-2 infections that occurs in the pediatric population. We sought to characterize T cell responses in MIS-C compared to COVID-19 and pediatric hyperinflammatory syndromes. MIS-C was distinct from COVID-19 and hyperinflammatory syndromes due to an expansion of T cells expressing TRBV11–2 that was not associated with HLA genotype. Children diagnosed with MIS-C, but who were negative for SARS-CoV-2 by PCR and serology, did not display Vβ skewing. There was no difference in the proportion of T cells that became activated after stimulation with SARS-CoV-2 peptides in children with MIS-C compared to convalescent COVID-19. The frequency of SARS-CoV-2-specific TCRs and the antigens recognized by these TCRs were comparable in MIS-C and COVID-19. Expansion of Vβ11–2+ T cells was a specific biomarker of MIS-C patients with laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections. Children with MIS-C had robust antigen-specific T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2.

15.
Glob Health J ; 2022 Jul 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2000420

ABSTRACT

Objective: : Despite recognition that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic created an unprecedented impact on global mental health, information on the psychological health among trauma survivors during the COVID-19 pandemic is rare. We sought to examine psychological outcomes among individuals with preexisting traumatic experiences during COVID-19. Methods: : We sampled 1 242 adults in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States under a state-issued Phase 1 stay-at-home mandate to examine associations between pre-pandemic trauma exposure as measured by the Brief Trauma Questionnaire (BTQ) and anxiety and depression, as measured by the Patient Reported Outcome Scale Anxiety and Depression (PROMIS-A and PROMIS-D). Results: : Pre-pandemic trauma exposure among the sample was reported, with 281 (22.6%) participants identifying as experiencing one trauma, 209 (16.8%) reporting two, and 468 (37.7%) reporting three or more. As reported experiences of trauma increased, so did participant anxiety and depressive symptomatology. One-way Analysis of Variance indicated that reported trauma was significantly positively correlated with anxiety (P < 0.01) and depressive symptomatology (P < 0.01). Conclusion: : Findings highlight the immense psychological toll of the COVID-19 pandemic, specifically with individuals who were previously exposed to trauma. Public health officials can encourage physicians, employers, and universities to screen patients, employees, and students to assess previous trauma, psychological functioning, and risk factors. Collaboration between physicians and mental health providers including psychiatrists, psychologists, counselors, and social workers to provide evidence informed rapid coordination of care can better meet the global mental health crisis that is arising as a result of this unprecedented global trauma.

16.
Cancer (0008543X) ; : 1, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1999841

ABSTRACT

Background Methods Results Conclusions Cancer survivors represent a population with high health care needs. If and how cancer survivors were affected by the first year of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) pandemic are largely unknown.Using data from the nationwide, population‐based Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (2017–2020), the authors investigated changes in health‐related measures during the COVID‐19 pandemic among cancer survivors and compared them with changes among adults without a cancer history in the United States. Sociodemographic and health‐related measures such as insurance coverage, employment status, health behaviors, and health status were self‐reported. Adjusted prevalence ratios of health‐related measures in 2020 versus 2017–2019 were calculated with multivariable logistic regressions and stratified by age group (18–64 vs. ≥65 years).Among adults aged 18–64 years, the uninsured rate did not change significantly in 2020 despite increases in unemployment. The prevalence of unhealthy behaviors, such as insufficient sleep and smoking, decreased in 2020, and self‐rated health improved, regardless of cancer history. Notably, declines in smoking were larger among cancer survivors than nonelderly adults without a cancer history. Few changes were observed for adults aged ≥65 years.Further research is needed to confirm the observed positive health behavior and health changes and to investigate the role of potential mechanisms, such as the national and regional policy responses to the pandemic regarding insurance coverage, unemployment benefits, and financial assistance. As polices related to the public health emergency expire, ongoing monitoring of longer term effects of the pandemic on cancer survivorship is warranted. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Cancer (0008543X) is the property of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

17.
Journal of the Formosan Medical Association ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1996350

ABSTRACT

The appropriate interval between heterologous prime adenoviral vectored vaccination and boost mRNA vaccination remains unclear. We recruited 100 adult participants to receive a prime adenoviral vectored vaccine (ChAdOx1, AstraZeneca) and a boost mRNA vaccine (mRNA-1273, Moderna) 12 weeks apart and checked their serum SARS-CoV-2 anti-spike IgG titers and neutralizing antibody titers against B.1.1.7 (alpha) and B.1.617.2 (delta) variants on the 28th day after the boost dose. Results were compared with our previous study cohorts who received the same prime-boost vaccinations at 4- and 8-week intervals. Compared to other heterologous vaccination groups, the 12-week interval group had higher neutralizing antibody titers against SARS-CoV-2 variants than the 4-week interval group and was similar to the 8-week interval group at day 28. Adverse reactions after the boost dose were mild and transient. Our results support deploying viral vectored and mRNA vaccines in a flexible schedule with intervals from 8 to 12 weeks.

18.
Journal of Clinical Virology ; 155:105269, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1996328

ABSTRACT

Background The concentration of antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein is frequently being measured for clinical and epidemiological purposes. The aim of this study was to examine whether the results of different quantitative SARS-CoV-2 spike antibody assays are comparable. Material and methods The Siemens SARS-CoV-2 IgG, Abbott SARS-CoV-2 IgG II Quant, Roche ElecsysT Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S, and Euroimmun Anti-SARS-CoV-2-QuantiVac assay were compared with 110 sera from patients 6-9 months after SARS-CoV-2 infection and the WHO First International SARS-CoV-2 antibody standard 20/136. The antibody values were converted into WHO binding antibody units (BAU)/ml. The diagnostic sensitivity of the assays was determined and the antibody values were compared. Results The diagnostic sensitivity ranged from 57.3% (Euroimmun) to 100% (Roche). The antibody concentration values of different assays correlated with Pearson coefficients of correlation between 0.729 and 0.953. The geometric mean antibody values of the Abbott, Siemens and Euroimmun assay varied by a factor of 1.1-1.2. The geometric mean antibody values of the Roche assay were 2.4-2.8 times higher than those from the other assays. The assays yielded varying results with the WHO International antibody standard. Conclusions The quantitative SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays from Abbott, Siemens, Roche and Euroimmun correlate strongly but differ in the antibody concentrations. Therefore, the same assay should be used when testing patients repeatedly. In addition, the name of the assay used and the manufacturer should be indicated along with the test results.

19.
Australian Journal of Otolaryngology ; 5, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1994737

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) [coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)] impacted many aspects of healthcare in Australia, particularly already strained elective surgery waiting lists in regional areas. Elective operating was suspended throughout New South Wales (NSW) and Victoria (Vic) despite cases being predominantly located in metropolitan centres. The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of COVID-19 on patients' time spent on Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) elective surgery waiting lists and the likelihood of breaching recommended waiting times. Methods: Elective ENT operating data was collected from Albury Wodonga Health (AWH) and Dubbo Health Service (DHS) between March 2019 and February 2021. Data was analysed based on the time period (March 2019-February 2020 = pre-COVID, March 2020-February 2021 = COVID) and priority category (1, 2 or 3 based on clinical urgency). Results: A total of 2,915 operations were recorded across the two sites during the study period. There were statistically significant increases in both the length of time spent on waiting lists as well as the likelihood of breaching recommended waiting times following the arrival of COVID-19. This was true for both sites as well as across all priority categories. Conclusions: This study demonstrated a significant increase on the length of time patients spent on elective surgery waiting lists as well as the likelihood of these patients breaching recommended surgery waiting times following COVID-19 pandemic. The shutdown of elective surgery due to the pandemic has had an unnecessarily large impact on regional areas where case numbers were initially low and local services are already stretched. During future waves, a region-specific response involving elective surgery shutdown is recommended, rather than a state-wide or nationwide approach. © 2022 Australian Journal of Otolaryngology. All rights reserved.

20.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 23(8): 655-665, 2022 Aug 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993603

ABSTRACT

The global outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) led to the suspension of most treatments with assisted reproductive technique (ART). However, with the recent successful control of the pandemic in China, there is an urgent public need to resume full reproductive care. To determine whether the COVID-19 pandemic had any adverse effects on female fertility and the pregnancy outcomes of women undergoing ART, a systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted using the electronic Chinese and English databases. Dichotomous outcomes were summarized as prevalence, and odds ratios (ORs) and continuous outcomes as standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI). The risk of bias and subgroup analyses were assessed using Stata/SE 15.1 and R 4.1.2. The results showed that compared with women treated by ART in the pre-COVID-19 time frame, women undergoing ART after the COVID-19 pandemic exhibited no significant difference in the clinical pregnancy rate (OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.19; I2=0.0%), miscarriage rate (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.79 to 1.14; I2=38.4%), embryo cryopreservation rate (OR 2.90, 95% CI 0.17 to 48.13; I2=85.4%), and oocyte cryopreservation rate (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.03 to 3.65; I2=81.6%). This review provided additional evidence for gynecologists to guide the management of women undergoing ART treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic timeframe.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Outcome , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Pregnancy Rate , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted
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