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1.
Clin Case Rep ; 10(7): e5993, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1958712

ABSTRACT

Although Aspergillus meningitis is poorly responsive to current guidelines for treatment, we describe a dramatic response of Aspergillus meningitis in a patient to treatment using a combination of corticosteroids with guideline's suggested antifungal agents. Administration of corticosteroids in patients with Aspergillus meningitis is rarely reported in previous studies.

2.
Dermatologica Sinica ; 40(2):67-70, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1957509

ABSTRACT

With the rapid outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, considerable concerns about the safety of systemic treatments of immune-mediated dermatologic disorders has been raised by dermatologists and their patients. We aimed to perform a rapid review of latest American and European guidelines on the use of systemic treatments in patients with immune-mediated dermatologic disorders and confirmed COVID-19 infection and to provide recommendations to inform practice. Based on the current limited guidelines and evidence, systemic corticosteroids should not be abruptly discontinued and the lowest effective dose should be continued. Systemic immunosuppressants (including methotrexate, cyclosporine, azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, and leflunomide), biologics, and sulfasalazine should be withheld in patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection. Whether to continue Janus kinase inhibitors should be determined following a shared decision-making process between dermatologists and patients after considering patients' medical conditions and risk for severe COVID.

3.
Sexually Transmitted Infections ; 98:A35-A36, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1956910

ABSTRACT

Introduction A spectrum of skin reactions following mRNA COVID vaccinations have been reported that can mimic dermatological manifestations of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. Case Description A 47-year-old Zimbabwean female living with HIV since 2011 (nadir CD4 366 cells/mm3) was seen in our HIV clinic with a widespread rash and raised, itchy lesions over her body measuring approximately 5-7mm which appeared three weeks after her first Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine. There was no systemic involvement. Her CD4 count was 641 cells/mm3 (44%) with a fully suppressed viral load on antiretroviral therapy since June 2015 with no other pertinent medical history. There was no response to topical anti-fungal therapy but symptomatic relief with anti-pruritic and anti-histamine was noted. Treatment with oral erythromycin 500mg four times a day for two weeks decreased the size of the lesions and improved the rash. A punch biopsy of pale brown skin at this time was performed with appearances in keeping with those of a lichenoid pattern of inflammation. Our patient continues to improve with erythromycin.Topical or systemic corticosteroid therapy can be considered to further ameliorate her condition. Discussion Lichenoid drug eruptions are well recognized. Our case demonstrates such a reaction to the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccination which adds to cases described in the contemporary medical literature. It is vital to recognize this complication in our specialty as lesions may mimic lichen planus clinically and histologically and may be mistaken for dermatological manifestations associated with HIV, including Kaposi Sarcoma (KS) and bacillary angiomatosis, which can manifest regardless of immune status.

4.
British Journal of Dermatology ; 186(6):e249-e250, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1956717

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has created a series of clinical conundrums since its emergence. We report a case of severe immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) in a 67-year-old gentleman in April 2020. He presented to hospital with a rapidly evolving rash, 3 weeks following infection with COVID-19. Clinically he had a widespread non palpable petechial rash, haemorrhagic blisters across his oral mucosa and severe epistaxis. His platelet count was 2 × 109 L-1 (150-450 × 109 L-1). Full blood count and clotting studies were otherwise normal. With ITP not yet well reported as a complication of COVID-19, there was a treatment dilemma. ITP is an acquired autoimmune-mediated disorder (often with a viral or vaccine precipitant) and first-line treatment is immunosuppression. However, due to concurrent infection with the novel COVID-19 virus, a thrombopoietin receptor agonist (TPO-RA) (eltrombopag 50 mg once daily) was instead commenced. Persistent epistaxis, oral bleeding and a platelet count < × 109 L-1 required intravenous immunoglobulin (1 g kg-1) to be administered on day 7 of TPO-RA treatment. By day 12 of TPO-RA treatment the platelet count had successfully normalized. The patient remains in remission 18 months on. Since this case, ITP has become a recognized phenomenon of both COVID-19 infection and COVID-19 vaccination (Pishko AM, Bussel JB, Cines DB. COVID-19 vaccination and immune thrombocytopenia. Nat Med 2021;27: 1145-6). Moreover, corticosteroid therapy has become the first evidence-based therapy for severe COVID-19 infection (Horby P, Lim WS, Emberson J et al. Dexamethasone in hospitalized patients with Covid-19. N Engl J Med 2021;384: 693-704), although their use in COVID-19- related ITP remains unclear. This case demonstrates an important cutaneous manifestation of the COVID-19-provoked disrupted haemostasis pathways, which results in significant morbidity and mortality. Additionally, this case describes practical real-life multidisciplinary team decision-making to emerging complications of a uniquely studied virus.

5.
British Journal of Dermatology ; 186(6):e248-e249, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1956692

ABSTRACT

We describe the cases of two immunocompetent children who developed mucositis with oral, ocular and genital involvement during acute COVID-19 illness. Patient 1 was a 17-year-old male and patient 2 was a 14-year-old male. Both patients presented approximately one week following onset of fever and cough, and subsequent positive SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test. They each developed conjunctivitis and ulceration of oral mucosa, and erythematous circumferential erosions of the glans penis, with no other cutaneous findings within 10 days of initial systemic symptoms. No other intercurrent infections, including herpes simplex virus 1/2 PCR viral swabs or new medications, were identified, suggesting that COVID-19 was causative. Following dermatology consultation, both patients were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2-associated reactive infectious mucocutaneous eruption (RIME). Both patients were treated with intravenous hydrocortisone, betamethasone valerate 0.1% ointment once daily, analgesia and intravenous hydration. Both patients noted improvement with systemic corticosteroid therapy. Patient 1 was discharged after 4 days and Patient 2 after 14 days as his severe mucosal ulceration was impacting his oral intake. He had complete resolution of mucositis one week after discharge. The term RIME describes the clinical presentation of significant mucositis (oral, ocular, and anogenital) that is absent to sparse cutaneous involvement, typically occurring as a late manifestation of exposure to Mycoplasma and other infectious agents. The combination of recent PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, absence of other contemporaneous laboratory- confirmed infections and prominent mucositis suggests SARS-CoV-2 as an infectious trigger for RIME in both patients. Clinicians should be aware that SARS-CoV-2 can precipitate RIME and that systemic corticosteroids may provide benefit.

6.
British Journal of Dermatology ; 186(6):e247, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1956689

ABSTRACT

Linear IgA bullous disease (LABD) is a rare, acquired, autoimmune, pruritic and blistering skin condition. Dapsone is a first line treatment option, however there are limited options if this fails, or was contraindicated. We present a case of successful management of LABD with sulfasalazine. A 46-year-old white woman with LABD was commenced on high-dose corticosteroids. She failed weaning, and dapsone was contraindicated due to a history of primary sclerosing cholangitis and risk of hepatitis. Following the failure of mycophenolate mofetil, sulfasalazine was trialled, and successfully controlled both the patient's LABD and ulcerative colitis. There is little literature on the use of sulfasalazine in dermatological conditions. We present sulfasalazine as an option for patients who are unable to tolerate classically used treatments for LABD, or in those who have a dual diagnosis, as in this case, allowing for one agent to manage both conditions. Furthermore, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidance mentions sulfasalazine as one of the few drugs that can be continued during the COVID-19 pandemic, and its use spared this patient from the significant immunosuppression associated with other treatment modalities.

7.
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacy ; 23(4):220-225, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1955726

ABSTRACT

Background: Arterial hypertension has been described as one of the main risk factors for poor prognosis in Covid-19. In this context, the role of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in this infection has been studied, with studies showing how this enzyme acts as a functional receptor for SARS-CoV-2, favoring the penetration of the virus into the cell. The main objective of this work is to study the impact of chronic antihypertensive treatment in a cohort of SARS-CoV-2 positive patients with arterial hypertension, as well as clinical outcomes during hospitalization. Method: Single-center observational retrospective cohort study conducted at a tertiary level university hospital from 1st March 2020 to 31st May 2020. All adult patients admitted with a diagnosis of COVID-19 and a history of arterial hypertension on chronic treatment with an antihypertensive drug during the three months prior to contracting the infection were included. For the analysis, patients were divided into three groups according to the chronic antihypertensive treatment they were receiving: angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors), angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARB) or other treatment, excluding those patients who during the three months prior to the start of the study had been on concomitant treatment with ACE inhibitors and ARB, as well as those on treatment with more than four antihypertensive drugs. Results: A total of 475 cases with positive PCR for SARS-CoV-2 cases had hypertension as an associated comorbidity on antihypertensive treatment in the three months prior to admission. The mean age of this cohort of patients was 77.05 (SD 10.95) years, most of them male (56.8%) Regarding the prolonged length of stay variable, 127 patients (26.7%) were admitted for 14 days or more, with no statistically significant differences between the three groups. For patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) (29 patients, 6.1%) no differences were observed between the three study groups either.Regarding the outcome variable, all-cause in-hospital mortality, no statistically significant differences were observed between the groups (p = 0.836). Conclusions: Patients admitted with SARS-CoV2 respiratory infection with a diagnosis of hypertension and pre-admission treatment with an antihypertensive drug showed no statistically significant differences in mortality between those hypertensive patients who received renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitor antihypertensive drugs and those who received other antihypertensive treatments.

8.
Intern Med ; 61(11): 1789-1793, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951851

ABSTRACT

Secondary cold agglutinin syndrome (CAS) is autoimmune hemolytic anemia secondary to infections and lymphoid disorder. We here report the first Asian case of CAS secondary to novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A 72-year-old Japanese woman presented with a 2-week history of dyspnea and cough, and laboratory data revealed severe hemolytic anemia with a hemoglobin level of 4.7 g/dL. She was diagnosed with COVID-19, CAS, and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). The anemia responded to corticosteroids administered for COVID-19 and required maintenance therapy. Although corticosteroids are not a standard therapy for CAS, they might be effective for CAS secondary to COVID-19 complicated with MGUS.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune , COVID-19 , Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Aged , Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune/complications , Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune/drug therapy , COVID-19/complications , Cryoglobulins , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin M , Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance/complications , Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance/diagnosis , Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance/drug therapy
9.
J Asthma Allergy ; 15: 897-906, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951785

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Asthma is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases in Germany affecting 4-5% of all adults and 10% of children. Despite the availability of biologicals in recent years, studies show patients with inadequately controlled severe asthma in real life. The aim of the current study was to characterize and estimate the number of patients with NVL/GINA level 4 or 5 asthma and signs of poor control in Germany. Patients and Methods: In 2021, we retrospectively analyzed data collected during 2019 using the IQVIA™ LRx and IQVIA™ Disease Analyzer databases which contain anonymized longitudinal data covering approximately 80% of statutory health insurance (GKV) prescriptions in Germany with most relevant information about prescriptions, basic patient demographics or location of the prescriber; the IQVIA™ Disease Analyzer anonymized electronic medical records from a representative sample of office-based GPs and specialists. An expert committee of pulmonologists from different hospitals and expert practices supported the study. Asthma patients treated according to NVL/GINA 4/5 who used SABAs frequently (≥3 on days with no ICS-containing prescriptions/year) and/or received prescriptions for oral corticosteroids (OCS) (score of ≥2/year, a pulmonologist prescription scored 1.0, GP 0.75) were classified as severe, uncontrolled asthma. Results: In 2019, 3.4 million patients received at least two prescriptions of respiratory medications and 2.4 million patients on maintenance respiratory treatment have asthma. A total of 625,000 asthma patients were treated according to NVL/GINA step 4 or 5. Among these, 54,000 were uncontrolled according to the pre-defined OCS and/or SABA use, which corresponds to approximately 15% of patients in certain regions. Conclusion: In 2019, approximately 54,000 patients in Germany treated according to NVL/GINA step 4/5 had evidence suggestive for poor asthma control, up to 15% of patients in certain regions. Yet, only 12,000 patients overall were being treated with biologicals suggesting a possible treatment gap that requires further investigation.

10.
Anti-Infective Agents ; 20(2), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1938561

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has gained much popularity not only in the Wuhan city of China but internationally also;in January 2020, the corona rapidly spread to many countries like the USA, Italy, Russia, India, Singapore, Pakistan, Thailand, Canada, Australia, England, and so on through passengers traveling to other countries. Corona patients can be cured with synthetic drugs, traditional herbal medicines (THM), use of Vitamin D and the quarantine approach. Different allopathic medicines, herbal extracts, and vitamin D have been observed to be useful in the treatment of novel coronavirus, like Remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine, Teicoplanin, Lopinavir+ Ritonavir, Ribavirin + corticosteroids, Glycyrrhizin, Sanguisorbae radix, Acanthopanacis cortex, Sophorae radix, etc. Various antiviral drugs are used to treat COVID-19, alone or in combination with other medications like Interferon-α, Lopinavir + Ritonavir, Arbidol, corticosteroids, etc., and some herbal extracts;also quarantine approach and Vitamin D are used that not only cure the infection but also boost up our immunity. For this review article, different papers were searched on Google Scholar, Scopus, WHO’s website, PubMed, clinicaltrials.gov and other relevant scientific research websites. In this review article, we have discussed the current strategies that are being used to treat COVID-19. Along with allopathic drugs, some herbal extracts can also be used to treat this novel coronavirus, like Glycyrrhizin, Sanguisorbae radix, Acanthopanacis cortex, Sophorae radix, etc. and even vitamin D.

11.
Journal of Hypertension ; 40:e173-e174, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1937721

ABSTRACT

Objective: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) represents a major clinical problem in terms of death and long-term sequelae. We conducted a retrospective cohort study at Montichiari Hospital (Brescia, Italy) to better understand different determinants of outcome in different COVID-19 outbreaks. Design and method: A total of 635 patients admitted from local emergency room with a confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection and a moderate to severe COVID-19 were included in the present study. A group of 260 consecutive patients during SARS-CoV-2 first wave (from February to May 2020) and 375 consecutive patients during SARS-CoV-2 second/third wave (from October 2020 to May 2021) were considered. Demographic data, comorbidities, ongoing treatment and bio-humoral, respiratory and haemodynamic data were recorded and compared. Results: Main demographic data (Table 1) were not significantly different in the two considered time-lapses, except a lower prevalence of female sex during first wave. Mortality rate was significantly lower during the latter period (25% vs 11%;p < 0.001). Time from symptoms onset to hospital admission was longer during first wave (7.8 ± 5.6 vs 5.6 ± 4.3 days;p < 0.001) while hospital staying was significantly shorter (11 ± 10 vs 15 ± 12 days;p < 0.001). Other significant differences were a wider use of corticosteroids and low-molecular weight heparin (LMWH) as well less antibiotic prescription during the second wave (Table 2). Respiratory, bio-humoral and x-Ray score were significantly poorer at the time of admission in first-wave patients (Table 3). After a multivariate regression analysis, C-reactive protein and procalcitonin values, % fraction of inspired oxygen at admission, days after symptoms onset and duration of hospital staying were the strongest predictors of outcome in both periods. Concomitant anti-hypertensive treatment (including ACE-inhibitors and ARBs) did not affect outcome. Conclusions: Our preliminary data suggest that an earlier diagnosis, a timely hospital admission and a rational use of the therapeutic options allowed to reduce the rate of systemic inflammation response (of which CRP is a hallmark) and granted a better outcome during the second of the two time-lapses considered.

12.
Journal of Hypertension ; 40:e170-e171, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1937713

ABSTRACT

Objective: The patient was a 61-year-old woman who typically underwent mitral valve replacement and tricuspid valve repair in 2011. During these years, she underwent an annual checkup and experienced no particular problems. The potential patient contracted Covid 19 a month ago and underwent conservative treatment. The patient displayed no specific symptoms, no fever, and her Covid 19 disease was mild. In the accompanying echocardiography, we notice a lump on the atrial surface of the Tricuspid valve that we instantly suspect of local vegetation or heart mass. As a result, we admitted the patient to resume the examination. Design and method: Multi-slice (16) spiral thoracic CT scan: Sternotomy and MVR are seen. Cardiomegaly is evident. Patchy peripheral ground-glass opacities are seen bilaterally, suggesting covid-19 pneumonia;correlation with clinical and paraclinical data is recommended. Degenerative changes are perceived in the thoracic spine. There is no pleural effusion. Blood cultures and urinary trachea were requested to diagnose endocarditis, and she was also asked to have an esophageal echocardiogram. The antibiotic Meropenem 500 was started three times a day with vancomycin 1 gram twice a day for prophylaxis. After these examinations, the mass diagnosis was rejected as the image of vegetation on echocardiography did not found echogenicity similar to cardiac tissue and was denser. Consequently, we diagnosed vegetation. According to the negative culture results, and the patient had no symptoms (chills, heart pain), this patient's diagnosis of an immunological reaction caused by Covid disease was made. Libman -sacks endocarditis is a type of sterile nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis (NBTE) secondary to inflammation. Results: In this rare case, the vital point is that immunological reaction after covid can give rise to vegetation on the heart artificial valve and can be typically established with endocarditis. Covid can cause libman sac endocarditis, then we consider patients with heart disease maybe get limban sac or other forms of immunological reaction after covid virus. Conclusions: Concerning the explicit rejection of all the causes, the patient was diagnosed correctly with limb sac endocarditis. She underwent anticoagulant therapy and corticosteroid therapy accordingly and was recovered fully.

13.
Journal of Hypertension ; 40:e170, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1937712

ABSTRACT

Objective: The patient was a 59-year-old man who was referred to the hospital due to shortness of breath due to increased activity, accompanied by cough, weakness, and lethargy. The patient also had a history of diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and asthma. The patient also underwent cardiac stenting last year. LCX and LAD stenting Design and method: He had a continuous pan-systolic murmur on cardiac examination diagnosed with valvular dysfunction. Severe aortic regurgitation was reported on echo. The patient underwent a CT scan of the lungs and a PCR test to rule out Covid-19, which was negative. Finally, the patient was diagnosed with severe aortic regurgitation and underwent aortic valve replacement surgery. Echocardiography was performed before the operation, and the diagnosis was confirmed. Results: Echocardiography was performed postoperatively, which showed good valve function and no valve leakage. From the 5th day after the operation, the patient developed fever and increased leukocytosis. Suspected of having Covid19 and accordingly underwent PCR test, the test result was positive;the patient underwent a CT scan of the lungs. After that, he was transferred to the corona ICU. The patient was treated with Remdesivir, and after two weeks, his PCR was negative, and he was almost ready to be discharged. The patient had completed the entire course of treatment and developed pulmonary fibrosis due to Covid disease, but suddenly, after two weeks from the onset of the illness, she developed severe shortness of breath, which led to intubation. We find severe pulmonary fibrosis in the re-CT scan, especially in the left lung, where the entire left lung had fibrosis. Prednisolone was started at a dose of 50 mg three times a day. The patient was intubated for ten days, then gradually removed from the device. Now the patient is extubated and ready for discharge. Conclusions: Risk factors such as Past cardiac surgery and present cardiac intervention with diabetes mellitus increase the risk of developing lung failure in these Covid19 patients. Elective intubation is better than emergency intubation in patients with comorbidities. Corticosteroids can be effective in treating pulmonary insufficiency.

14.
Expert Rev Respir Med ; : 1-6, 2022 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937596

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a disease associated with diffuse lung injury that has no proven effective treatment yet. It is thought that glucocorticoids may reduce inflammation-mediated lung injury, disease progression, and mortality. We aimed to evaluate our patient's characteristics and treatment outcomes who received corticosteroids for COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter retrospective study and reviewed 517 patients admitted due to COVID-19 pneumonia who were hypoxemic and administered steroids regarding demographic, laboratory, and radiological characteristics, treatment response, and mortality-associated factors. RESULTS: Of our 517 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia who were hypoxemic and received corticosteroids, the mortality rate was 24.4% (n = 126). The evaluation of mortality-associated factors revealed that age, comorbidities, a CURB-65 score of ≥ 2, higher SOFA scores, presence of MAS, high doses of steroids, type of steroids, COVID-19 treatment, stay in the intensive care unit, high levels of d-dimer, CRP, ferritin, and troponin, and renal dysfunction were associated with mortality. CONCLUSION: Due to high starting and average steroid doses are more associated with mortality, high-dose steroid administration should be avoided. We believe that knowing the factors associated with mortality in these cases is essential for close follow-up. The use of CURB-65 and SOFA scores can predict prognosis in COVID-19 pneumonia.

15.
Ocul Immunol Inflamm ; : 1-6, 2022 Jul 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1927186

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To report a four-case series of ocular adverse events post an inactivated COVID-19 vaccination in China. METHODS: The four patients exhibited ocular inflammatory reactions on the same day after receiving an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. RESULTS: All patients underwent detailed ophthalmic examinations, with the medical diagnosis of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada, Ponser-Schlossman, secondary post-inflammatory glaucoma, and iridocyclitis, respectively. No patients had any other underlying medical conditions causing the ocular complications. The ocular inflammatory reactions of these four patients were resolved with the administration of oral or topical corticosteroids. CONCLUSION: Our cases remind the ophthalmologist that adverse ocular events may happen after the administration of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. Since the ocular complications could be resolved with the corticosteroid treatment, the events were considered to be inflammatory reactions caused by the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine.

16.
Indian Journal of Rheumatology ; 17(2):153-156, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1928755

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease or COVID-19 pandemic is the major global health crisis of the present time. Various rheumatological manifestations have been reported during or after COVID-19 infection, but data are scarce. In this observational study, we have tried to analyze the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 associated arthralgia/arthritis. Methods: We have collected the clinical data of 14 patients over the past 6 months who have developed arthralgia or arthritis during or after symptomatic COVID-19 infection, proven by a positive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction test from nasopharyngeal swab. Results: The most common symptoms during COVID-19 infection in the 14 patients were fever and myalgia, being present in 92.8% and 64.3% patients, respectively. Arthralgia/arthritis occurred at a mean interval of 20 days (range: 0-60 days). Knee was the most commonly involved joint (78.6%), followed by the wrist and metacarpophalangeal joints (each in 57.1%). Enthesitis was documented in 21.4% patients. The mean duration of COVID-19 associated arthralgia or arthritis was 53.9 days (range: 7-210 days). In 85.7% patients, joint pains improved within 2 months;in only a small proportion of patients (14.3%), joint pains persisted after 6 months. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (given in 64.3% patients) and corticosteroids (in 50%) were the most commonly prescribed and effective treatment options. Conclusion: COVID-19 infections mostly caused reactive arthritis, though acute and chronic arthritis is also seen. In the majority of cases, arthritis started about 3 weeks after COVID-19 infection and subsided within 2 months. NSAIDs and corticosteroids are the most effective treatment options.

17.
European Stroke Journal ; 7(1 SUPPL):518, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1928114

ABSTRACT

Background and Objective: The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has become a global health emergency. Methods: We report two patients with similar atypical neurological presentation of novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 infection admitted in May 2021. Results: A 60-year-old man and a 44-year-old woman were admitted for acute left hemiparesis, respectively unusual headache with photo-, phonophobia. The diagnosis of COVID-19 was made by a positive nasopharyngeal swab RT-PCR. The initial MRI showed for both patients an aspect of unilateral ventriculitis associated with periventricular vasogenic edema and serpiginous periventricular hypo signal in SWI. Both presented in the cerebrospinal fluid, neutrophil pleocytosis WBC 354/mm3, neutrophils 91% and lymphocytes 6% for the first patient and WBC 3000/mm3, neutrophils 91%, lymphocytes 0% for the second patients, associated with hypoglycorrhachia 2,5 mmol/L compared to 7,5 mmol/L glycemia and 2,7 mmol/l compared to 5,9 mmol/L glycemia, respectively. Empirical antibiotic treatment was started, but due to lack of argument for an infection on two consecutively lumbar punctures, the treatment was stopped. Favorable evolution was observed on corticosteroid treatment. The follow-up MRI showed a net reduction of the initial findings for both patients. Conclusion: The presented cases seem to be comparable with the first case of ventriculitis in a patient with SARS-CoV-2 reported by Moriguchi et al in 2020. The particularity of our cases is given by the serpiginous hypo signal in SWI, that was not described in the case report mentioned before. The favorable clinical and radiologic evolution on corticosteroid treatment suggests a probable inflammatory mechanism secondary of COVID.

18.
European Stroke Journal ; 7(1 SUPPL):349-350, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1928076

ABSTRACT

Background and aims: There is a higher incidence of cerebrovascular disease (CVD) in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. We aim to describe a national series of CVD in patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: Fourteen Brazilian Stroke Centers registered clinical, neuroimaging and laboratory findings from April to November 2020. Results: We included 344 patients in the final analysis. Age ranged from 20-95 (median 57[57, 75] years). Cerebral ischemia (CI) occurred in 83.7%(n=288), intraparenchymal hemorrhage (IPH) 6.7%(n=23), central venous thrombosis (CVT) 5.2%(n=18) and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) 4.4% (n=15). CVD was the first symptom of SARS-CoV-2 in 37.8% of cases - among those with SAH, 60% had no systemic symptoms. CI cases had higher values of Dimer-D compared to others. Involvement of at least two arterial territories occurred in 13.8%. Among IPH patients, 25% were under anticoagulation with heparin. Patients with SAH had a spontaneous etiology in 35.7%. Dimer-D levels at admission were associated with worse outcomes (mRS3-6) (OR1.14, 95%CI1.008-1.29, p=0.03), in an adjusted analysis. The time of onset of neurological symptoms (TONS) since SARS-CoV-2 infection was indirectly related to neurological severity at admission (-0.17, p=0.04,). In-hospital treatment with corticosteroids was associated with in-hospital encephalopathy (OR2.5,95%CI 1.01-6.16,p=0.04). Poor outcome (mRS3-5) occurred in 54.1% of cases. Conclusions: Patients with CVD and SARS-CoV-2 are at higher risk of unfavorable outcomes. The TONS since infection is related to neurologic severity;and serum Dimer-D levels may be useful for prognostication. The higher prevalence of non-aneurysmal SAH cases suggests pathophysiological mechanisms other than a hypercoagulable state.

19.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1927932

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Asthma affects 20 million adults in the United States resulting in up to 500,000 hospitalizations each year. Patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for asthma exacerbations requiring invasive ventilation have a mortality of ∼7%. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a salvage technique used in patients with respiratory failure to increase delivery of oxygen, remove CO2 and allow time for recovery. Case series and uncontrolled registry studies have examined benefits of ECMO for asthma exacerbations with respiratory failure, but no studies have examined outcomes associated with use of ECMO for asthma exacerbations compared to standard care. Objective: To assess outcomes associated with use of ECMO during asthma exacerbations requiring invasive ventilation compared to standard care. Methods: Patients were extracted from the Premier Database from 2010-2020 if they had a primary diagnosis of asthma, or a primary diagnosis of respiratory failure with a secondary diagnosis of asthma, and were treated with invasive ventilation. Patients were excluded for age < 18y, no ICU admission, chronic lung disease other than asthma, COVID-19, or if they were not treated with corticosteroids. Hospital mortality was the primary study outcome. Key secondary outcomes included ICU length of stay (LOS), hospital LOS, length of invasive ventilation and hospital costs. Differences in outcomes were assessed using propensity score matching at a 1:2 ratio of ECMO versus no ECMO, and by covariate adjustment of the entire study group. Results: A total of 20,494 patients with asthma exacerbations requiring invasive ventilation were included in the study, of which 130 were treated with ECMO and 20,364 were not. After propensity matching, ECMO (N=103) versus no ECMO (N=206) was associated with reduced mortality (11.4% vs. 23.3%, p = 0.017) and increased hospital costs, but no difference in ICU LOS, hospital LOS or length of mechanical ventilation (Table). The covariate-adjusted model replicated these findings (Table). When individual patients were assigned a probability of being treated with ECMO equal to the hospital rate where they were admitted, each 10% increase in the hospital rate of ECMO was associated with no change in the odds of mortality (OR, 1.12: 95% CI, 0.82-1.52), p=0.48). ECMO was also associated with increased renal replacement therapy (P = 0.02), shock (P=0.02) and 30-day all-cause readmission (P = 0.01). Conclusion: ECMO was associated with reduced mortality at the cost of increased morbidity in asthmatics requiring invasive ventilation, indicating that ECMO has the potential to save thousands of lives.

20.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1927895

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Fibrotic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (FHP) is an irreversible lung disease with high morbidity and mortality. We sought to evaluate the safety and effect of pirfenidone on disease progression in such patients.Methods: In a phase 2 double-blind, single-center trial, we randomly assigned, in a 2:1 ratio, adults with FHP to receive either oral pirfenidone (2403 mg/day) or placebo for 52 weeks. Patients had to have CT lung fibrotic abnormalities affecting ≥5%, worsening respiratory symptoms, and either an increase in the extent of fibrosis on CT or relative decline in the FVC% of ≥5% within the 24-months before screening. The primary endpoint was the mean change from baseline to week 52 in %FVC. Secondary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS, time to the first occurrence of any one of the following: a relative decline of ≥10% in FVC and/or DLCO, acute exacerbation, a decrease of ≥50 m in the 6-minute walk distance, increase in background prednisone by ≥10 mg or introduction of corticosteroids and/or steroid-sparing drugs, or death), change from baseline to week 52 in FVC slope and mean %DLCO, all-cause hospitalizations, CT progression of lung fibrosis, and safety. Results: After 40 patients had been randomized (mean age 67.1 years, 42.5% males) the study was stopped due to slow recruitment due to the COVID-19 pandemic. At baseline, demographics, smoking and inciting antigen exposure history, lung function, 6-minute walk distance, extent of CT lung fibrosis, and immunosuppressive therapy were balanced in both groups. There was no significant difference between the pirfenidone and placebo groups after adjusting for baseline %FVC and concomitant immunosuppressive therapy (p=0.88) in mean change from baseline to week 52 in %FVC. Secondary endpoints showed no difference between groups in change from baseline to week 52 in FVC slope, mean %DLCO, all-cause hospitalization and CT progression of lung fibrosis. However, a decrease in PFS favored pirfenidone (Table). The percentages of patients with any adverse events (AE) were similar in both groups. Nausea and rash, respectively, led to transient dose reduction of study treatment in 2 patients in the pirfenidone group. There were no treatment-related serious AE or AE leading to discontinuation of study treatment. No death occurred in the pirfenidone group and one death (respiratory) occurred in the placebo group. Conclusions: The trial was under powered to detect a difference in the primary endpoint. Pirfenidone was found to be tolerable and safe and compared to placebo reduced PFS in patients with FHP.

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