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1.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 2022 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2040400

ABSTRACT

Factors associated with mortality are important for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test is the gold standard for diagnosing COVID-19 and reflects the viral load in the upper respiratory tract. This study enrolled 523 patients. Four hundred forty-one and 75 patients were performed PCR testing in nasopharyngeal swabs and sputum specimens, respectively, within 20 days from the onset. We investigated the association between RNA copy number and the severity and mortality of COVID-19, and its effect on the predictive performance for the severity and mortality. RNA copy numbers in nasopharyngeal swabs were higher in the non-survivor group than in the survivor group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified that the high RNA copy number (≥ 9 log10 /swab) in nasopharyngeal swabs was a factor associated with mortality (odds ratio, 4.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.510 - 13.100; p = 0.008). Furthermore, in severe cases, adding RNA copy number (≥ 9 log10 /swab), which was adjusted by duration from onset to PCR, improved mortality predictive performance based on known factors. The RNA copy number is a factor associated with the mortality of COVID-19 and can improve the predictive performance of mortality in severe cases.

2.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 2022 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2040399

ABSTRACT

Respiratory infections are common diseases, the most common causative agent is a virus. In case of novel viral diseases pandemic like the COVID-19, routinely surveillance of respiratory viruses is useful. In this study, to clarify what kind of virus is involved in suspected cases of COVID-19 in the early stages of the pandemic, we attempted to detect various respiratory viruses from 613 specimens that tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 using RT- PCR method. Viruses were detected from 59 (9.6%) patients. Human rhinovirus (HRV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), human respiratory syncytial virus, and human parechovirus were detected in 29 cases, 25 cases, 3 cases, and 2 cases, respectively. Although this study was conducted in a short period of time and not all specimens were tested, these results indicate that various respiratory viruses, especially HRV and HMPV can be detected even in the early stages of a pandemic, such as COVID-19. Because various respiratory viruses maintain a constant effect during the outbreak of the newly emerged pandemic respiratory virus, to make good use for clinical and public health, from normal period systematic surveillance about respiratory viruses is needed.

3.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 2022 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2040398

ABSTRACT

To estimate effect of COVID-19 control measures taken to mitigate community transmission in many regions, we analyzed data based on influenza surveillance system in Beijing from week 27th, 2014 to week 26th, 2020. We collected weekly number of influenza-like illness (ILI), weekly positive proportion of ILI and weekly ILI proportion in outpatients and the date of COVID-19 measures. We compared influenza activity indicators of season 2019/2020 with preceding five seasons and built two ARIMAX models to estimate the effective of COVID-19 measures which emergency response declared since 24th January 2020. Based on observed data, compared with preceding five influenza seasons, ILIs, positive proportion of ILI, and duration of influenza epidemic period in season 2019/2020 decreased from 13% to 54%, especially, the number of weeks from the peak to the end of influenza epidemic period, decreased from 12 to one. Based ARIMAX model forecasting, after natural decline considered, weekly ILIs decreased by 48.6% and weekly positive proportion dropped 15% in the second week after emergency response declared, and finally COVID-19 measures reduced 83%. We conclude public health emergency response can interrupt the transmission of influenza markedly.

4.
Perm J ; : 1-7, 2022 Jul 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2040393

ABSTRACT

Introduction Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is a rare neurovascular emergency that has been observed following COVID-19 infection, as well as following the use of non-mRNA COVID-19 vaccines. Case Presentation The authors report a case of CVST in a 67-year-old woman, unvaccinated for COVID-19, who presented with acute otitis externa. It remains unclear whether the CVST was a following COVID-19 infection complication, otogenic CVST, or a combination of both. Conclusion This case demonstrates the diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas in managing this patient's challenging anticoagulation and antibiotic duration, as well as subsequent COVID-19 vaccination recommendations.

5.
Infect Chemother ; 54(2): 360-363, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2040039

ABSTRACT

The STANDARD™ M10 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) assay (M10 assay) (SD Biosensor Inc., Suwon, Korea) is a rapid, fully-automated, cartridge-type molecular diagnostic assay that detects SARS-CoV-2 RNA using primers and probes for each target gene (ORF1ab gene, E gene). This study evaluated its performance by assessing its concordance with the approved SARS-CoV-2 real-time PCR assay. Tests were performed on 80 nasopharyngeal samples. The sensitivity and specificity of the M10 assay were 100%. The M10 assay effectively diagnosed SARS-CoV-2 infection, and it was comparable to the approved SARS-CoV-2 real-time PCR assay. It is a viable point-of-care test due to its short turnaround time.

6.
BJGP Open ; 2022 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2040003

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic necessitated an unprecedented implementation of remote consultations in UK primary care services. Specifically, older adults in care homes had a high need for infection prevention due to their existing health conditions. GP practices in the East Midlands incorporated augmented video consultations with the potential to support remote healthcare assessments for older adults at care homes. AIM: To explore GPs and care home staff experiences of the use of augmented video consultation as a mechanism to perform remote examinations of older adults in care homes. DESIGN & SETTING: Qualitative interviews were conducted with GPs and care home staff during May-August 2020. METHOD: A convenience sample of GPs (n=5), nurses (n=12) and senior health care assistants (n=3) were recruited using a purposive approach. Data was collected through semi-structured telephone interviews and was analysed using framework analysis. RESULTS: Findings from participants indicated that augmented video consultation enables real-time patient examinations to aid diagnosis; and promotes person-centred care in meeting the needs of older adults. The participants also discussed the challenges of video consultations for patients with cognitive impairment and those under end-of-life care. CONCLUSION: Augmented video consultations show great potential in terms of GPs providing primary care services for care homes. However, healthcare staff must be involved in the development of the technology, and consideration should be given to the needs of older adults with cognitive impairment and those under end-of-life care. It is also vital that training is available to encourage confidence and competency in implementing the technology.

7.
J Clin Med ; 11(12)2022 Jun 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039883

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 impacted the childbirth experience and increased the rates of postpartum depression (PPD). We assessed the longitudinal effects of the pandemic on the rates of PPD and evaluated the PPD causes and symptoms among women who delivered during the first COVID-19 quarantine in Israel. The participants completed online questionnaires 3 (T1) and 6 months (T2) following delivery. We used the 'COVID-19 exposure' questionnaire, while PPD symptoms, situational anxiety, and social support were evaluated with the EPDS, STAI, and MSPSS questionnaires. The mean EPDS scores increased between T1 and T2 (6.31 ± 5.6 vs. 6.92 ± 5.9, mean difference -0.64 ± 4.59 (95% CI (-1.21)-(-0.06)); t (244) = -2.17, p = 0.031), and the STAI scores decreased (45.35 ± 16.4 vs. 41.47 ± 14.0, t(234) = 4.39, p = 0.000). Despite the exposure to an increased number of COVID-19 events (3.63 ± 1.8 vs. (6.34 ± 2.3)), the impact of exposure decreased between T1 and T2 (8.91 ± 4.6 vs. 7.47 ± 4.1), p < 0.001). In the MSPSS, significant differences were noted on the family scale between the T1 (6.10 ± 1.3) and T2 (5.91 ± 1.4) scores; t (216) = 2.68, p = 0.0008. A regression analysis showed three statistically significant variables that correlated with increased EPDS scores: the MSPSS family subscale (F (1212.00) = 4.308, p = 0.039), the STAI scores (F (1212.00) = 31.988, p = 0.000), and the impact of exposure to COVID-19 (F (1212.00) = 5.038, p = 0.026). The rates of PPD increased for women who delivered during the first COVID-19 lockdown. Further research is warranted to help reduce PPD among these women.

8.
Int J Public Health ; 67: 1604723, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039757

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the status and influential factors of depression, anxiety, and insomnia among people in quarantine during COVID-19. Methods: Data was collected from August 2020 to November 2021 through an online survey of 1,360 people in a quarantined hotel. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), and Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) were used to assess different mental symptoms. Results: 19.9% (n = 270), 17.6% (n = 239) and 7.1% (n = 97) of participants had depression, anxiety and insomnia. Married (OR = 0.641, 95% CI = 0.450-0.915) was a protective factor for depression. Chronic disease (OR = 2.579, 95% CI = 1.416-4.698) was a risk factor for insomnia. No psychiatric medication history was a protective factor for depression (OR = 0.227, 95% CI = 0.068-0.757) and insomnia (OR = 0.240, 95%CI = 0.078-0.736). Female, history of mental illness, low moods at check-in, and partial/cannot understand the quarantine policies were risk factors for anxiety, depression, and insomnia. Conclusion: People in quarantine had problems with depression, anxiety, and insomnia. Female, low moods at check-in, and partial/cannot understand the quarantine policies had significant impacts. It is necessary to help quarantined people understand quarantine policies, reduce negative emotions and improve sleep quality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety Disorders , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Quarantine , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology
9.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 894939, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039743

ABSTRACT

Background: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic caused a public health emergency with profound consequences on physical and mental health of individuals. Emergency Rooms (ER) and Community Mental Health Services (CMHS) played a key role in the management of psychiatric emergencies during the pandemic. The purpose of the study was to evaluate urgent psychiatric consultations (UPCs) in the ERs of the General Hospitals and in the CMHS of a Northern Italian town during the pandemic period. Methods: This monocentric observational study collected UPCs carried out in ER from 01/03/2020 to 28/02/2021 (the so called "COVID-19 period") and the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients who required UPCs in the 12-months period, comparing these data with those collected from 01/03/2019 to 29/02/2020 (the so called "pre-COVID-19 period"). The same variables were collected for UPCs carried out in CMHS from 01/03/2020 to 31/01/2021 and compared with those collected from 01/03/2019 to 31/01/2020. The data, were statistically analyzed through STATA 12-2011. Results: In ER, we reported a 24% reduction in UPCs during the COVID-19 period (n = 909) in comparison with the pre-COVID-19 period (n = 1,194). Differently, we observed an increase of 4% in UPCs carried out in CMHS during the COVID-19 period (n = 1,214) in comparison with the previous period (n = 1,162). We observed an increase of UPCs in ER required by people who lived in psychiatric facilities or with disability pension whereas more UPCs in CMHS were required by older people or those living in other institutions compared to the previous period. In the COVID-19 period, the most frequent reasons for UPCs in ER were aggressiveness, socio-environmental maladjustment and psychiatric symptoms in organic disorders whereas in CMHS we reported an increase of UPCs for control of psychopharmacology therapy and mixed state/mania. Conclusion: In light of our findings, we conclude that the most vulnerable people required more frequent attention and care in both ER and CMHS during pandemic, which disrupted individuals' ability to adapt and induced many stressful reactive symptoms. In order to reduce the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health, psychological support interventions for the general population should be implemented, having particular regard for more psychologically fragile people.

10.
Front Psychol ; 13: 883801, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039718

ABSTRACT

This research aims to explore whether physical exercise can buffer the impact of the COVID-19 stressors. Based on the cross-stressor adaptation hypothesis, we proposed a moderated mediation model relating the COVID-19 stressors to sleep disorder via somatic and worry complaints, depending on the amount of physical exercise. A sample of working adults in Beijing (N = 207) filled surveys in two waves during the COVID-19 pandemic. Structural regression analysis showed that physical exercise moderates the impact of the COVID-19 stressors on sleep disorder via somatic complaints (index = -0.11, 95% CI [-0.22, -0.01]), rather than psychological worry complaints (index = -0.01, 95% CI [-0.07, 0.04]). Specifically, the COVID-19 stressors increase somatic complaints for people with a low amount of physical exercise (b = 0.17, p = 0.01]), while the COVID-19 stressors are not significantly related to somatic complaints for people with a high amount of physical exercise (b = -0.06, p = 0.33). This research extends the cross-stressor adaptation hypothesis and provides evidence on an individual intervention of physical exercise to deal with the COVID-19 pandemic.

11.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 891711, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039697

ABSTRACT

Background: In 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) launched the "post-2015 End TB strategy", that aims to end the global tuberculosis (TB) epidemic by 2030. However, the COVID-19 pandemic has severely impacted global public health and the strict measures to control the coronavirus spread can affect the management of other diseases, such as TB. Herein, we aimed to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the diagnosis of TB in Brazil, during 2020. Methods: We carried out an ecological and population-based study, using spatial analysis techniques. The variables used were the new cases of TB, pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), and also baciloscopy-positive (BP) cases in Brazil between 2015 and 2020. The percentage of changes (% change) was calculated to verify if there was an increase or decrease of TB cases in 2020, along with time trend analyses given by Joinpoint regression model. Also, interrupted time series analyses were used to assess the trend of TB diagnosis before and after the onset of the COVID-19 in Brazil. Spatial distribution maps were elaborated, considering the % change of each Brazilian state. Findings: Data analyses showed a reduction in the diagnosis of TB (-8.3%) and PTB (-8.1%) in Brazil after the irruption of the COVID-19 pandemic. Likewise, 22 states depicted a reduction in TB diagnosis. An expressive reduction of BP cases (-17.1%) was also observed. Interestingly, interrupted time series analysis showed decline in TB and PTB diagnoses from March 2020. Spatial analyses revealed that all states had a progressive reduction of TB, PTB and PB cases, from March on, with the highest percentages of reduction in December (-100% to -75%). Interpretation: Taken together, our analyses demonstrated a reduction in TB diagnosis after the irruption of the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil and its regions, signaling a serious impact on the WHO "End TB Strategy" global plan.

12.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 813405, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039694

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease that emerged in 2019 (COVID-19) has affected health, societies and economies. Policies that have been imposed by different countries to slow the spread of the disease, including national lockdowns, curfews, border closures and enforcement of social distancing measures have disturbed the drug supply chain and resulted in drug shortages. Uncertainty concerning the pandemic has also led to the panic buying of drugs and the stockpiling of drugs in households, which has amplified the problem. In this cross-sectional study, a self-developed questionnaire was distributed online in order to a) assess the practice of household drug stockpiling prior to the national lockdown in Jordan, b) investigate the factors affecting it and c) measure peoples' knowledge about the consequences of this behaviour. Results from this study show that drug purchasing was reported by 44.3% of the participants and was most common among participants from non-medical backgrounds (336, 75.7%) or those who have chronic diseases (261, 58.8%) and taking chronic supplements (282, 63.5%) regardless of their age, gender, living area or the possession of health insurance. Analgesics and antipyretics were the most frequently purchased drugs (225, 70.5%) and anticipation of their need was the most common reason for purchasing drugs (231, 52.0%). Buyers were also less aware, when compared to non-buyers, that panic buying and drug stockpiling may lead to drug shortages (204, 45.9% vs 325, 58.1%) and that this behaviour can pose a health hazard, especially to children (221, 47.5% vs 342, 61.2%). Our study shows that panic buying of drugs and household drug stockpiling were common in Jordan during the COVID-19 pandemic and this was related to participants' medical knowledge and educational backgrounds. Therefore, educating the general population regarding rational drug use is urgently needed. This is also a compelling case for the development of national guidelines for drug management that target the general population and healthcare personnel, especially pharmacists, to avoid drug shortages during crises.

13.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 842457, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039683

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is probably the most critical epidemiological situation that human civilization has faced in the last few decades. In this context, of all the professional categories involved in the management of patients with COVID-19 are the most likely to develop burnout syndrome. The main objective of this study is to analyze specific predictive factors of the occurrence and development of the burnout syndrome in the healthcare workers involved in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with COVID-19. The study focused on determining factors of the occurrence, development and maintaining the specific burnout syndrome related to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic infection. The study was conducted on a sample of 959 participants, medical personnel from all the public medical entities in Romania(including 5 hospitals): 122 male and 755 female (82 participants did not declare their gender), with a mean age of 42.29 years (SD = 9.97). The sample included 219 doctors, 477 nurses, 214 auxiliary medical personnel and 49 other types of hospital workers. A cross-sectional design was used. Three predictors of the burnout syndrome were identified: Work conditions, Fear of the consequences (including death) determined by the COVID-19 and Need for emotional support. Meaning of work had a moderating role. Several moderated mediation models were tested. The indirect relationship of Work conditions with burnout via Fear of infection was statistically significant; in addition, the indirect effect of Work conditions on burnout through both fear of infection and need for support was statistically significant. The moderation analysis showed that Meaning of work buffer the relationship between Work conditions and Fear of infection. The variance explained by the model including the moderator (30%) was higher than the variance explained by Model 1 (27%), showing that adding the moderating effect of Meaning of work to the relationship of Work conditions with burnout was relevant. The results could be used to design specific interventions to reduce the occurrence of the burnout syndrome in healthcare workers, the implementation of a strategy to motivate employees by highlighting and recognizing the high significance of the work of those in the frontline of the fight against COVID-19.

14.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 953022, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039663

ABSTRACT

Upon acute viral infection, virus-specific CD4+ T cells differentiate into either TH1 cells or follicular helper T (TFH) cells. The molecular pathways governing such bimodal cell fate commitment remain elusive. Additionally, effector virus-specific TFH cells further differentiate into corresponding memory population, which confer long-term protection against re-infection of same viruses by providing immediate help to virus-specific memory B cells. Currently, the molecular mechanisms underlying the long-term maintenance of memory TFH cells are largely unknown. In this review, we discuss current understanding of early differentiation of virus-specific effector TFH cells and long-term maintenance of virus-specific memory TFH cells in mouse models of viral infection and patients of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Virus Diseases , Animals , Cell Differentiation , Mice , SARS-CoV-2 , T Follicular Helper Cells , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer , Virus Diseases/metabolism
15.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 937481, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039658

ABSTRACT

The second wave of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused severe infections with high mortality. An increase in the cases of COVID-19-associated mucormycosis (CAM) was reported predominantly in India. Commonly present in immunocompromised individuals, mucormycosis is often a life-threatening condition. Confounding factors and molecular mechanisms associated with CAM are still not well understood, and there is a need for careful research in this direction. In this review, a brief account of the diagnosis, management, and advancement in drug discovery for mucormycosis has been provided. Here, we summarize major factors that dictate the occurrence of mucormycosis in COVID-19 patients through the analysis of published literature and case reports. Major predisposing factors to mucormycosis appear to be uncontrolled diabetes, steroid therapy, and certain cancers. At the molecular level, increased levels of iron in COVID-19 might contribute to mucormycosis. We have also discussed the potential role and regulation of iron metabolism in COVID-19 patients in establishing fungal growth. Other factors including diabetes prevalence and fungal spore burden in India as contributing factors have also been discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Mucormycosis , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , India/epidemiology , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/epidemiology
16.
Cardiovasc Hematol Agents Med Chem ; 2022 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039581

ABSTRACT

Recently, the post-COVID neurological syndrome has been coined, which describes the functional and structural sequelae of coronavirus infection disease-19 (COVID-19) in the brain. Mild/severe manifestations of the post-COVID neurological syndrome have been identified in approximately 33.00% of COVID-19 survivors. The presence of neurological complications after COVID allowed neuropathologists to investigate in-depth the role of viral infection in neurons. The pathophysiology of the post-COVID neurological syndrome involved the development of a systematic response, including coagulopathy characterized by the formation of microthrombi. Coagulopathy, an old term for a new disease, describes the discrepancy between pro-coagulant and anticoagulant systems due to overexpression of pro-coagulant substances and or their receptors in addition to suppression of the anticoagulant molecules and or their receptors. Vascular endothelial cells and hepatocytes play a central role in the regulation of hemostasis that is disrupted during the acute phase response (APR) of coronavirus-19 (COVID-19). Currently, coagulopathy and inflammation are termed together since both form a complementary system, indicated by the elevation of inflammatory biomarkers (APR) and fibrinolysis biomarkers (D-dimer/fibrin). The later events of post-COVID neurological syndrome are primarily induced by coagulopathy and direct viral tropism. Therefore, the paper introduces the hypothesis of coagulopathy induced post-COVID neurological syndrome.

17.
Mini Rev Med Chem ; 2022 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039571

ABSTRACT

Covid-19 has entered our lives for a long time as an infection with high mortality rates. Although the vaccination process has provided benefits, the death toll remains to be frightening worldwide. Therefore, drugs and combined therapies that can be used against Covid-19 infection are still being investigated. Most of these antiviral medications are investigational drug candidates which are still in clinical trials. In this context, holistic and different approaches for the treatment of Covid-19 including prophylactic use of natural medicines are under investigation and may offer potential treatment options due to the fact that this is still an unmet medical need in the world. Thus, inhibiting the increased glycolysis on Covid-19 infection with glycolysis inhibitors may be beneficial for patient survival. This short review highlights the potential benefits of glycolysis inhibition as well as controlling the elevated glucose levels in patients with the treatment of Covid-19.

18.
Curr HIV Res ; 2022 Mar 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039561

ABSTRACT

AIMS: COVID-19 pandemic has substantially changed the life and presented several barriers to health services. HIV care continuum needs a high rate of diagnosis, an effective treatment and a sustained suppression of viral replication. COVID-19 pandemic has affected these three steps of HIV care. In this study, we investigated the characteristics of newly diagnosed patients living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) during the COVID pandemic and compared them with those before the pandemic. METHODS: All newly diagnosed patients in three HIV healthcare center, in Istanbul, Turkey were included into the study. Pandemic period included April 1, 2020 to April 1, 2021 and pre-pandemic period included March 1, 2019 to March 1, 2020. RESULTS: During pre-pandemic period, 756 patients were diagnosed HIV/AIDS. In pandemic period, this figure was 58% less: 315. Patients in pre-pandemic and pandemic period had comparable age and gender distributions. PLWH diagnosed in pandemic period had higher rates of low CD4 cells: low CD4 (<350 cells /mm3) was measured in 243 (36.4%) patients in pre-pandemic, while it was done in 126 (47.9%) in pandemic period (p<0.01). Also the distribution of CD4 cells was significantly different between periods: In pandemic period, CD4 cell distribution skewed to lower CD4 categories significantly. Symptomatic patient rate and AIDS-defining disorder rate among symptomatic patients were comparable. Viral loads were not significantly different in two periods. CONCLUSION: Less number of newly diagnosed PLWH can be explained by less HIV testing, less admission to the health care or actual decrease of HIV prevalence during pandemic. Sexual behaviors may have changed during COVID-19 pandemic which could lead to HIV transmission restriction. Lower CD4 counts among the newly diagnosed PLWH suggest that admittance to health care is late and a significant portion of PLWH remain undiagnosed.

19.
Circ J ; 2022 Apr 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039167

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic may have influenced the prehospital emergency care and deaths of individuals experiencing an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA).Methods and Results: We analyzed the registry data of 2,420 and 2,371 OHCA patients in Osaka City, Japan in 2019 and 2020, respectively, according to the 3 waves of the COVID-19 pandemic. Patient outcomes were compared using multivariable logistic regression analyses with the 2019 data as the reference. Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was initiated significantly less frequently in 2020 than in 2019 (2019: 48.0%, 2020: 42.7%, P<0.001), particularly during the first wave (2019: 47.2%, 2020: 42.9%, P=0.046) and second wave (2019: 48.1%, 2020: 41.2%, P=0.010), but not during the third wave (2019: 49.2%, 2020: 44.1%, P=0.066). The public-access automated external defibrillator was less frequently applied during the first wave (2019: 12.6%, 2020: 9.9%, P=0.043), with no significant difference during the second wave (2019: 12.5%, 2020: 12.8%, P=0.863) and third wave (2019: 13.7%, 2020: 13.0%, P=0.722). There was a significant difference in 1-month survival with favorable neurological outcomes (2019: 4.6%, 2020: 3.3%, P=0.018), with a 28% reduction in the adjusted odds ratio in 2020 (0.72; 95% confidence interval: 0.52-0.99, P=0.044). CONCLUSIONS: Bystander CPR and neurologically favorable outcomes after OHCA decreased significantly during the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan.

20.
Cogn Res Princ Implic ; 7(1): 63, 2022 Jul 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039039

ABSTRACT

Surgical face masks reduce the spread of airborne pathogens but also disturb the flow of information between individuals. The risk of getting seriously ill after infection with SARS-COV-2 during the present COVID-19 pandemic amplifies with age, suggesting that face masks should be worn especially during face-to-face contact with and between older people. However, the ability to accurately perceive and understand communication signals decreases with age, and it is currently unknown whether face masks impair facial communication more severely in older people. We compared the impact of surgical face masks on dynamic facial emotion recognition in younger (18-30 years) and older (65-85 years) adults (N = 96) in an online study. Participants watched short video clips of young women who facially expressed anger, fear, contempt or sadness. Faces of half of the women were covered by a digitally added surgical face mask. As expected, emotion recognition accuracy declined with age, and face masks reduced emotion recognition accuracy in both younger and older participants. Unexpectedly, the effect of face masks did not differ between age groups. Further analyses showed that masks also reduced the participants' overall confidence in their emotion judgements, but not their performance awareness (the difference between their confidence ratings for correct and incorrect responses). Again, there were no mask-by-age interactions. Finally, data obtained with a newly developed questionnaire (attitudes towards face masks, atom) suggest that younger and older people do not differ in how much they feel impaired in their understanding of other people's emotions by face masks or how useful they find face masks in confining the COVID-19 pandemic. In sum, these findings do not provide evidence that the impact of face masks on the decoding of facial signals is disproportionally larger in older people.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Facial Expression , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Masks , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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