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1.
20th LACCEI International Multi-Conference for Engineering, Education Caribbean Conference for Engineering and Technology, LACCEI 2022 ; JOUR, 2022-July.
Article in Spanish | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2091206

ABSTRACT

The present work was elaborated with the purpose of implementing an improvement plan to reduce the operating costs of a manufacturing company, which is dedicated to the manufacture of masks, aprons, banners and religious mantles;It should be noted that during the period of time in which the investigation is carried out, the company only manufactures masks and aprons, due to the pandemic caused by COVID-19. Through an observation guide and historical data, it is possible to obtain a comprehensive diagnosis composed of: SWOT analysis, EFE matrix, EFI matrix, PESTEL and DOP analysis;thus allowing to find different problems such as a high percentage of waste, poor quality control, poor quality raw material, a constant rotation of suppliers and overstock. Improvement plan 1 made up of TPM, efficient selection of suppliers, MRP and TQM is chosen. The improvement plan was simulated using the ProModel and Ms. Excel software using the supply planning simulator (Odoo). After applying the improvement plan for each indicator, a total benefit of S/.2324.49 is reached, that is, the operating costs of the manufacturing company decrease by 25.32%. Also, a NPV of 351.1 soles, an NPV of Income of 19, 741.00 soles, an NPV of Expenditures of 19, 390.00 soles, an internal rate of return of 3%, a TMAR of 1.53%, which ratifies the viability of the project by the prompt return on investment, with a B/C of 1.02. © 2022 Latin American and Caribbean Consortium of Engineering Institutions. All rights reserved.

2.
Can J Anaesth ; 69(11): 1399-1404, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2085600

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: SARS-CoV-2 vaccines have been proven effective at preventing poor outcomes from COVID-19; however, voluntary vaccination rates have been suboptimal. We assessed the potential avoidable intensive care unit (ICU) resource use and associated costs had unvaccinated or partially vaccinated patients hospitalized with COVID-19 been fully vaccinated. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, population-based cohort study of persons aged 12 yr or greater in Alberta (2021 population ~ 4.4 million) admitted to any ICU with COVID-19 from 6 September 2021 to 4 January 2022. We used publicly available aggregate data on COVID-19 infections, vaccination status, and health services use. Intensive care unit admissions, bed-days, lengths of stay, and costs were estimated for patients with COVID-19 and stratified by vaccination status. RESULTS: In total, 1,053 patients admitted to the ICU with COVID-19 were unvaccinated, 42 were partially vaccinated, and 173 were fully vaccinated (cumulative incidence 230.6, 30.8, and 5.5 patients/100,000 population, respectively). Cumulative incidence rate ratios of ICU admission were 42.2 (95% confidence interval [CI], 39.7 to 44.9) for unvaccinated patients and 5.6 (95% CI, 4.1 to 7.6) for partially vaccinated patients when compared with fully vaccinated patients. During the study period, 1,028 avoidable ICU admissions and 13,015 bed-days were recorded for unvaccinated patients and the total avoidable costs were CAD 61.3 million. The largest opportunity to avoid ICU bed-days and costs was in unvaccinated patients aged 50 to 69 yr. CONCLUSIONS: Unvaccinated patients with COVID-19 had substantially greater rates of ICU admissions, ICU bed-days, and ICU-related costs than vaccinated patients did. This increased resource use would have been potentially avoidable had these unvaccinated patients been vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2.


RéSUMé: OBJECTIF: Les vaccins contre le SRAS-CoV-2 se sont avérés efficaces pour prévenir les devenirs défavorables associés à la COVID-19; toutefois, les taux de vaccination volontaire ont été sous-optimaux. Nous avons évalué l'utilisation potentiellement évitable des ressources des unités de soins intensifs (USI) et les coûts associés si les patients non vaccinés ou partiellement vaccinés qui ont dû être hospitalisés pour la COVID-19 avaient été complètement vaccinés. MéTHODE: Nous avons réalisé une étude de cohorte rétrospective basée sur la population de personnes âgées de 12 ans ou plus en Alberta (population de 2021 ~ 4,4 millions) admises dans une unité de soins intensifs et atteintes de COVID-19 du 6 septembre 2021 au 4 janvier 2022. Nous avons utilisé des données agrégées accessibles au public sur les infections à la COVID-19, le statut vaccinal et l'utilisation des services de santé. Les admissions aux soins intensifs, les journées-patients, les durées de séjour et les coûts ont été estimés pour les patients atteints de la COVID-19 et stratifiés selon le statut vaccinal. RéSULTATS: Au total, 1053 patients admis à l'USI souffrant de la COVID-19 n'étaient pas vaccinés, 42 étaient partiellement vaccinés et 173 étaient complètement vaccinés (incidence cumulative 230,6, 30,8 et 5,5 patients / 100 000 habitants, respectivement). Les taux d'incidence cumulés des admissions aux soins intensifs étaient de 42,2 (intervalle de confiance [IC] à 95 %, 39,7 à 44,9) pour les patients non vaccinés et de 5,6 (IC 95 %, 4,1 à 7,6) pour les patients partiellement vaccinés par rapport aux patients entièrement vaccinés. Au cours de la période à l'étude, 1028 admissions évitables aux soins intensifs et 13 015 journées-patients ont été enregistrées pour les patients non vaccinés, et les coûts totaux évitables étaient de 61,3 millions de dollars canadiens. L'économie potentielle la plus importante en matière de journées-patients et de coûts en soins intensifs touchait les patients non vaccinés âgés de 50 à 69 ans. CONCLUSION: Les patients non vaccinés atteints de COVID-19 ont affiché des taux beaucoup plus élevés d'admissions à l'USI, de journées-patients à l'USI et de coûts liés à l'USI que les patients vaccinés. Cette utilisation accrue des ressources aurait été potentiellement évitable si ces patients non vaccinés avaient été vaccinés contre le SRAS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Cohort Studies , COVID-19/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19 Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , Intensive Care Units
3.
Front Health Serv ; 22022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080305

ABSTRACT

Background: Meaningful community engagement is instrumental to effective implementation and sustainment of equitable public health interventions. Significant resources are necessary to ensure that community engagement takes place in culturally sensitive, trusted ways that optimize positive public health outcomes. However, the types and costs of resources best suited to enable meaningful community engagement in implementation research are not well-documented. This study's objectives are (1) to describe a pragmatic method for systematically tracking and documenting resources utilized for community engagement activities, (2) report resources across phases of implementation research, and (3) provide recommendations for planning and budgeting for community engagement in health equity implementation research. Methods: Community engagement partners completed a tracking log of their person-hours for community engagement activities across three phases of community engagement (startup, early, maintenance) in two implementation research projects to promote equity in COVID-19 testing and vaccination for underserved communities. Both projects completed a six-session Theory of Change (i.e., a facilitated group discussion about current and desired conditions that culminated with a set of priorities for strategic change making) over 4 months with respective Community Advisory Boards (CAB) that included community organizers, promotores, federally qualified health center providers and administrators, and public health researchers. The reported person-hours that facilitated community member engagement were documented and summarized within and across project phases. Results: For both projects, the startup phase required the highest number of person-hours (M = 60), followed by the maintenance (M = 53) and early phase (M = 47). Within the startup phase, a total of 5 community engagement activities occurred with identifying and inviting CAB members incurring the greatest number of person-hours (M = 19). Within the early phase, a total of 11 community engagement activities occurred with coordinating and leading live interpretation (Spanish) during CAB sessions incurring the greatest number of person-hours (M = 10). The maintenance phase included 11 community engagement activities with time dedicated to written translation of CAB materials into Spanish incurring the greatest number of person-hours (M = 10). Conclusions: Study findings indicate that the most significant investment of resources is required in the startup period. Needed resources decreased, albeit with a greater diversity of activities, in later phases of community engagement with Spanish language translation requiring most in the later stage of the study. This study contributes to the community engagement and implementation science literature by providing a pragmatic tracking and measurement approach and recommendations for planning for and assessing costs to facilitate meaningful community engagement in public health implementation research.

4.
Journal of International Business Education ; 16:219-236, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2073452

ABSTRACT

This case discusses the post-layoff challenge faced by Swiggy, one of India’s major food aggregators, during the Covid-19 pandemic. The nationwide lockdown announced on March 25, 2020, to combat Covid-19 had left the online food ordering and delivery business in limbo, forcing many food aggregators, including Swiggy, to re-align their businesses. This case analyses Swiggy CEO Sriharsha Majety’s decision to layoff 1100 employees and the company’s business model, values, and people policy. The case provides valuable insights on managing the motivation and morale of the surviving employees amidst an economic or financial crisis. Instructors of employee motivation, people management, strategy, and leadership programmes may find this case useful for teaching challenges business leaders face when managing layoffs, and strategies to keep the surviving workforce’s morale and performance high, alternatives to layoffs, and workforce management during periods of realignment. © 2021, NeilsonJournals Publishing. All rights reserved.

5.
IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management ; : 1-15, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2070470

ABSTRACT

Vaccine hesitancy refers to a delay in getting or refusing vaccinations for efficacy reviews from early vaccinated individuals (e.g., social learning). However, no reviews occur if everyone delays. To overcome vaccine hesitancy, we first introduce social learning to characterize this undesirable behavior in two-period vaccine market (composed of a government, a manufacturer, and individuals). Then, designing subsidy policies are in three aspects: subsidy recipients (who should be subsidized, individuals or manufacturer), subsidy times (when subsidy policies should be set, preannounced or responsive), and subsidy paths (how the subsidy level should be adjusted over two periods, increasing or decreasing). Some results are yielded. First, if subsidy recipients are individuals, sales subsidies occur, and their equilibrium subsidy paths hinge on subsidy times. When sales subsidies are preannounced in the first period, a decreasing path is always optimal. In contrast, when these subsidies are responsive in two periods, an increasing path may be optimal. Second, these optimal sales subsidies can counter vaccine hesitancy and, further, utilize social learning to enhance vaccine coverage with different levels. Their differences are affected by two factors (government budgets and uncertain vaccine efficacy levels) that have asymmetric roles. Finally, if subsidy recipients are shifted from individuals to the manufacturer, cost subsidy occurs but it fails to overcome vaccine hesitancy.

6.
IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management ; : 1-11, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2070469

ABSTRACT

As the world is witnessing unprecedented events such as the COVID-19 pandemic, we live in a volatile, uncertain, complex, ambiguity (VUCA) world. Where volatility in supplies, Uncertainty in demand, Complexity in getting the products, and Ambiguity in understanding the issues. Such a scenario constitutes a VUCA world, and inventory positioning is no exception. Inventory positioning manages the safety stock across echelons to maintain customer service levels undersupply or demand uncertainties. Therefore, this article focuses on optimizing the inventory levels in demand uncertainty and supply complexity through inventory positioning and making reliable forecasts using machine learning for biomedical equipment, especially knee implants. The product flow is mapped through a discrete event simulation model by considering a biechelon supply chain. The parameters like reorder point, order quantity, supply lead time, and inventory costs are considered, and Arena modelled and simulated inventory replenishment. They are optimized with in-built OptQuest to minimize back orders and total costs. The model determines the safety stock inventories positioned at both echelons to achieve service level constraints. The uncertainty in demand is the root cause of the abovementioned issues and may be reduced through more reliable forecasts.

7.
Ieee Access ; 10:98633-98648, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2070264

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 caused by the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 virus taking a huge toll on global health and caused life-threatening medical complications and elevated mortality rates, especially among older adults and people with existing morbidity. Current evidence suggests that the virus spreads primarily through respiratory droplets emitted by infected persons when breathing, coughing, sneezing, or speaking. These droplets can reach another person through their mouth, nose, or eyes, resulting in infection. The "gold standard" for clinical diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 is the laboratory-based nucleic acid amplification test, which includes the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test on nasopharyngeal swab samples. The main concerns with this type of test are the relatively high cost, long processing time, and considerable false-positive or false-negative results. Alternative approaches have been suggested to detect the SARS-CoV-2 virus so that those infected and the people they have been in contact with can be quickly isolated to break the transmission chains and hopefully, control the pandemic. These alternative approaches include electrochemical biosensing and deep learning. In this review, we discuss the current state-of-the-art technology used in both fields for public health surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 and present a comparison of both methods in terms of cost, sampling, timing, accuracy, instrument complexity, global accessibility, feasibility, and adaptability to mutations. Finally, we discuss the issues and potential future research approaches for detecting the SARS-CoV-2 virus utilizing electrochemical biosensing and deep learning.

8.
Journal of Benefit-Cost Analysis ; : 1-23, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2069832

ABSTRACT

Three common misconceptions persist about federal regulations. The first misconception is that most new regulations concern the environment, but in fact, only a small minority of regulatory flows are environmental. The second misconception is that regulators offer reasonable justifications and quantitative evidence for the majority of regulations. However, quantitative estimates rarely appear in published rules, negating the impression given by executive orders and Office of Management and Budget guidance, which require cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and clearly articulate sound economic principles for conducting CBA. Environmental rules have relatively higher-quality CBAs, at least by the standards of other federal rules. The third misconception, which is particularly relevant to the historic regulations promulgated during the COVID-19 pandemic, is that regulatory costs are primarily clerical, rather than opportunity or resource costs.

9.
Sustainability ; 14(19):12837, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2066469

ABSTRACT

This manuscript proposes an integrated system for treating hospital solid waste (H.S.W.) consisting of an incineration and frictional sterilization system capable of operating during normal and emergency situations. We analyzed the benefits of integrating different hospital solid waste (H.S.W.) treatment systems with the existing stand-alone incineration system, with a particular emphasis on the thermal friction sterilization integration system. The objective was to define the economic advantages and benefits in terms of resources recovery of using the thermal frictional sterilization–incineration integrated system during the hospital’s normal and emergency/pandemic operating conditions. We modeled three modeling scenarios based on normal and emergency operating conditions. The results show that the H.S.W. was composed of 74% general H.S.W. Existing incineration systems would be the most expensive process because the sanitary transportation cost represented approximately 96% of the H.S.W. costs. The hospital would realize 40–61% savings relative to the existing method if the integrated incineration–frictional systems were implemented to treat 50–70% of H.S.W.;the savings were better than in other scenarios. Proposed scenario 3 had a much better resources recovery factor than scenarios 1 and 2. This modeling study showed that a thermal frictional sterilization–incineration system could work well even under emergency conditions if the H.S.W. in-house sorting/transportation/storage process is modified to cater to other H.S.W. treatment/sterilization systems.

10.
Sustainability ; 14(19):12330, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2066397

ABSTRACT

The rapid pace of climate change has exacerbated Singapore’s ever-present vulnerability to food shortages. While most of Singapore’s current food supply is imported, the country is working towards becoming self-sufficient in at least 30% of its food demand by 2030. Though a high proportion of Singaporeans have pro-environmental views and believe that buying locally grown food is more eco-friendly, the demand for local produce remains low. To better understand the cause of this attitude–behaviour gap, this study investigated the factors influencing the purchasing decisions of local consumers, as well as their willingness to pay a premium for locally produced vegetables, eggs, and seafood in Singapore. The estimation results suggested that what primarily hinders the local produce demand of consumers with positive perceptions towards sustainability is not their income or product price. Instead, product-specific factors, such as freshness and quality of the produce, and easiness to identify the product at store were found to be positively associated with local produce purchase. Ensuring these factors can potentially lead to higher demand for local produce in Singapore. Attitudes and behaviours related to sustainability played a larger role in the willingness to pay (WTP) than purchase decision making. Thus, to enhance the WTP for local produce, educating the public regarding the sustainability aspect of local produce may prove to be effective.

11.
Sustainability (Switzerland) ; 14(18), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2066363

ABSTRACT

The restaurant industry contributed to the creation of wealth and employment until the end of 2019, when it reached maximum values. However, with the COVID-19 pandemic in early 2020, this sector suffered a very serious economic and employment crisis. The analysis of this situation is imperative to mitigate the consequences for the restaurant industry and to prevent impacts in future crises. The main purpose of the present study is to compare the years 2019 and 2020, analyzing the profitability, payroll costs, headcount, and indebtedness of the restaurants, to verify the COVID-19 pandemic’s impact in Spain and Portugal. Quantitative research was applied, where a descriptive analysis and hypothesis testing were conducted. SABI database was the secondary data source used in this research. The results show that the COVID-19 pandemic has had an impact on profitability, efficiency, and indebtedness in the restaurant industry, being a generalized situation in both countries, in all regions except for Ceuta. The results also confirm the importance of this study for managers and academics since all the variables under study worsened with the COVID-19 pandemic. This study represents a contribution to managers and stakeholders in the restaurant sector by allowing the comparative evaluation of each restaurant with the average of the variables by location and the definition of proactive strategies. Practical implications are proposed to mitigate the effect not only of COVID-19 but also of other pandemics or economic crises that may arise in the future, preparing managers and stakeholders to adapt to change and promoting the financial sustainability of the restaurant industry. It is recommended to increase the disclosure of statistical indicators and financial ratios of free access, which allows the improvement of the analysis of different variables that are important for professionals in the restaurant industry. © 2022 by the authors.

12.
Energies ; 15(19):7351, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2065782

ABSTRACT

The production of municipal waste is increasing all over the world. Although a significant part of the waste is collected as commingled waste, much of it is recyclable if disposed of properly. Thus, separate deposition and collection plays an extremely important role today, more than ever, not only in terms of preventing pollution but also from the point of view of recycling as a driver of circular economy and of efficient use of resources. This work is focused on the development of compaction equipment to be applied to containers, which allows a more efficient approach to the process of collecting waste for recycling. As a management option, recycling depends on collective behavior which is based on individual acts. Therefore, individual use of plastic/metal compaction systems can help meet recycling targets, even as a complement to conventional bins. Thus, herein a proposal is presented for a plastic/metal collection station with a built-in compaction element that allows for the compacting of the separated waste, individually, in an easily accessible drawer. Sorting and compacting waste before collection will result in a reduction of the number of collection/transport stops, which will also translate into higher energy efficiency, cost savings, optimization of the transported tons/km ratio, and profitability.

13.
Energies ; 15(18), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2065777

ABSTRACT

In recent years, due to the rise in energy prices and the impact of COVID-19, energy shortages have led to unsafe power supply environments. High emissions industries which account for more than 58% of the carbon emissions of Guangdong Province have played an important role in achieving the carbon peak goal, alleviating social energy shortage and promoting economic growth. Controlling high emissions industries will help to adjust the industrial structure and increase renewable energy investment. Therefore, it is necessary to comprehensively evaluate the policies of energy security and the investments of high emission industries. This paper builds the ICEEH-GD (comprehensive assessment model of climate, economy, environment and health of Guangdong Province) model, designs the Energy Security scenario (ES), the Restrict High Carbon Emission Sector scenario (RHS) and the Comprehensive Policy scenario (CP), and studies the impact of limiting high emissions industries and renewable energy policies on the transformation of investment structure, macro-economy and society. The results show that under the Energy Security scenario (ES), carbon emissions will peak in 2029, with a peak of 681 million tons. Under the condition of ensuring energy security, the installed capacity of coal-fired power generation will remain unchanged from 2025 to 2035. Under the Restrict High Carbon Emission Sector scenario (RHS), the GDP will increase by 8 billion yuan compared with the ES scenario by 2035. At the same time, it can promote the whole society to increase 10,500 employment opportunities, and more investment will flow to the low emissions industries. In the Comprehensive Policy scenario (CP), although the GDP loss will reach 33 billion yuan by 2035 compared with the Energy Security scenario (ES), the transportation and service industries will participate in carbon trading by optimizing the distribution of carbon restrictions in the whole society, which will reduce the carbon cost of the whole society by more than 48%, and promote the employment growth of 104,000 people through industrial structure optimization. Therefore, the power sector should increase investment in renewable energy to ensure energy security, limit the new production capacity of high emissions industries such as cement, steel and ceramics, and increase the green transition and efficiency improvement of existing high emissions industries. © 2022 by the authors.

14.
Electronics ; 11(19):3081, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2065772

ABSTRACT

With the development of telecare medical information system (TMIS), doctors and patients are able to access useful medical services via 5G wireless communications without visiting the hospital in person. Unfortunately, TMIS should have the essential security properties, such as anonymity, mutual authentication, and privacy, since the patient’s data is transmitted via a public channel. Moreover, the sensing devices deployed in TMIS are resource-limited in terms of communication and computational costs. Thus, we design a physically secure privacy-preserving scheme using physical unclonable functions (PUF) in TMIS, called PUF-PSS to resolve the security requirements and efficiency of the existing related schemes. PUF-PSS prevents the security threats and also guarantees anonymity, key freshness, and authentication. We evaluate the security of PUF-PSS by performing formal and informal security analyses, including AVISPA implementation and ROR oracle model. We perform the test bed experiments utilizing well-known MIRACL based on a Raspberry PI 4 and compare the communication and computational costs of PUF-PSS with the previous schemes for TMIS. Consequently, PUF-PSS guarantees better efficiency and security than previous schemes and can be applied to TMIS environments.

15.
Complexity ; 2022, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2064344

ABSTRACT

Shorter product life due to technology development and changing customer needs requires optimal supply chain management and structuring. Achieving this optimization brings productivity to the organization. A sustainable and reliable supply chain (S&RSC) as an emerging paradigm, with a comprehensive view, leads the supply chain network design (SCND) issue to the desired situation. This study, as part of an emerging theme, presents a systematic review and classification of 42 articles at the intersection of sustainability, reliability, and supply chain network design. In this regard, in a historical course, the four concepts of green supply chain, socially responsible supply chain, sustainable supply chain, and reliable supply chain in the form of four structures of history and definition, deriver and importance, substrate and practice, evaluation, and implementation are discussed. The result of the review shows that the articles that study the integration of sustainability and reliability in SCND are vibrant and rapidly growing in various industries. Developing countries and manufacturing companies with the largest number of articles have been the research fields of the studies. Most of the studies have considered the structure of the supply chain as a forward flow. The key contribution of this review is the development of a comprehensive framework of S&RSC from the conceptual point of view, elements, assessment tools, and its implementation context. The present review can serve as a guide for various stakeholders. In particular, practitioners and policymakers can effectively develop their own strategies and policies to advance the sustainable-reliable program.

16.
29th IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Electrical Engineering and Computing, INTERCON 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2063267

ABSTRACT

This paper evaluates the integration of the UV ray applied to disinfection in food industry with an automatic packaging machine, instead of traditional methods. This systematic review allows to evaluate the most appropriate solution to the selection of the automatic process and devices involved, in order to reduce the bacterial and virus with UV treatment by a schematic development and its verification through modeling and simulation software. The results obtained demonstrate the ability to control the intensity of UV rays emitted by an OSRAM TYPE UVC lamp with a range between 200-280 nm. It is appropriated for a complete disinfection of food products. And also, that the Proportional-Integrative Control system regulates the set-point in a rise time of 24 ms, settlement of 87.8 ms and overshoot of 13.8%. Our findings are the the control time, efficiency, accuracy and uniformity to be integrated into the packaging process;compared to thermal disinfection methods;with a settlement error of ± 1.48 and its ability to counteract Covid-19. © 2022 IEEE.

17.
1st IEEE IAS Global Conference on Emerging Technologies, GlobConET 2022 ; : 804-809, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2063232

ABSTRACT

Early diagnosis of diseases is very critical for recovery. However, this is not always feasible due to the limited available staff or expensive and inadequate tools as we have witnessed in the recent COVID-19 pandemic. Lung diseases are life-threatening, but fortunately, they can be detected from X-ray images, which are cost-effective approaches. However, they need experts who are sometimes unavailable. Thus, using cutting-edge technology to diagnose diseases automatically and fast is the key solution to saving people's lives. In this research, deep learning techniques have been utilized to classify several lung diseases in a cost-saving, time-saving, and efficient manner. Examples of lung diseases studied in this research are COVID-19, Lung Opacity, Pneumonia, and Tuberculosis. Several pre-trained deep learning models have been employed for flat multi-class classification of these lung diseases instead of using binary classification to recognize one disease from normal cases, as most state-of-the-art studies carry out. The models' performance has been evaluated on imbalanced data of X-ray images with various resolutions and types. Finally, multiple measurements metrics have been utilized to evaluate the performance. The best accuracy achieved in this research is 95.643%. © 2022 IEEE.

18.
International Conference on Transportation and Development 2022, ICTD 2022 ; 3:264-276, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2062374

ABSTRACT

A 2018 study of performance measures for the Utah Department of Transportation's (UDOT) Incident Management Team (IMT) program concluded that the program was cost effective and benefited Utah motorists. During the 2018 legislative session, UDOT received funding to expand its IMT program. To determine the benefits of expanding the IMT program, a comparison of performance measures for 2018 and 2020 incident data was conducted. In addition, data regarding the affected volume, the excess travel time, and the excess user cost associated with incident congestion were gathered. The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic affected traffic volumes during this study, and statistical analyses were utilized to account for volume differences between the two years. Results indicated that the expansion of the IMT program has allowed UDOT to respond more consistently to incidents and respond to a larger quantity of incidents over a larger coverage area and in extended operating hours. © ASCE.

19.
Webology ; 19(5):220-227, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2057922

ABSTRACT

Computing tools applied in power systems are increasingly used to solve complex optimization problems. Power system operations research has become essential for graduate and final-year undergraduate students who want to improve their knowledge in this area. This study proposes a solution for a group of boilers and turbines to minimize operating costs using GUSEK software. The execution of the model allows us to obtain the optimal solution with the operational constraints involved and the possibility of improving with metaheuristic algorithms.

20.
Clinical and Experimental Health Sciences ; 12(1):217-221, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2057063

ABSTRACT

Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare the average length of stay, mortality rates and service costs in intensive care unit provided to patients during October-November-December 2019 (pre-pandemic), with the average length of stay, mortality rates and service costs in intensive care unit during October-November-December 2020 (pandemic). Methods: This was a retrospective cross-sectional comparative, single-center study. The demographic data (age, gender), average length of stay, mortality and hospital costs of intensive care patients during October-November-December 2019 (pre-pandemic) were compared using the hospital records with the same data of patients in the same intensive care unit during October-November-December 2020 (pandemic), and the factors affecting the cost were investigated. Results: Of the 437 patients included in the study, 233 were hospiṫ aliż ed in pre-pandemic period and 204 in pandemic period. Pre-pandemic period mean age was 65.04 ± 17.0, and pandemic period mean age was 68.07 ± 15.1 years. The majority of the cases in both periods were male (57.9% and 63.2%). Length of stay, cost and mortality rates were significantly higher in the pandemic group (p: 0.000). There was a significant positive correlation between length of stay and cost (p: 0.000). Conclusion: It was found that intensive care costs increased considerably during the COVID 19 period, along with the increases in the length of stay and mortality rates. Advanced age and increase in length of stay were found to be correlated with mortality, but only length of stay was correlated with cost.

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