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1.
Studies in Systems, Decision and Control ; 216:13-23, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2075216

ABSTRACT

The research looks at how a marketing intelligence system might help Jordanian businesses improve their marketing effectiveness in the wake of the COVID19 Pandemic. The study’s sample size includes 234 Jordanian marketing managers. A stratified random sample of 146 Jordanian firms was chosen, and 118 valid questionnaires were obtained from marketing managers for statistical analysis, yielding an 80.8% response rate. According to the findings, the marketing intelligence system is crucial in influencing the company’s marketing performance, and its simple and practical design increases the possibility of benefiting from it in improving the company’s marketing performance. The researchers recommend allocating a separate department for marketing intelligence systems in order to maximize the system’s benefit in terms of improving Jordanian corporations’ marketing performance, as well as involving the department’s director in various strategic decisions affecting the company. © 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

2.
Intereconomics ; 57(5):306-312, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2059895

ABSTRACT

The number of foreigners living in China is very low in international comparison and has further declined recently. While the strict COVID-19-related travel restrictions played a major role in this decline, there are indications that the decline started in part before the pandemic and may well continue once the pandemic-related restrictions are lifted. Against this background, this article discusses the economic challenges that the reduction in the number of foreigners is causing for Western multinationals operating in China and to the Chinese economy more generally. The consequences could spill over to the world economy and reinforce economic and technological decoupling tendencies between China and the West.

3.
Land ; 11(6), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2055289

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on the world economy since 2020. This study analyzed the impact of the pandemic on innovative agri-food companies from different branches of agro-industrial activity located in Extremadura (Spain). The main aim of this study was to determine which activities have been most affected. Differences between actions and changes made depending on the nature of the product, process, or services were also evaluated. The information was obtained from an online questionnaire in which the research questions were posed (what consequences, actions, or changes has the pandemic had on the development of firms' activities?). Data were analyzed descriptively, and a statistical study was conducted on the existence or absence of independence between effects and actions based on the branches of activity of agri-food industries. The main results showed that companies' financial (decrease in turnover and reduction/displacement of product demand) and operational functioning (difficulty in marketing activities and standstill/decline in the fiscal year) has mainly been affected. In response, innovative agro-industries have acted regarding their processes (increased ICT use and new marketing strategies) and procedures (implementation of stricter hygienic-sanitary protocols and reorganization of activities and personnel) to deal with the negative effects on their activities. In general, all agro-industrial branches have incorporated changes in their products and services, mainly by providing new and better customer benefits, and improving product formats and forms of payment to suppliers. These findings provide information for the regional public administration in the development of initiatives that mitigate the negative effects of the pandemic and favor the implementation of actions that help the adaptation of agro-industrial activities. Agricultural policies should incorporate specialized measures to ensure the global sustainability of the food and agriculture system and the supply and production.

4.
International Journal of Diplomacy and Economy ; 8(1):21-40, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2054413

ABSTRACT

The pandemic disrupted normal life worldwide in 2020-21 and created room for the recreation of society as a 'moral community'. History shows that moral norms and power structures that are developed during social crises impact the future 'rules of the game' for transnational businesses. During the pandemic, many governments made health their top priority and imposed restrictions that harmed some business interests. By doing so, they demonstrated both a willingness and an ability to prioritise other goals than economic growth, and post-pandemic this may lead to prioritising other of the UN SDGs. This study contributes to the existing literature with the suggestion that firms will be motivated to engage in diplomacy when economy is not the sole priority for governments and governments have demonstrated the strength and willingness to impose restrictions on business. In short, the incentives come from the acknowledgment of societies' need to balance and mediate between different priorities and actors from different spheres with different interests. Benevolence seems to be increasingly important for trust in businesses and for justification. © 2022 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

5.
Boletin de Malariologia y Salud Ambiental ; 62(1):39-46, 2022.
Article in Spanish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040759

ABSTRACT

This study aims to analyze the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the records of the creation of new companies in the department of Magdalena (Colombia), mainly between 2019 and 2020. In the same way, an analysis of epidemiology control measures is developed at the national and departmental levels to better understand COVID-19 containment initiatives. For the development of this study, the data on business creation of the last five years (2016 - 2020) in Magdalena was taken as a reference;as well as measures for epidemiological control at the national level (prevent, mitigate, and suppress), along with those adopted specifically for Magdalena were analyzed. Among the main findings, it was found that, when comparing the years 2019 and 2020, there was a 2.6% decrease in the creation of new companies in Magdalena, a percentage that represents 202 production units less than in 2019;This downward trend in the creation of companies came from 2019, the year in which there was a 0.8% drop in the establishment of new companies compared to 2018 -62 fewer companies-;the overwhelming drop in 2020 is a reflection of the disastrous effect of the appearance of COVID-19 on business dynamics in Magdalena;On the other hand, the business associations management measures were a key important factor. Additionally, the financial support to boost the economy in Magdalena, as well as a prudent chronology - in terms of epidemiological controls in the Territory.

6.
Alanya Academic Review ; 6(2):2261-2274, 2022.
Article in Turkish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2026413

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of COVID-19 pandemic on the financial performance of companies operating in manufacturing subsectors and listed on the Stock Exchange Istanbul. In this direction, the financial efficiency and productivity change values of manufacturing companies before and during the Covid-19 pandemic were examined using the Malmquist Total Factor Productivity Index (MTFP) method. The findings obtained in the study indicate that the COVID-19 pandemic has negative effects on the financial performance of manufacturing companies. At the same time, the findings show that the COVID-19 pandemic has most affected the main metal industry, food, drink, and tobacco, metal and metals products and machinery industry subsectors.

7.
Eurasian Journal of Business and Management ; 10(2):137-152, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2025814

ABSTRACT

Transfer pricing manipulation by multinational enterprises is a big problem in developing countries, considering the increased levels of tax avoidance and evasion in these countries. The revenue lost through evasion and avoidance schemes as well as through aggressive tax planning robs developing countries of the much-needed domestic revenues to fund public expenditure. The repercussions of revenue inadequacies are evident in developing countries' governments to adequately invest in education, tax administration, health and security, infrastructural development, and economic development. Most developing countries having enacted transfer pricing regulation, with the arm's length principle are at the core of these regulations. This principle has been criticized in literature for its inefficiency and ineffectiveness in regulating transfer pricing in evolving economic times, while some researchers continue to maintain its relevance. In view of the conflicting views on the cogency of the arm's length principle in developing countries, this paper sought to unpack this debate through an evaluative review to show the areas of disagreement and agreement among scholars. The review was motivated by the continued concern and discussions of tax evasion and avoidance by multinational enterprises through aggressive transfer pricing in developing countries. Through a critical literature review, this article assesses the applicability and relevance of the principle in developing countries. Findings reveal controversies in the availability of comparable data, continued abuse of transfer pricing as well as the difficulty in applying the principle in digital transactions and intangibles.

8.
Laws ; 11(4):57, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023858

ABSTRACT

The unprecedented expansion of the digital economy has increased the intricacy of mobilising tax revenues from both domestic and international transactions. Tax evasion and avoidance are perpetuated by the invisible nature of digital transactions. To minimise the untapped revenues, countries all over the world are mapping policy strategies on how to collect revenue from this sector. African countries are not an exception. They have constructed digital tax policies to levy both direct and indirect taxes on digital transactions. This paper focuses on direct digital service taxes (DSTs). Direct digital service taxes have been an issue of debate among governments, policy makers, academics, tax bodies, and development organisations. Disagreements coalesce around their structure, their adherence to the canons of taxation, opportunities, and challenges as well as consequences of implementing them. Through a literature review, this paper assesses the legislative structure and administration of digital service taxes in relation to the canons of taxation. The findings of the review were conflicting. While certain aspects, motives, and possible outcomes of the taxes upheld the principles of taxation, some of these were conflicting with the principles. This could possibly be linked to variations in the economic, political, and social contexts in African countries and between developed and developing countries. The study recommends that while digital service taxes are an irrefutable necessity to tap tax revenues from the digital economy, African countries should ensure that equity, neutrality, economy, and efficiency among other principles are considered and balanced with the fundamental roles of tax policy.

9.
Perspectives of Law and Public Administration ; 11(2):294-305, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2011101

ABSTRACT

One of the objectives of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's (OECD) Principles of Corporate Governance is to create an inclusive society by nurturing a commercial environment rooted in trust, transparency and accountability. In creating a socially inclusive environment, the acceleration of the fourth industrial revolution (4IR) and its applicability in South African companies must be borne in mind. This acceleration has precipitated a shift in the manner in which South African businesses operate in several ways. For example, various South African companies have embraced several digital technologies such as artificial intelligence and machine learning. The use of these technologies has highlighted the inequality that has plagued South African companies. Additionally, the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has widened the digital divide in South African companies. This article highlights the importance of South African companies incorporating information and communications technology (ICT) infrastructure as a key corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiative. The article further argues that CSR initiatives targeting ICT infrastructure could benefit the South African economy and society during the COVID-19 pandemic. In this regard, the authors will demonstrate how the stakeholder approach is vital for corporate growth in South Africa. The authors also argue that concerted efforts by companies to build more ICT infrastructure could lead to a more inclusive society which could promote an efficient economy that attracts investors and enhances domestic and international trade.

10.
Symphonya ; - (1):47-70, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1994351

ABSTRACT

Considering the significant decrease of investment and GDP in Greece, and the goal of achieving a V-shaped post-COVID-19 recovery, inward FDI could be regarded as a source of productive private investment. This study aims to indicate differences in the factors determining inward FDI in Greece before and after the great crisis and the role of the informal economy on Greece s inward FDI. This study explores the perceptions of multinational enterprises upper management regarding motives of and barriers to locating their activities in Greece, the role of the informal economy and how these perceptions changed before and after the great economic crisis of late 2000s. The results indicate that the relation between inward FDI and the informal economy depends on types of entry and that tax evasion opportunities can impact positively on the motives of foreign investors.

11.
Economie et Statistique ; 2022(532-533):25-45, 2022.
Article in French | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1988853

ABSTRACT

– We develop a microsimulation model fed by a particularly rich set of individual data in order to assess the impact of the health crisis on the financial situation of more than 645,000 French companies in 2020. We show that the relative stability in net debt at the macroeconomic level is concealing major disparities on an individual level. Heterogeneity is particularly significant between sectors (before and after public support measures) but is also present within each sector. Our simulations confirm the need for public intervention during the crisis: a mere adjustment in company behaviour is insufficient to absorb the shock. These support measures brought the share of firms with a negative cash flow shock in line with normal years, although “extrem” cash flow shocks occur more frequently than usual. One important lesson learned from this exercise is that sector and size cannot be the only criteria taken into account when drawing up crisis recovery policies. © 2022, Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques. All rights reserved.

12.
Technological Forecasting and Social Change ; 183:121842, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1967165

ABSTRACT

This paper examines the dependence between Artificial Intelligence (AI) and eight energy-focused sectors (including renewable energy and coal) across different market conditions and investment horizons. This paper adopts both linear and non-linear models such as quantile regressions and quantile cross-spectral coherency models. Evidence from the linear model suggests that the performance of energy-focused corporations, especially those in the renewable energy sector depends strongly on the performance of AI. Results from the non-linear model indicate that dependence varies across both energy sectors, market conditions as well as investment horizons. By considering both negative and positive shocks on AI, we demonstrate that the dependence of energy corporations on AI also varies according to the direction of shocks on AI. Interestingly, negative and positive shocks on AI impact differently on the performance of energy corporations across different sectors and market conditions. Besides, we found that the dependence became stronger during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Our findings hold profound implications for portfolio managers and investors, who may be interested in holding the assets of AI and those of energy corporations.

13.
Marketing & Tourism Review ; 7(1), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1965042

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic brought the production process to a halt in the tourist chain, directly impacting the economic sphere and marketing communication between organizations in the segment and their interested public. The present work aims to identify whether the communication through the Instagram posts of the multinational hotel chain Accor was adapted to the COVID-19 pandemic scenario between December 2019 and June 2020 and the followers' level of engagement in its digital profile. The more-than-human netnography proposed by Lugosi & Quinton (2018) was adopted as a methodological approach, having as object of analysis the posts of the profile @all_latam (Accor America Latina) on Instagram and the behavior of the followers. We identified a follower appreciation regarding COVID-19 material. Therefore, hotel companies should produce crisis content related to increasing engagement on Social media posts.

14.
Economics of Agriculture ; 69(2):441-453, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1964484

ABSTRACT

Agroindustry is traditionally an unavoidable category in the analysis of any economy. The objectives of the research are to present a summary of the profit and financial positions of agro industrial companies in the period of COVID-19, and to analyze financial vitality in the context of liquidity of manufacture of food products and beverages, in the year 2020 and 2019, as well as its' average five-year parameters. The findings show that the liquidity indicators are below the desirable norms and overall liquidity assessment is unfavorable. Further analysis by subsectors has revealed differences in profit positions by subsectors, due to different effects of the crisis, so the findings can serve as an incentive to review decisions of all stakeholders, including economic creators' policy.

15.
Jurnal Agribisnis Indonesia ; 10(1):76-84, 2022.
Article in Indonesian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1934941

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic brings around a multidimensional crisis that sway the world's economy and believed to affect the performance of any industry. Cocoa processing industry, which is well known greatly contributes to Indonesia's economy, is one of industry that is suspected has a significant effect to the performance of Indonesia's economy. As one of export commodity, during the pandemic (2019-2020) the cocoa processing industry contributed for about USD 548 million to total Indonesia's foreign exchange. This lead to a question: does the increase implies that the cocoa processing industry has a good financial performance? Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the financial performance of two cocoa processing company before and during Covid-19 pandemic by occupying the financial report of PT Bumi Teknokultura Unggul TBK and PT Wahana Interfood Nusantara from 2018 till 2020. The Economic Value Added approach was used to evaluate the financial performance of both company. The result of Economic Value Added (EVA) Analysis confirmed that this pandemic seem affecting the financial performance of the two company, which is both company's performance tend to decrease. Yet, a different performance between the two was depicted as well by EVA, in which the EVA of PT Wahana Interfood Nusantara is positive while the PT Bumi Teknokultura Unggul Tbk's is negative. This implies that PT Wahana Interfood Nusantara has a better financial performance than PT Bumi Teknokultura Unggul Tbk.

16.
Global Strategy Journal ; : 22, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1925915

ABSTRACT

Research summary We offer a novel view of formal institutions as a layer cake, suggesting a structural relationship between higher-level and lower-level institutions. In this context, inter-layer conflict imposes complex pressures on multinational corporations (MNCs). These tensions have become more rife amid the growth in global connectedness and the commensurate increase in the importance of within-country differences. Drawing on political science and economic geography research, we introduce regime type and the distribution of economic resources as conditions under which inter-layer conflict is most likely to arise. We leverage two caselets to illustrate the inter-layer conflict and the novel response options MNCs can deploy. Our perspective advances the theoretical understanding of intra-national institutional diversity, laying the groundwork for future research at the nexus of institutional theory and global strategy. Managerial summary Firms often encounter opposing pressures in their operating environments because institutions within the nation-state impose misaligned policies. Despite acknowledging that such interactions exist, firms traditionally did not make it an integral part of their strategy. We demarcate how formal institutions cascade, forming a layer cake of relevant influences whereby the structural relationship between higher-level and lower-level institutions may impose complex pressures when in conflict. We turn to political science and economic geography literatures for explanations of when such conflict is most likely and offer a window into the responses by multinational firms using caselets within the COVID-19 pandemic context. We offer new avenues for research on the ways in which institutions function to affect multinational firms in a global economy increasingly characterized by institutional complexity.

17.
Acta Universitatis Lodziensis. Folia Sociologica ; - (81):107, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1924826

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to explore and indicate key moments in the experience of the Polish mothers who are caregivers and worked professionally during a national COVID-related lockdown between March and May 2020. This is a mixed-methods study. The main data was collected by an online survey (n=153) run between 14 and 30 May 2020 asking parents about the most challenging and the most positive moments they experienced during a homestay with their children. The responses were coded thematically. Additionally, five in-depth interviews with HR Business Partners in multinational companies have been conducted. As a result, the list of "positive" and "challenging" moments has been established identifying challenging areas such as: organizing daily routines, especially meals for all family members, and selfperception of being neither a "good enough" parent nor a productive employee. The positive discoveries about this unusual reality included seeing the national lockdown as an opportunity for a "slower pace of living", strengthening family bonds, and experiencing the children's independence in daily routines. In conclusion, the findings emphasise the importance of enabling flexibility to employees in giving the flexibility to decide on and organise his work schedule and priorities, expectations setting, and defining the desired outcome of work with a supervisor including clear communication about the expected level of availability and visibility in front of the computer.Alternate :Celem tego badania jest zidentyfikowanie kluczowych momentów w doświadczeniach matek, które były aktywne zawodowo, a jednocześnie opiekowały się dziećmi podczas wprowadzenia ścisłej izolacji społecznej związanej z ogłoszeniem stanu pandemicznego w Polsce między marcem a majem 2020 roku. Wnioski przedstawione w artykule dotyczą badania mieszanego. Większość danych uzyskano w ankiecie zrealizowanej w formule online pomiędzy 14 a 30 maja 2020 roku, w której zebrane zostały 153 odpowiedzi dotyczące najbardziej pozytywnych i najtrudniejszych momentów w doświadczeniu matek, które jednocześnie pracowały i opiekowały się dziećmi. Treści odpowiedzi na pytania otwarte zostały poddane analizie tematycznej. Dane w drugiej części badania uzyskane zostały w pięciu wywiadach pogłębionych z HR business partnerami pracującymi w firmach globalnych. Te wnioski miały charakter uzupełniający i ilustrujący doświadczenia zidentyfikowane w ilościowej części badania. Wnioski z badań zostały przedstawione w formie listy pozytywnych i negatywnych momentów w doświadczeniach tego okresu. Wśród „trudności" znalazły się m.in. wypełnianie codziennych obowiązków, w szczególności przygotowanie posiłków dla rodziny, a także postrzeganie siebie jako „niewystarczającej matki i niewystarczającego pracownika". Z kolei doświadczenia pozytywne z tego okresu odnoszą się do wolniejszego tempa życia i docenienia spędzania czasu razem oraz możliwości obserwowania rozwoju i samodzielności dzieci w tej wyjątkowej sytuacji przymusowego pozostania w domu. Wnioski z badań potwierdzają wagę umożliwiania pracującym matkom decydowania o swoim sposobie pracy, np. ustalania priorytetów, organizowania dnia pracy, a także rolę zapewnienia elastyczności czasowej w wykonywaniu zadań. Druga konkluzja dotyczy konieczności podkreślania jeszcze bardziej niż w czasach przedpandemicznych oczekiwań przełożonego wobec pracy, co odnosi się nie tylko do wymaganych rezultatów, ale także opisania reguł działania w nowych okolicznościach czy określenia poziomu widoczności danej osoby podczas spotkań online.

18.
Studia Socjologiczne ; - (2):85-112, 2022.
Article in Polish | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1912575

ABSTRACT

Pandemia COVID-19 skomplikowała relacje pomiędzy pracą zawodową a życiem prywatnym. W tym kontekście podjęty został problem badawczy sprowadzający się do zrozumienia dynamiki emocji osób łączących obie sfery życia (zwłaszcza pracujących zawodowo rodziców) oraz zrekonstruowania wzorów ich pracy emocjonalnej. Wychodząc od teorii obszarów granicznych (life-work border theory i boundary theory) autorka proponuje nową kategorię teoretyczną: emocjonalną pracę graniczną oraz związaną z nią perspektywę analizy obszarów przenikania się domeny zawodowej i prywatnej. Podstawą empiryczną artykułu są badania jakościowe (wywiady pogłębione) z kobietami i mężczyznami znajdującymi się w zróżnicowanej sytuacji rodzinnej i pracującymi w małych firmach rodzinnych, korporacjach i organizacjach pozarządowych działających w trybie projektowym. Wnioski z badań dotyczą napięć między sferą zawodową a prywatną oraz wewnątrz każdej z nich, szczególnie wyraźnych w czasie pandemii, lecz stanowiących konsekwencję uniwersalnych mechanizmów społeczno-kulturowych.Alternate :The COVID-19 pandemic has intensified the processes complicating work and private life relations. In this context, the author sets out to understand the dynamics of emotions experienced by people who combine both spheres of life (with a focus on working parents) and reconstruct the patterns of their emotional labor. Based on the life-work border theory and boundary theory assumptions, the author proposes a new theoretical category: emotional boundary labor and the related research perspective. The paper's empirical basis is qualitative research (in-depth interviews) with women and men of various family statuses working in three types of organizations (small family businesses, corporations, and NGOs operating in a project mode). The research results point at the tensions between the professional and private spheres and within each of these domain, notably manifested during a pandemic but resulting from universal socio-cultural mechanisms.

19.
Sustainability ; 14(7), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1903417

ABSTRACT

Travel and tourism is one of the most affected sectors due to the COVID-19 pandemic, impacting economies, enterprises, and livelihoods worldwide. The pandemic has heavily damaged businesses across the tourism industry, including airlines, transportation, hotels, cruises, and others. Numerous tourism companies went bankrupt or had been struggling to survive, yet other ones have adapted their strategy and seized the crisis to transform their business for the post-pandemic future. This study aims at investigating the TUI Group's CSR strategic adaptability during the COVID-19 pandemic. The case study is based on a documentary analysis including such documents as annual reports, sustainability strategy, sustainability reports, and financial statements. The findings show that the pandemic crisis moved forward the company's transformation into a digital platform and its sustainability transformation. Moreover, the CSR strategy has been constantly adapted to the evolving COVID-19 environment. The company's efforts aimed at maintaining sustainable value have been primarily focused on supporting and engaging employees, ensuring safe holiday packages for customers, and supporting local communities and partners. Several implications are provided based on the study results.

20.
Development (Rome) ; 64(3-4): 172-180, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900740

ABSTRACT

This article helps lay a basis for the kind of deep analysis of the stakes of global food governance that is required today, under the impact of the COVID 19 crisis and with the threat of corporate capture of decision-making spaces. The article reviews the history of global food governance, identifies the critical questions that need to be asked, and suggests some directions that may contribute to strengthening the agency of rights-holders, weakening that of corporations, and democratizing multilateral governance.

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