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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(1)2022 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2241909

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, we could observe different attitudes towards restrictive bans and orders. AIM: The research aimed to examine the potential psychological factors, such as generalized anxiety, fear of COVID-19 or social approval, related to the approach to mandatory face covering in public spaces. METHODS: The web-assisted interviews survey was used among 202 participants, which included socio-demographical data, approach to face covering, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale, the COVID-19 Anxiety Scale, and The Questionnaire of Social Approval. RESULT: The data showed a statistically significant correlation between compliance to the rule of face and nose covering vs. anxiety and compliance to the rule of face and nose covering vs. generalized anxiety. The results indicate differences between vaccinated and non-vaccinated people in the anxiety of COVID-19, generalized anxiety, and compliance with the rule of face and nose covering. CONCLUSIONS: People vaccinated has a higher level of anxiety and more often compliance with the rule of face covering. It is worth noting that an overly pronounced fear of COVID-19 could be a risk factor for mental health. More research about coping with anxiety in the group of vaccinated people is recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Depression
2.
Comput Human Behav ; 143: 107715, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2239723

ABSTRACT

Although some scholars have explored the level and determinants of Dialogic Communication on Government Social Media (DCGSM), none have conducted their studies in the context of public crisis. The current study contributes to the understanding on DCGSM by 16,822 posts crawled from the official Sina Weibo accounts of 104 Chinese health commissions in prefecture-level cities during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Results show that Chinese local government agencies have great variations in their DCGSM during the pandemic and the overall performance is poor. Furthermore, Chinese local governments prefer to conserve visitors and generate return visits, rather than dialogic loops development and the usefulness of information enhancement. The findings suggest that both public pressure and peer pressure contribute to the DCGSM of Chinese local governments during the public health crisis. In addition, the effect of public pressure is stronger than that of the peer pressure, indicating that local government agencies have experienced more demand-pull DCGSM.

3.
Z Erziehwiss ; : 1-21, 2023 Feb 10.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2239037

ABSTRACT

There is still little empirical knowledge about the impact of the Covid 19 pandemic on the casework of youth welfare offices. However, qualitative studies provide a number of indications on the importance of teamwork, on explicit and implicit ways of acting as well as on decision-making practices (sense-making) of professionals in child protection. These aspects were largely limited by the lockdowns and the pandemic-related protective measures. This leads to the question of the present study about how these restrictions are dealt with and the coping strategies related to them.The analysis is based on the contrastive interpretation of telephone interviews with professionals from two youth welfare offices. From a relational perspective in the sense of Bruno Latour, which does not focus on the actors, but rather on their connections and relations, some transformations in the network in which the cases are usually processed become visible. These transformations were elaborated based on the interviews as crisis-like restrictions of the usual practice of action. In the analyzed data, ways of acting can be reconstructed that can be understood as dealing with these crises. The results show that the actual crisis is not to be found in the abstract idea of a virus pandemic, but above all in the breaking away of case work habits.

4.
Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development ; 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2246281

ABSTRACT

PurposeAlthough a body of studies investigates how networking capabilities (NCs) form and maintain interorganizational relationships that affect firm performance, little is known about this relationship in crisis contexts. This article explores managers' perceptions of environmental uncertainties and how this perception influences NC development and subsequent firm performance, especially during the COVID-19 crisis.Design/methodology/approachThe authors used a quantitative research approach to complete this objective, utilizing primary data from a survey of North American firms (N = 212), mostly (62.3%) small- and medium-sized. Data were analyzed via the partial least squares structural equation modeling technique.FindingsThe authors found that managers' perception of environmental uncertainties positively impacts the NCs to initiate and develop relationships, which is associated with better firm performance during crises. The capability to initiate and develop relationships supports the firm's access to relevant resources that may be converted into business performance.Originality/valueBy analyzing managers' perceptions of environmental uncertainties and the development of NCs, the study results expand upon previous research by highlighting that starting new relationships and developing existing ones may be an efficient managerial response immediately after a crisis occurs.

5.
Tourism Management ; 96, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2244989

ABSTRACT

This study discusses the application of Doxey's irritation index in the face of existential crises. Building on the COVID-19 pandemic, data was collected at two time points (prior to the crisis and after the first wave). Our two sequences of data show that residents' attitudes are by no means fixed, with perceptions of overcrowding bouncing back and concerns about reduced economic benefits. In an attempt to develop ample descriptions of emerging concerns during existential crises, three archetypes of residents are identified and displayed using alluvial diagrams: (a) advocates of positive tourism impacts;(b) demanders of sustainable tourism;and (c) boycotters of further tourism developments. Theory is complemented by recalibrating the irritation index with an empirically-grounded existential crisis perspective that demonstrates shifting attitudinal patterns and provides grounds for discussions on the progress of Doxey's irritation index. © 2022 The Authors

6.
Educational Review ; 75(1):54-73, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2244625

ABSTRACT

In this position paper we consider the significance of global climate activism by children and young people in the light of ongoing western adult-centric policies and educational practices that largely continue to exclude Indigenous perspectives. Reflecting on the implications of this hegemony in the face of the convergent crises of climate and COVID-19 and concomitant exacerbations of social inequities, we acknowledge the impact of this reality on the emotional wellbeing of children, young people and Indigenous peoples, many of whom may be encountering an overwhelming sense of existential trauma and ecological grief. Drawing on our previous research we provide examples of early childhood pedagogies which resonate Indigenous values of relationality. These include trust in children's judgement in managing risks, fostering a sense of collective pride and identity, and affirming accountability to the wider collectivity of humans and more-than-human entities. We suggest that such grounding in local Indigenous onto-epistemologies can provide inspiration for educational programmes, including environmental education and education for sustainability, as well as for local governance. © 2021 Educational Review.

7.
Journal of Economic Education ; 54(1):76-93, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2243129

ABSTRACT

The authors describe an undergraduate economics elective focused on the Great Recession and the recession resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. They have taught the course with great success at both liberal arts colleges and research universities and at all levels of the curriculum ranging from a first-year seminar to an upper-level elective. They present a roadmap for instructors interested in offering the class. Although intermediate macroeconomics is assumed as a prerequisite, the authors discuss how they have adapted the class for students with different backgrounds. The course is divided into seven units: the housing bubble and asset pricing, housing policy and history, propagation and panic, monetary policy, fiscal policy, aftermath and international perspectives, and the macroeconomics of COVID-19. Sample assignments and readings are both provided. © 2022 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

8.
Studies in Economics and Finance ; 40(1):43-63, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2242994

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This study examines the extent to which gold and silver bubbles are correlated and which metal's bubble spills over to the other. In addition, the overlap in bubble-like episodes for the two metals is demonstrated and the influence of crises (global financial crises, European debt crisis and the COVID-19 pandemic) on the development of these episodes is compared. Design/methodology/approach: This study proposes a two-step approach. In the first step, price bubbles are identified based on the backward sup augmented Dickey–Fuller of Phillips et al. (2015a, 2015b) and modified by Phillips and Shi (2018). In the second step, the correlation in the contagion effect of the bubbles between the two precious metal prices is measured using a nonparametric regression with a time-varying coefficient approach developed by Greenaway-McGrevy and Phillips (2016). Findings: The findings suggest that the safe-haven property of gold and silver during financial market turbulence induces excessive price increases beyond their fundamental values. Furthermore, the results indicate that bubbles are contagious among precious metal markets and flow mainly from gold to silver;these findings are associated with the period after 2005, particularly during the global financial crisis. A contagious bubble effect is not found between gold and silver during the coronavirus disease 2020 pandemic. Practical implications: The results suggest that financial market participants should consider portfolio weights in precious markets in light of the bubble correlation between gold and silver, especially during crises. Originality/value: To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first study that explores the correlation of bubble-like episodes between gold and silver. © 2022, Emerald Publishing Limited.

9.
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation ; 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2242167

ABSTRACT

This study investigates the validity of exploitation and exploration when small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) navigate a highly uncertain time. Although balancing the two strategies has been thought to lead to improved firm performance in general, a combined approach appears to be problematic for SMEs due to a lack of feasibility. We theorise that the effectiveness may vary depending on a fit between the strategies and the environmental contingencies. In doing so, we considered two potential environmental contingencies of a crisis for SMEs: loss of demand and loss of supply. To put our theory to the test, we gathered 224 responses from business leaders and key individuals from Korean start-ups and tested the effectiveness of crisis management strategies. Our findings support the validity of both exploitation and exploration when firms face a loss of demand, but not a loss of supply. It implies that the effectiveness of exploration and exploitation is contingent upon a specific form of crisis experienced at the firm level. © KOSIME, ASIALICS, STEPI 2023.

10.
International Journal of Organizational Analysis ; 31(1):46204.0, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2241769

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the link between downsizing cues and market performance prior to and after a major crisis. We use a recent exogenous shock – the COVID-19 pandemic – to test hypotheses on the nature of the relationship between downsizing cues and market performance within two distinct groups: pre and post-crisis. We purport that the sudden increase in uncertainty brought about by a major crisis widens information asymmetry between firms and their shareholders, and that top managers sending downsizing cues to the market with high levels of authenticity may be more likely to trigger positive market reactions. Design/methodology/approach: The authors rely on computer-assisted text analysis (CATA) methodology, event-study methodology and a data set of 952 pre- and post-crisis earnings conference calls held by 476 S&P 500 firms to test the hypotheses in this study. Findings: The authors find that downsizing cues have no effect on market performance in the pre-crisis group, but are negatively related to market performance in the post-crisis group. The authors also find that authenticity cues positively mitigate the relationship between downsizing cues and market performance relationship in the post-crisis group. Originality/value: This empirical study extends our knowledge of the influence of a major crisis on the relationship between downsizing and market performance by leveraging the revelatory power of an exogenous environmental shock. The authors also explore the role played by managerial authenticity and find that the market is more inclined to accept post-crisis downsizing efforts when top managers are perceived as authentic. © 2022, Emerald Publishing Limited.

11.
Global Business and Organizational Excellence ; 42(3):42-57, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2241708

ABSTRACT

To cope with global crises, organizations go through various internal changes and adopt different survival strategies. Several researchers and practitioners have highlighted that employees are the key factors in implementing such changes. However, organizations often face difficulties in managing manpower effectively due to the complexities and ambiguities related to the said changes. To address this challenge, the present study proposes a comprehensive model to manage organizational change to effectively respond to global crises. This study highlights that "employee change-championing behavior” (ECB) – also known as effective change-supportive behavior of employees – is the key to successfully implementing the necessary organizational changes to tackle global crises. Utilizing the 3-Stage Lewin's Model of Change as the foundation for analysis, this study proposes for "transformational leadership style” to substitute the "unfreezing stage,” "trust in leadership and work engagement” to substitute the "moving stage,” and "employee change championing behavior” to substitute the "refreezing stage.” Additionally, this study found that transformational leadership (TL) influences employee change-championing behavior, while employee trust in leadership (ETL) influences employee work engagement (EWE). Moreover, trust in leadership and work engagement individually and sequentially mediate the relationship between TL and employee change-championing behavior. This study offers a unique perspective for business leaders on how to manage organizational changes during global crises. © 2022 Wiley Periodicals LLC.

12.
Emerging Markets Finance and Trade ; 59(2):338-362, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2241158

ABSTRACT

We study 2001–2020 flight-to-quality episodes encompassing two planetary-scale crises: the Global Financial Crisis (GFC) of 2007–2008 and the coronavirus-triggered global meltdown. We focus on time-frequency lead-lag nexuses between holding emerging market (EM) debt and investing in relatively risk-free US Treasuries. Wavelet coherency along with the phase-difference approach is used. Our results reveal varying lead-lag patterns and low-coherence zones between EM bonds and US Treasuries, which imply the existence of appealing diversification attributes. The flights-to-quality during the crisis periods, such as the GFC and COVID-19 pandemic, emphasize the safe-haven characteristics of US Treasures. They also evidence that the post-Covid tightening of credit spreads to the pre-crisis levels is faster than the post-GFC recovery. We demonstrate that for EM debt investors, the US Treasury market allows for dynamic risk mitigation strategies during both global crises. © 2022 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

13.
Journal of Risk Research ; 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2240899

ABSTRACT

Monitoring how different people–as ‘social sensors'–evaluate and respond to crisis such as pandemics, allows tailoring crisis communication to the social perceptions of the situation, at different moments. To gather such evidence, we proposed a index of social perceptions of systemic risk (SPSR), as an indicator of a situational threat compromising risks to physical health, psychological health, the economy, social relations, health system, and others. This indicator was the core of a social sensing approach applied to crisis situations, implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic through a content analysis of more than 130.000 public comments from Facebook™ users, in COVID-19 related publications. This content coding allowed creating a SPSR index monitored during a one-year descriptive longitudinal analysis. This index correlated with co-occurring events within the social system, namely epidemiological indicators across measurement cycles (e.g. new deaths;cumulative number of infection cases;Intensive Care Unit hospitalizations) and tended to reflect the epidemiological situation severity (e.g. with the highest level registered during the worst pandemic wave). However, discrepancies also occurred, with high SPSR registered in a low severity situation, i.e. low number of hospitalizations and deaths (e.g. school year beginning), or low SPSR in a high severity situation (e.g. 2nd pandemic wave during Christmas), showing other factors beyond the epidemiological situation contributing to the social perceptions. After each ‘crisis period' with SPSR peaking, there was a ‘restoration period', consistently decreasing towards average levels of the previous measurement cycle. This can either indicate social resilience (recovery and resources potentiation) or risk attenuation after a high-severity period. This study serves as preliminary proof of concept of a crises social sensing approach, enabling monitoring of social system dynamics for various crisis types, such as health crisis or the climate crisis. © 2023 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

14.
Journal of Accounting in Emerging Economies ; 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2240740

ABSTRACT

PurposeThe main purpose of this study is to evaluate whether the COVID-19 pandemic has stimulated earnings management among publicly traded companies in Brazil and the USA.Design/methodology/approachThe authors analyzed the above-mentioned effects based on 22,244 observations of Brazilian companies and 139,856 observations of American companies from 1998 to 2020. The proxy used to detect earnings management based on discretionary accruals (DAC) was obtained by using the Modified Jones Model (MJM) (Dechow et al., 1995), with adjustments suggested by Kothari et al. (2005). In accordance with previous studies (e.g. Brown et al., 2015;Enomoto et al., 2015;Galdi et al., 2020;Huang and Sun, 2017;Roychowdhury, 2006), the authors also employed a second proxy to detect earnings management through real activities associated with unusual losses for fixed assets (property, plant and equipment (PPE)).FindingsThe study's findings indicate that the discretionary accruals of Brazilian companies varied in a more accentuated manner during the COVID-19 pandemic, making it possible to deduce that a recent history of economic depression may entail greater incentives for earnings management in an emerging economy. In addition, the authors verified that the effects of the current crisis on earnings management proxies denote a signal that is distinct from previous economic crises, which may be interpreted as an attempt to postpone the effects of the pandemic on financial statements, especially those of the Brazilian capital markets.Originality/valueUnlike previous crises, this pandemic has led to direct restrictions on a wide variety of economic segments rather than indirect contagion due to anomalies in the financial markets, making it a phenomenon with the characteristics of a quasi-natural experiment for studies related to the quality of accounting information. Considering that both Brazil and the USA provide an opportune economic contrast, given their discrepancies in terms of economic growth over the past two decades, the researchers believe that there is an unusual opportunity to understand how earnings management can be an incentive for managers in environments where crises arose from natural causes.

15.
Br J Soc Psychol ; 2022 Aug 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2238928

ABSTRACT

We experimentally investigate how and when the public responds to government actions during times of crisis. Public reactions are shown to follow different processes, depending on whether government performs in exemplary or unsatisfactory ways to the COVID-19 pandemic. The 'how' question is addressed by proposing that negative moral emotions mediate public reactions to bad government actions, and positive moral emotions mediate reactions to good government actions. Tests of mediation are conducted while taking into account attitudes and trust in the government as rival hypotheses. The 'when' question is studied by examining self-regulatory moderators governing the experience of moral emotions and their effects. These include conspiracy beliefs, political ideology, attachment coping styles and collective values. A total of 357 citizens of a representative sample of adult Norwegians were randomly assigned to two experimental groups and a control group, where complaining, putting pressure on the government and compliance to Covid-19 policies were dependent variables. The findings show that negative moral emotions mediate the effects of government doing badly on complaining and pressuring the government, with conspiracy beliefs moderating the experience of negative moral emotions and attachment coping moderating the effects of negative moral emotions. The results also show that positive moral emotions mediate the effects of government doing well on compliance with COVID-19 regulations, with political ideology moderating the experience of positive moral emotions and collective values moderating the effects of positive moral emotions.

16.
J Bus Ethics ; : 1-13, 2021 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2242493

ABSTRACT

This paper contributes to the contemporary business ethics narrative by proposing an approach to corporate ethical decision making (EDM) which serves as an alternative to the imposition of codes and standards to address the ethical consequences of grand challenges, like COVID-19, which are impacting today's society. Our alternative approach to EDM embraces the concept of reflexive thinking and ethical consciousness among the individual agents who collectively are the corporation and who make ethical decisions, often in isolation, removed from the collocated corporate setting. We draw on the teachings of the Canadian philosopher and theologian, Fr. Bernard Lonergan, to conceptualize an approach to EDM which focuses on the ethics of the corporate agent by nurturing the universal and invariant structure that is operational in all human beings. Embracing Lonergan's dynamic cognitive structure of human knowing, and the structure of the human good, we advance a paradigm of EDM in business which emboldens authentic ethical thought, decision making, and action commensurate with virtuous living and germane to human flourishing. Lonergan's philosophy guides us away from the imposition of over-arching corporate codes of ethics and inspires us, as individual agents, to attend to the data of our own consciousness in our ethical decision making. Such cognitional endowment leads us out of the ethics of the 'timeless present' (Islam and Greenwood in Journal of Business Ethics 170: 1-4, 2021) towards ethical authenticity in business, leaving us better placed to reflect upon and address the ethical issues emanating from grand challenges like COVID-19.

17.
Public Management Review ; 25(2):286-312, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2237599

ABSTRACT

The dimension of time has been neglected in the practice and research of public administration for decades. By developing a framework to guide the quantification and operationalization of the crisis lifecycle model, this study explores how the timing, sequence, and tempo of government policy response impact policy effectiveness. Quantitative analysis of COVID-19-related data in 152 countries/regions from 1 January to 31 July 2020 shows that direct policies on curtailing infection sources in the early outbreak stage are key to controlling the pandemic. This article concludes by identifying different time tactics that may help policymakers improve strategic decision-making.

18.
Policy & Politics ; 51(1):131-155, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2237407

ABSTRACT

Policy learning plays a significant role in shaping policy during crises. While scholarship has explored many of the mechanisms and outcomes of such learning, little is known about how policy learning takes place across different levels of a multilevel governance architecture. This is despite their prevalence and influence on crisis responses. Using a case of the Belgian COVID-19 policy response, we explore how policy learning takes place across different levels of multilevel governance within creeping crises, focusing on epistemic policy learning (learning from experts) as one of the most pronounced learning types within such contexts. By means of document analysis, supplemented by primary source data from expert and senior official interviews, we offer an exploratory account of how learning took place at the national and subnational levels. Our findings reveal how the inherent features of the COVID-19 crisis, and the existing multilevel governance architecture broke the policy learning process into smaller heterogenous learning processes at different levels. We find that decentralised approaches to learning provided the space for customised, yet often fragmented policy responses. We also find that institutional legacies, varying degrees of policymaker control over learning, and absence of common approaches to structuring and designing learning processes led policymakers in different jurisdictions to engage in varying policy learning processes. We take stock of these different learning processes and highlight their key features. We conclude by highlighting the implications of these findings for policy learning theory and practice.

19.
Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management ; 31(1):77-91, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2237401

ABSTRACT

The current study addresses the communication aspect of risk governance during the COVID‐19 pandemic by examining whether governors' tweets differ by political party, gender and crisis phase. Drawing on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Crisis Emergency Risk Communication (CERC) model and framing literature, we examined the salience of five CERC's communication objectives, namely acknowledge crisis with empathy, promote protective actions, describe preparedness/response efforts, address rumours and misunderstanding and segment audience. Using a deductive and inductive approach, we analysed 7000 Twitter messages sent by the 50 US state governors during the period of 13 March 2020 to 17 August 2020. Our findings suggest that governors' tweets aligned with CERC's communication objectives to a varying degree. We found main and interaction effects of political party, gender and crisis phase on governors' communication objectives. New emergent communication objectives included attention to mental health, call for social influencers and promoting hope. Implications are discussed.

20.
Politics & Policy (Online) ; 51(1):26-40, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2236672

ABSTRACT

Single‐use plastics (SUPs) are increasingly polluting terrestrial, coastal, and marine habits, contributing to the creeping “plastic crisis.” The COVID‐19 pandemic provided a window of opportunity for decision makers to change the degree of urgency and responsiveness to this crisis and for policy entrepreneurs and industry who are against reducing plastic consumption to influence decision makers to change their position on various plastic‐related issues. Hygiene/health concerns have been used as a justification by governments and industry to increase the use of SUPs resulting in a reversal in, or a reprioritization of, policy decisions. Through the Multiple Streams Framework (MSF), I examine how creeping crises become secondary to urgent crises through agenda setting that is influenced and leveraged by policy entrepreneurs. I explore examples of such plastic policy decisions finding that they have been politically driven and influenced by entrepreneurs and industry rather than being primarily based on health concerns.Related ArticlesDiaz‐Kope, Luisa, and John C. Morris. 2022. “Why Collaborate? Exploring the Role of Organizational Motivations in Cross‐sector Watershed Collaboration.” Politics & Policy 50(3): 516â€"39. https://doi.org/10.1111/polp.12470.Gerlach, John David, Laron K. Williams, and Colleen E. Forcina. 2013. “The Science‐Natural Resource Policy Relationship: How Aspects of Diffusion Theory Explain Data Selection for Making Biodiversity Management Decisions.” Politics & Policy 41(3): 326â€"54. https://doi.org/10.1111/polp.12017.Neill, Katharine A., and John C. Morris. 2012. “A Tangled Web of Principals and Agents: Examining the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill through a Principalâ€"Agent Lens.” Politics & Policy 40(4): 629â€"56. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1747‐1346.2012.00371.x.Alternate :Una crisis progresiva cuando surge una crisis urgente: La repriorización de los problemas de contaminación plástica durante el COVID‐19Los plásticos de un solo uso (SUP) están contaminando cada vez más los hábitos terrestres, costeros y marinos, lo que contribuye a la progresiva "crisis del plástico". La pandemia de COVID‐19 brindó una ventana de oportunidad para que los tomadores de decisiones cambien el grado de urgencia y capacidad de respuesta a esta crisis y para los empresarios de políticas y la industria que están en contra de reducir el consumo de plástico para influir en los tomadores de decisiones para cambiar su posición sobre varios temas relacionados con el plástico. Los gobiernos y la industria han utilizado las preocupaciones de higiene/salud como justificación para aumentar el uso de SUP, lo que ha dado lugar a una reversión o una nueva priorización de las decisiones políticas. A través del Marco de Corrientes Múltiples (MSF, por sus siglas en inglés), examinamos cómo las crisis progresivas se vuelven secundarias frente a las crisis urgentes a través del establecimiento de una agenda que es influenciada y aprovechada por los empresarios de políticas. Exploramos ejemplos de tales decisiones sobre políticas de plástico y descubrimos que han sido impulsadas políticamente e influenciadas por empresarios y la industria en lugar de basarse principalmente en preocupaciones de salud.Alternate :紧急危机发生时的慢性危机:2019å† çŠ¶ç—…æ¯'病期间塑料污æŸ"问题的优先次序调整一次性塑料(SUP)越来越多地污æŸ"陆地、沿海å'Œæµ·æ´‹çŽ¯å¢ƒï¼Œä¸ºæ…¢æ€§â€œå¡‘料危机”作贡献。2019å† çŠ¶ç—…æ¯'ç—…(COVID‐19)大流行为决策者提供了一个机会之窗,以改变对这场危机的紧迫程度å'Œå"åº”程度,并为反对减少塑料消费的政策企业家å'Œè¡Œä¸šæä¾›æœºä¼šï¼Œä»¥å½±å"å†³ç­–者改变其在不同塑料相关问题上的立场。卫生/健康问题已被政府å'Œè¡Œä¸šç”¨ä½œå¢žåŠ SUP使用的理由,从而导致政策决策发生逆转或优先次序调整。通过使用多源流框架(MSF),我们分析了慢性危机如何在一个受政策企业家影å"å'Œåˆ©ç”¨çš„议程设置下次于 ´§æ€¥å±æœºã€‚我们探究了这类塑料政策决策的例子,发现决策的制定并非主要基于健康问题,而是受到企业家å'Œè¡Œä¸šçš„政治驱动å'Œå½±å"ã€‚

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