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1.
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 16(3):560-563, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1822797

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The study aimed to examine COVID-19 knowledge among the general public in Pakistan, to review their attitudes and views regarding the fast epidemic. Study Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study. Duration of Study: June-July 2020. Methodology: A total of 679 respondents included. The questionnaires comprised of the following basic themes: basic demography, general & basic clinical/medical knowledge, attitudes, awareness, perceptions as well as a sense of prevention regarding COVID-19. Results: The majority (75.5%) of the respondents were from Punjab province. Around half (54.5%) of the respondents had heard about the COVID-19 infection through different social media. The majority were 28.4% medical students. The majority of the respondents (80-95%) selected correct answers from the given choices for the questions related to some clinical knowledge. More than half of people (59-64%) think positively that COVID-19 will successfully be controlled and Pakistan will be successful in winning this battle of the pandemic. 61% were afraid of COVID-19 as it is highly contagious disease (37.7%). Around 60% always covered their noses and mouths while sneezing and coughing. Conclusion: The people must have a thorough understanding of COVID-19 to successfully execute COVID-19 prevention strategies. Although we found enough knowledge, favorable perspectives, and readiness to follow SOPs, we believe that additional preventative and cautious attitudes, as well as awareness, are needed.

2.
Akademik Acil Tip Olgu Sunumlari Dergisi ; 12(4):100-102, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1822753

ABSTRACT

A 43-year-old male patient without any additional disease, surgery or anticoagulant use admitted to the emergency department. After evaluation with computed tomography (CT), pulmonary findings were consistent with COVID-19 pneumonia. The patient was hospitalized and enoxaparin sodium 60 mg / 0.6 ml (two subcutaneous injections per day) was initiated for prophylactic purpose. In the 16th day after admission, his hemoglobin level decreased to 7.4 g/dL. On CT scan, a right flank hematoma reaching approximately 10 cm in width, starting from the subcostal level and continuing to the inguinal canal level, was seen. Anticoagulant therapy was stopped. Erythrocyte suspension (ES), totally 10 units, were given to keep the hemoglobin level above 7 g/dL. On the 32th day after admission, the patient was discharged because his hemoglobin value, which was 10.2 g/dL at that point, had not decreased, his vital signs were stable, and his treatment for COVID-19 was completed.

3.
Revista de la Facultad de Medicina Humana ; 22(2):446-451, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1822695

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The epidemic that had its beginning in the city of Wuhan in December 2019, has become a public health problem that is advancing at dizzying steps. Objective: To determine the clinical and epidemiological profile in Covid-19 patients attended at the HASA-I - Utcubamba, 2020. Methods: The type of research was observational, descriptive and retrospective cross-sectional. The population consisted of 312 patients from which a sample of 173 patients was extracted that met the conditions of being representative and adequate. All data processing and statistical calculations were performed using Microsoft Excel 2019 software. Results: Regarding the results, it was determined that the epidemiological profile: male gender a total of 102 and female gender 71, representing 59,0% and 41,0% respectively;average age of 45 years;most affected place of origin, the city of Bagua Grande, with a frequency of 162, which represents 93,6%. Regarding the clinical profile: diabetes mellitus presented a total of 7 cases, representing 4,1%;cardiovascular diseases with a frequency of 6, representing 3,5%;general malaise with a total of 75 cases, representing 43,4%;fever with a frequency of 66 cases, representing 38,2%;cough with a frequency of 56 cases, representing 32,4%;headaches with a frequency of 50 cases, representing 28,9%;and dyspnea with a frequency of 34, representing 19,7%. Conclusion: The male gender was predominant with comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus, general malaise and elevated CRP.

4.
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences ; 14(4):44-50, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1822680

ABSTRACT

Objective: The aim of the present study was to assess bioactive compounds found in Tulsi as potential COVID-19 Mpr °inhibitor using molecular docking and to provide scientific justification in term of its active ingredient to target protein for prevention and symptomatic treatment of COVID-19. Methods: COVID-19 Mpr °was docked with eight phytochemicals of Ocimum sanctum Linn. Using Autodock 4.2. Determination of active site and visualization of molecular interactions between ligands and target enzyme was done by Biovia Discovery Studio 4.5. Results: Our result demonstrates that Vicenin, Caryophyllene, Cirsimaritin, Isothymusin and Isothymonin have a better binding affinity to target enzyme. However, only Vicenin exhibited better binding energy i.e.-7.02 kcal/mol to COVID-19 Main protease among other phytochemicals through some responsible interactions to inhibit the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in the human body, whereas Caryophyllene and Cirsimaritin exhibited similar binding affinity i.e.-6.46 kcal/mol but different interactions with target enzyme. Conclusion: Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn.) is a preeminent traditional drug of Ayurveda for prophylaxis and treatment of various ailments, including respiratory disorders like cough, cold and flu. With no specific therapies available, reevaluating and repurposing traditional drugs could be an effective approach for the prevention and treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Therefore our study provides scientific evidence for the potential use of Tulsi as an adjunct therapy for the prevention and symptomatic treatment of COVID-19. However, further in vitro and in vivo studies should be conducted to validate use of proposed compounds in drug discovery and as therapeutics against COVID-19.

5.
Journal of SAFOG ; 14(1):35-40, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1822541

ABSTRACT

Importance: Given the high mortality and cost of health care, especially in isolation settings, the idea of using nebulized hydrogen peroxide may play a very significant role in inactivation of coronavirus, thus reducing the infectivity period leading to reduced requirement of isolation and improving morbidity and mortality in people suffering with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-2019). Aim and objective: Objective of this study was to determine the efficiency of nebulized hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in reducing the viral load and disease severity of patients suffering with COVID-19. Design: Double-blinded randomized control trial. HOPE in COVID-19 study. Setting: Tertiary care COVID hospital (single center). Participants: Moderate sick COVID-19-positive patients were included in the study after they qualified the inclusion criteria. Intervention: Patients were nebulized using 1 mL of ozonized 3% H2O2 after diluting with 4 mL of normal saline three times a day for 5 days. The control group was nebulized with normal saline only. Main outcome: Outcome was assessed for reduction in oxygen requirement (number of days on oxygen), symptoms resolution (dyspnea, cough, and fever), and number of days it took to be RT-PCR negative for COVID-19. Results: The early data from trial showed promising trends toward a better outcome. The study showed that in the case group who were nebulized with hydrogen peroxide resulted in better outcome in terms of parameters assessed in the study and the differences from the control group were statistically significant (p ≤0.001, CI 95%). Outcome in the form of mortality (odds ratio 0.29, 95% CI 0.02–3.14, p = 0.31, z = 1.007) was statistically insignificant. The number needed to treat for our study was 10.

6.
Journal of SAFOG ; 14(1):59-62, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1822540

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The purpose of the study is to determine the maternal and fetal outcomes among the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19)-positive pregnant women. Methodology: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study conducted among all the COVID-19 pregnant women who were admitted at Chamarajanagar Institute of Medical Sciences for delivery. Results: The mean age of the study subjects was 26.00 ± 4.89 years, and it ranged between 19 and 37 years. Most of the patients were gravida 2 (51.6%) and primigravida (41.9%);Lower segment cesarean section was the commonest mode of delivery (38.7%). Cough and breathlessness were the symptoms recorded in 1.6% of the patients. Premature rupture of membranes (PROM) (9.7%) and decreased saturation (6.5%) were the maternal complications noted. A majority of the neonates weighed 2.5–3.5 kg (46/63, 73.0%). The mean birth weight of the neonates was 2.97 ± 4.89 kg with the minimum weight recorded being 1.75 kg and maximum was 3.8 kg. The commonest neonatal complication (14.3%) noted was low birth weight (LBW), and among them, eight of them had COVID-19 negative status but for one who was diagnosed COVID-19 positive. There were no deaths recorded among both mother and the neonates. Conclusion: Our results suggest that there are no maternal and neonatal deaths noted among COVID-19 pregnant women, and PROM and decreased saturation were the maternal complications affecting 10.0 and 7.0% of them and LBW was the neonatal complication found among 14.0% of them. Vertical transmission cannot be ruled out 100.0 as 1.6% (1/63) newborn was found to be COVID-19 positive.

7.
Journal of Acute Disease ; 11(2):77-84, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1822498

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate patient demographic characteristics and risk factors for mortality during the first and the second wave among COVID-19 patients in a tertiary care hospital of India. Methods: Data were taken from the hospital's electronic system for COVID-19 patients from August 2020 to December 2020, and the second from January 2021 to May 2021. The mortality rate, demographic and clinical characteristics, laboratory profile, and reasons for the death of the two waves were retrieved and compared, and the risk factors of the two waves were determined. Results: In the first wave, 1 177 COVID-19 cases visited the hospital and 96 (8.2%) died. In comparison, the death rate in the second wave was significantly higher (244/2 038, 12.0%) (P<0.001). No significant difference in age [60 (50-69) vs. 60.5 (53-70), P=0.11] or gender (P=0.34) was observed between the two waves. Compared to the first wave. there were significantly more cases with fever, cough, weakness, loss of taste and smell, and sore throat during the second wave (P<0.05), but significantly fewer cases with kidney disease (6.6% vs. 13.5%, P=0.038) and diabetes mellitus (35.7% vs. 50.0%, P=0.015). Besides, during the second wave, more patients had abnormal X-ray findings, higher levels of lymphocytes and serum ferritin (P<0.05). In addition, there were significant differences in the rate of death cases with acidosis, septic shock, acute kidney injury, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular events, hypothyroidism (P<0.05). Multivariate regression showed that during the first wave, age (OR: 1.10;95% CI: 1.02-1.21), diabetes mellitus (OR: 3.16;95% CI: 2.08-3.53), and abnormal X-ray (2.67;95% CI: 2.32-2.87) were significant independent risk factors of mortality;while in the second wave, age (OR: 1.13;95% CI: 1.12-1.28), diabetes mellitus (OR: 8.98;95% CI: 1.79-45.67), abnormal X-ray (OR: 12.83;95% CI: 2.32-54.76), high D-dimer (OR: 10.89;95% CI: 1.56-134.53), and high IL-6 (OR: 7.89;95% CI: 1.18-47.82) were significant independent risk factors of mortality. Conclusion: Overall mortality and incidence of severe diseases are higher in the second wave than the first wave. Demographic characteristics, co-morbidities, and laboratory inflammatory parameters, especially D-dimer and IL-6, are significant risk facors of mortality during the COVID-19 pandemic.

8.
Vaccines ; 10(4), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1822467

ABSTRACT

New vaccines are being developed in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Vaccination provides a crucial preventive approach for managing COVID-19. We investigated adults’ willingness to take COVID-19 vaccines in the Zhejiang province, and their cognitions regarding COVID-19, when the COVID-19 vaccine is authorized under Emergency Use Administration. An online survey was conducted from September to October 2020, which included social-demographic characteristics, risk perception, acceptance and influencing factors in relation to COVID-19 vaccines. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify the influencing factors of vaccination acceptance. Of the participants, 70% intended to be vaccinated when the COVID-19 vaccine was approved under Emergency Use Administration, among 2171 valid questionnaires. Logistic regression revealed that being male, having a high cognitive score regarding COVID-19, the belief that the COVID-19 vaccine is safe and effective, and the belief that one will be infected with SARS-CoV-2 this fall and winter, were associated with a greater probability of accepting vaccination. Respondents with junior college/university education or above were less likely to accept vaccination. Concerns about the safety and effectiveness of the vaccine were the main factors hindering vaccination acceptance. Health education is important for promoting accurate public knowledge regarding COVID-19 vaccination.

9.
Vaccines ; 10(4), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1822460

ABSTRACT

The worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has imposed a challenge on human health worldwide, and vaccination represents a vital strategy to control the pandemic. To date, multiple COVID-19 vaccines have been granted emergency use authorization, including inactivated vaccines, adenovirus-vectored vaccines, and nucleic acid vaccines. These vaccines have different technical principles, which will necessarily lead to differences in safety and efficacy. Therefore, we aim to implement a systematic review by synthesizing clinical experimental data combined with mass vaccination data and conducting a synthesis to evaluate the safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines. Compared with other vaccines, adverse reactions after vaccination with inactivated vaccines are relatively low. The efficacy of inactivated vaccines is approximately 60%, adenovirus-vectored vaccines are 65%, and mRNA vaccines are 90%, which are always efficient against asymptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, symptomatic COVID-19, COVID-19 hospitalization, severe or critical hospitalization, and death. RNA-based vaccines have a number of advantages and are one of the most promising vaccines identified to date and are particularly important during a pandemic. However, further improvements are required. In time, all the antibody levels weaken gradually, so a booster dose is needed to maintain immunity. Compared with homologous prime-boost immunization, heterologous prime-boost immunization prompts more robust humoral and cellular immune responses.

10.
Nepal Journal of Epidemiology ; 11(4):1103-1125, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1822347

ABSTRACT

Background:The novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, caused by the pathogenic severe acute respiratory syndrome-2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus, is exponentially spreading across the globe. Methods: The current systematic review was performed utilising the following electronic databases PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE. We searched for the keywords "COVID-19 AND "pregnancy" between January 1, 2020 until December 31, 2020. Results: Out of 4005 records which were identified, 36 original studies were included in this systematic review. Pooled prevalence of vertical transmission was 10%, 95% CI: 4-17%. Pooled prevalence of neonatal mortality was 7%, 95% CI: 0-21%. Conclusion: The contemporary evidence suggests that the incubation period of COVID-19 is 2-14 days, and this infection could be transmitted even from the infected asymptomatic individuals. It is found that the clinical presentation of pregnant women with COVID-19 infection is comparable with the infected non-pregnant females, and the frequent symptoms were fever, cough, myalgia, sore throat and malaise. Some cases have severe maternal morbidity and perinatal deaths secondary to COVID-19 infection. Under these circumstances, pregnant women should focus on maintaining personal hygiene, proper nutrition and extreme social distancing to reduce the risk of COVID-19. Therefore, systematic data reporting for evidence based clinical assessment, management and pregnancy outcomes is essential for preventing of COVID-19 infection among pregnant women.

11.
Atmosphere ; 13(4):18, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1820162

ABSTRACT

Studies on droplet transmission are needed to understand the infection mechanism of SARS-CoV-2. This research investigated the effects of coughing intensity and wind direction on respiratory droplets transportation using the Euler-Lagrange method. The results revealed that both coughing intensity and wind conditions considerably influence the transmission of small and medium droplets but had little effect on large droplets. A stronger coughing intensity resulted in small and medium droplets traveling farther in a calm wind and spreading widely and rapidly in a windy environment. The droplets do not travel far in the absence of ambient wind, even with stronger coughing. Medium droplets spread in clusters, and small droplets drifted out of the domain in the band area in different wind conditions except for 60 degrees and 90 degrees wind directions, in which cases, the droplets were blown directly downstream. In 0 degrees wind direction, many droplets were deposited on the human body. The fast and upward movement of particles in 60 degrees and 90 degrees directions could cause infection risk with short exposure. In 180 degrees wind direction, droplets spread widely and traveled slowly because of the reverse flow downstream, prolonged exposure can result in a high risk of infection.

12.
Revue Medicale Suisse ; 17(758):1915-1921, 2021.
Article in French | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1819198

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has caused an unprecedented global public health crisis. The term long Covid is used to describe diverse and heterogeneous symptoms that persist more than 4 weeks after infection with an estimated incidence of 10-40%, which varies between studies. The principal characteristics of long Covid are fluctuating symptoms of prolonged duration affecting multiple organs, such as fatigue, dyspnea, cough, anosmia, dysgeusia, chest pain, palpitations, headache, myalgia, cognitive and gastrointestinal disorders. Contributing factors, possible pathophysiological explanations and international recommendations can help in the management of the disease in the outpatient setting. Biopsychosocial and multidisciplinary management in primary care medicine is essential.

13.
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 16(3):289-291, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1819182

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is currently diagnosed mainly using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Yet a significant proportion of patients have negative RT-PCR result. A comparative study of RT-PCR negative patients with RT-PCR positive patients will help understand clinical characteristic and differences of this diseased population. Objective: To compare the clinical and laboratory features of RT-PCR Positive and RT-PCR negative patients admitted in high dependency unit. Patients and methods: In this retrospective cohort study, the data of 128 patients (59 patients with RT-PCR positive result and 69 patients with RT-PCR negative results) was obtained. These patients had been admitted in high dependency unit of a community hospital. Demographics, clinical characteristics and laboratory abnormalities were noted and a comparison was done using statistical analysis. Results: In our study-total 128 patients were enrolled out of which 68 (53.1%) were males and 60 (46.9%) were females. 59 (46.1%) patients were RT-PCR positive and 69 (53.9%) patients were RT-PCR negative. Median age was 55.34 years (18 to 95). No significant difference was noted in most of clinical symptoms (fever, sputum production, rhinorrhea, dyspnea, myalgia, nasal congestion, vomiting, diarrhea, urinary symptoms, altered level of consciousness), comorbidities (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, prior lung disease, prior ischemic heart disease, prior kidney disease), laboratory abnormalities (elevated creatinine, elevated liver enzymes, elevated ferritin, elevated C-reactive protein, elevated d-dimers, elevated procalcitonin, abnormal electrocardiogram). Cough was significantly found to be more prevalent in RT-PCR positive patients (p=0.042) and severe disease was also more prevalent in these patients significantly (p=0.000). Conclusion: Our study shows that patients admitted and diagnosed to be suffering from COVID-19 infection had remarkable similarities in clinical features and laboratory parameters regardless of RT-PCR status, however RT-PCR positive patients suffered from more severe pneumonia as compared to RT-PCR negative patients.

14.
Andes Pediatrica ; 93(2):167-173, 2022.
Article in Spanish | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1819097

ABSTRACT

During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, efforts have focused on trying to identify the routes of transmission of the virus, characterize its symptoms and signs, and investigate the best diagnostic and therapeutic methods. There are fewer published data and series in the pediatric population than in adults. Objective: To analyze the clinical and epidemiological characteristics in children under 16 years of age diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2. Patients and Method: Descriptive study carried out on children who underwent SARS-CoV-2 RNA testing due to compatible symptoms, close contact, or requiring hospitalization or surgery, in the Emergency Department of a hospital in Madrid, Spain. 30 variables were collected including epidemiological data, symptoms, and signs of infection. Results: Out of 1378 patients, 12% were positive (165). There was a higher proportion of patients of North African origin in the positive group than in the negative one (p < 0.01). Of all patients, 35.6% reported close contact with a confirmed case, which was more frequent in the positive group. 75.8% of the positive patients had some symptoms, most frequently fever, runny nose, and cough, followed by digestive symptoms. There was one case of COVID-19 pneumonia and two patients with MIS-C, one of which had SARS-CoV-2 infection. Eight of the positive patients (4.8%) required hospitalization due to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Conclusion: Although SARS-CoV-2 infection is milder in the pediatric population, almost 5% will require hospitalization. No close contact was identified in a high percentage of patients (61%). Further studies are needed at all levels of care to characterize the infection in children and adolescents.

15.
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research ; 15(4):118-121, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1818973

ABSTRACT

Objective: The studies describing the clinicoepidemiological features of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) patients of first wave are available but about second wave, very few studies have documented. This study was aimed to describe the clinicoepidemiological features and the causes of mortality of COVID-19 patients of second wave admitted in our center. Methods: This retrospective, observational, and cross-sectional study was carried out among 200 randomly selected and confirmed COVID-19 indoor patients admitted between April 7, 2021 and July 3, 2021 in Dr. N. D. Desai Hospital, Nadiad. The demographic profile, clinical features, comorbidities, inflammatory markers, and causes of mortality in these patients were analyzed. Results: A total 200 patients of COVID-19 of second wave were analyzed. Majority of them were males (64.5%) and the patients between 18 and 60 years of age constituted 60%. Hypertension (70.93%) and diabetes mellitus (46.51%) were common comorbidities followed by ischemic heart diseases and chronic kidney disease. The most common presenting features were fever (75.7%), cough (68.8%), and shortness of breath (60%). The median duration of hospital stay was 7 days [interquartile range, 4-12]. The patients needed any kind of mode of oxygen therapy were 82.5%. The most common cause of death was cardiac arrest (70.58%) followed by severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (35.29%). Conclusions: In this retrospective study, most patients were young males with the age <60 years. The patients had one or more comorbidities, hypertension being the most common. Inflammatory markers were significantly higher in patients who died in our hospital.

16.
Acta Medica Iranica ; 60(3):194-197, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1818862

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 was initially identified as an infection of the lower respiratory tract but has so far manifested itself with very different symptoms. One of these symptoms is skin lesions associated with an active viral infection that can occur from the onset of infection until treatment. Therefore, observing these skin manifestations can be helpful in diagnosing and managing the disease. Our case is a 56-year-old man who came to the infectious clinic with a chief complaint of skin rashes. The patient was in good general condition on arrival and had no evidence of systemic symptoms of infection, such as fever, body aches, and cough. However, the PCR test for COVID-19 was positive. Although many dermatological findings have been reported with Coronavirus Disease, this case has reported with no symptoms other than skin manifestations that describe a viral infection. It seems that this disease can cause unexpected symptoms, even in mild cases. Therefore, it is better to have the COVID-19 in the corner of your mind when examining people with these symptoms.

17.
Archivos Venezolanos de Farmacologia y Terapeutica ; 41(1):8-12, 2022.
Article in Spanish | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1818550

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus that was first identified in December 2019 in the city of Wuhan, Hubei province in the People’s Republic of China, the virus is transmitted from one person to another in the respiratory secretions that are dispersed when the infected person coughs, speaks or sneezes. With 10.93 deaths per million people from coronavirus as of April 6, 2020, Ecuador has one of the highest mortality rates from COVID-19 in Latin America, with only 7.46 Polymerase Chain Reaction tests. (RT-PCR) per 10,000 people. Pediatric cases were rare in the first days of the COVID-19 outbreak, but with the appearance of family aggregation, they began to appear, registering the first cases on March 27th. The pediatric group is always susceptible to upper respiratory tract infections because their immune system is developing. This report describes the epi-demiological situation of pediatric patients in Ecuador, where it was shown that adolescents aged 15 to 18 years were more susceptible to contracting COVID-19 and the group with the highest mortality was from 0 to 9 years old, it was also shown that of the total diagnostic tests performed, 63.6% were RT-PCR tests and 36.3% were rapid tests.

18.
Neurological Sciences and Neurophysiology ; 39(1):40-47, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1818461

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is known to have higher morbidity and mortality rates, parallel to the increased risk factors in the elderly. We aimed to define the risk factors related to mortality and morbidity in older patients hospitalized with COVID-19 disease in this study. Materials and Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study included patients aged ≥65 years who were hospitalized with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19. We analyzed their demographic data, clinical findings, comorbidities, laboratory and radiologic findings, treatment protocols, and outcomes. Results: A total of 58 patients were included in the study. A total of eight (13.8%) patients died during the clinical follow-up and treatment, and 50 (86.2%) patients were discharged. The most common comorbidities among all patients were hypertension (HT) (69%) and diabetes mellitus (39.7%). The most common symptoms include fever (51.7%), cough (44.8%), and dyspnea (43.1%), and the most common neurologic findings were headache (27.6%) and impaired consciousness (27.6%). Intensive care unit admission was significantly higher among patients with comorbidities of HT, cerebrovascular disease, atrial fibrillation (AF), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The rate of death was significantly higher in patients with a history of smoking, cerebrovascular disease, AF, and HT. Although there was a statistically significant positive correlation between the death rate and leukocyte, neutrophil, C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase, D-dimer, interleukin-6, and procalcitonin levels, a negative correlation was observed in lymphocyte levels. Conclusion: Age-related comorbid conditions, especially HT, cerebrovascular disease, and AF, caused increased morbidity and mortality rates in older patients with COVID-19.

19.
Lung India ; 39(2):191-194, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1818451

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD) is an important cause of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and is classified under idiopathic cause of PAH. Over a period of time, PVOD has been studied in detail in the western countries and various diagnostic criteria are formulated. Being a rapidly progressive disease, early diagnosis is of utmost importance which helps to initiate appropriate treatment. Recent studies suggest that PVOD has a genetic predisposition and has an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. Here, we discuss the case of siblings diagnosed with PVOD to have such genetic predisposition for this disease.

20.
Vaccines ; 10(3), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1818220

ABSTRACT

Vaccine hesitancy due to safety concerns is a hindrance to the success of vaccination campaigns. In February 2021, Trinidad and Tobago commenced its National COVID-19 Vaccination Program. Healthcare workers were among the first group to receive the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (Oxford–AstraZeneca (Covishield, Serum Institute of India, Pune, India), the first COVID-19 vaccine available nationally. This study examined the safety of this vaccine in terms of the systemic and local adverse events following immunization reported by healthcare worker recipients. A cross-sectional study was conducted via a telephone questionnaire. Data concerning demographics, medical and COVID-19-related anamneses, and local and systemic side effects experienced within the first 48 h after receiving the first and second dose of this vaccine, respectively, were gathered. Among the 687 participants (male = 275;female = 412), prevalence of fever, body pain, chills, nausea, myalgia, headache, malaise, fatigue, and other systemic symptoms declined significantly 48 h after administration of the second dose compared to the first dose. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression demonstrated the greater likelihood of younger recipients to report systemic symptoms compared to older recipients. Multiple logistic regression indicated that females were more likely to report headache, fatigue, and discomfort, and were less likely to report no symptoms, compared to males, after both doses. On average, recipients reported less local and systemic side effects 48 h after receiving the second dose compared to the first dose. The reported rate of occurrence of side effects was <50% for most adverse events, which is consistent with the manufacturer’s claims that the vaccine is safe. This study adds data on the safety of this vaccine in a population that has not been previously studied. The findings can inform public health policy efforts to lower vaccine hesitancy based on safety concerns surrounding the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine across various groups in society, including healthcare workers.

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