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1.
Heliyon ; : e12558, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2165326

ABSTRACT

District public health officers (DPHO) are the major health care providers and vital resources for tackling the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in Thailand. No studies have been published on their experiences of combating COVID-19 in Thailand. To guide and improve COVID-19 control efforts, we aimed to describe their experiences and analyze associated factors for tackling the outbreak. This mixed-methods design involved providing structured questionnaires to selected DPHOs across 52 districts of seven provinces in the upper southern region Thailand. We performed data analysis using descriptive and multivariate statistics. The quantitative approach used questionnaires that demonstrated the content validity and reliability. Data collection involved Google forms, analyzed by multivariate statistics. The qualitative approach comprised an online in-depth interview of 11 DPHOs and a thematic analysis. Results found of the 52 DPHOs, 41 were men (78.8%), and the mean age was 50.02 years (SD = 8.52 years). Their proactive experiences were significantly associated with sex (ORadj = 2.38, 95% CI = 1.11–3.30), age (ORadj = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.09–2.76), the length of experience in the current position (ORadj = 2.27, 95% CI = 1.43–3.63), and working time in the current position (ORadj = 2.27, 95% CI = 1.43–3.63). There was no significant association between marital status, knowledge, understanding, opinion, proactive practice, and participation experiences. These results were related to six themes of the qualitative approach as follows: High morbidity and mortality of COVID-19, COVID-19 concomitant with several problems, Reaching out to the community for better COVID-19 solutions, The importance of regular reports and feedback, Solution planning based on the situation, and Providing relief to all stakeholders from COVID-19 issue. Proactive experiences of district public health officers are important for sustainable COVID-19 solutions. Disseminating relevant equipment, guidelines, policy, and government regulations is necessary to promote preparedness and efficacy in the crisis management of COVID-19.

2.
Government Information Quarterly ; : 101798, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2165313

ABSTRACT

In situations of crisis, governments must acknowledge that communication is a major weapon in their armoury, and can be used to convince the public to accept sometimes stringent measures, while preventing a worsening of the situation by curbing any spread of panic. Theoretically, during a pandemic, fear can be contained at reasonable levels by governments counterbalancing uncertainty with information. However, there is no empirical evidence on how the flow of information during a crisis can influence emotional states among the population. In this process, social media appears to be a valuable tool for governments to observe emotional response in a population. In the light of this and within the context of the Italian government's social media campaign #iorestoacasa (‘I'm staying at home') launched during the Covid-19 crisis, the current study utilises text analytics to explore the relationship between government and press communication, and the level of fear expressed by citizens through more than 200 thousand #iorestoacasa tweets. The results highlight how the content of the messages evolved in the early part of the outbreak and during the social media campaign. They suggest that in Italy the discussion regarding the efforts made by the European Council to find common solutions for dealing with the emergency has prompted a positive influence on public mood. Conversely, messages about people's individual vulnerability and the associated sense of an external locus of control correlated positively with levels of fear. This study opens new ways to support government communication during a crisis by monitoring public emotional response through social media.

3.
Environmental Pollution ; 319:121007, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2165279

ABSTRACT

The current study presents the results of an experiment carried to assess the impact of azithromycin, a COVID-19 drug, probably accumulated in marine sediments for three years, since the start of the pandemic, on benthic marine nematodes. It was explored the extent to which a common macrophyte from the Mediterranean Sea influenced the toxic impact of azithromycin on meiobenthic nematodes. Metals are known to influence toxicity of azithromycin. The nematofauna from a metallically pristine site situated in Bizerte bay, Tunisia, was exposed to two concentrations of azithromycin [i.e. 5 and 10 μg l−1]. In addition, two masses of the common macrophyte Posidonia oceanica [10 and 20% Dry Weight (DW)] were considered and associated with azithromycin into four possible combinations. The abundance and the taxonomic diversity of the nematode communities decreased significantly following the exposure to azithromycin, which was confirmed by the toxicokinetic data and behaving as substrate for P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The toxicity of 5 μg l−1 dosage of azithromycin was partially reduced at 10% DW of Posidonia and completely at 20% DW. The results showed that 5 μg l−1 of azithromycin can be reduced by the macrophyte P. oceanica when present in the environment at low masses as 10% DW.

4.
Economic Modelling ; : 106185, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2165240

ABSTRACT

Do professional exchange-rate forecasters change their projections upon global economic policy uncertainty (EPU) shocks? Significant effects have been identified for major currencies, but emerging-market currencies are usually more difficult to predict and less related to global shocks. We study this question for five Latin-American currencies: Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru using data for the period 2003–2020. Our results show that global EPU shocks lead to significant upward revisions implying expected exchange-rate depreciations on a 12-month horizon. Using time-varying coefficients, we find intensified impacts during crisis events such as the great financial crisis, and the initial COVID-19 emergency. These non-linear effects from global EPU shocks are new in the literature. Our results are not only robust to the use of alternative measures of global uncertainty, but are also consistent with the forward-looking nature of economic expectations given the documented negative effects of EPU shocks on global investment and consumption.

5.
Asia Pacific Management Review ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2165071

ABSTRACT

Grounded in Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory, this research examines whether the characteristics of flight attendants in terms of work passion and job tenure moderate the effect of perceived organizational support on organizational identification. Data was collected from 307 flight attendants among the five domestic airlines based in Thailand during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study used the partial least squares structural modeling to analyze the data. The results confirmed the positive association between perceived organizational support on organizational identification. However, the results from the moderating effect analysis indicate that perceived organizational support tends to have a weaker positive effect on organizational identification for the flight attendants who demonstrate high work passion and for the flight attendants with long tenure. As a theoretical contribution, the study extends the knowledge from prior research by proposing the boundary conditions in terms of individual characteristics to explain why different groups of employees may not be motivated by organizational support to the same degree.

6.
Technology in Society ; 72:102195, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2165896

ABSTRACT

We examine how individual characteristics of employees such as digital self-efficacy, workforce agility, innovativeness, and commitment to change influence technological readiness in different stages of a crisis, i.e., before a crisis and during a crisis. We carried out a fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) on data from 2892 employees representing companies across several sectors and countries. Our results show that specific characteristics of employees can be beneficial for reaching technological readiness in organisations before a crisis and during a crisis. Our results, e.g., show that digital self-efficacy has a differential impact on technological readiness prior to a crisis and during a crisis while workforce agility is essential for both phases.

7.
Technological Forecasting and Social Change ; 188:122283, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2165892

ABSTRACT

Using the resource-based view, we examine the roles of international and digital orientations as determinants of the digitalization and the early internationalization strategies of international new ventures (INVs). We also examine the effect of implementing those strategies on the innovation performance of INVs during the COVID-19 pandemic. We tested this conceptual framework by using structural equation modeling (AMOS) on a database of 213 INVs. The results indicate that international orientation is a fundamental determinant of both strategies, while digital orientation only fosters a digitalization strategy. Moreover, both strategies were critical to increase innovation performance during the pandemic. This study expands the literature in the field of international entrepreneurship in three different ways: i) it highlights the relevance of innovation performance for INVs during the pandemic;ii) it underlines the relevance of both the early internationalization and the digitization strategies to promote innovation performance;and iii) it reinforces the importance of international and digital orientations as critical resources for defining strategy.

8.
Travel Behaviour and Society ; 31:244-253, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2165889

ABSTRACT

Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, public transport has been one of the hardest hit transport modes, losing ridership due to fear of contagion. This can partially be explained by the lack of preparedness in the sector to a pandemic scenario, as only few cities had epidemic contingency plans for the transport sector. To anticipate disruptions caused by future crises, we look at the preparedness and the response to COVID-19 by the public transport sector in Belgium. We interview all public transport operators in Belgium and analyze the interviews through the disaster management framework. We also aim to distill the lessons that can be learned from the pandemic to increase resilience in future public transport planning. We find that no operator in Belgium had contingency plans ready for a pandemic scenario, but that other plans were deployed to adapt their offer to COVID-19 conditions. Although all operators lost a significant part of ridership, their offer was maintained throughout the crisis, albeit at a decreased level for some operators. The availability of reliable and real-time data is identified as an important learning by the operators, as well as the ability to identify a core response team in case of a crisis. COVID-19 was seen by the operators as a learning platform to face future crises and highlighted the need to increase reactivity through better preparedness and data availability. We recommend the structural use of foresight methods through for example scenario planning to increase the preparedness of operators in the case of future disruptions.

9.
Scientific African ; 19:e01520, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2165824

ABSTRACT

The oil price has been increasingly identified as a key fundamental in the dynamics of exchange rates. As a result, we investigate how changes in oil prices affect the dynamics of exchange rates during crisis periods. We hypothesised that the potential of oil prices as an amplifier of exchange rate volatility during crises varies for economic and non-economic crises with divergent origins. Consequently, we classified the crisis sample into two sub-samples: the great recession caused by the 2007 global financial crisis (GFC) is defined as a crisis sample with an economic origin, while the great lockdown caused by the recent COVID-19 outbreaks defined our crisis period with a non-economic origin. We used the GARCH model and its many extensions and noted three findings that strengthened our contributions to the empirical analysis of exchange rate volatility. First, we show that the divergent origins of economic and non-economic crises matter in terms of the extent to which they heighten exchange rate volatility. Second, the persistence of exchange rate volatility during COVID-19 is exacerbated by changes in international oil prices. Finally, our finding of varying dynamics of persistent (transient) exchange rate volatility across different samples of turbulent periods provides investors with evidence-based insights not to generalise their portfolio selection strategy amidst economic crises of different origins.

10.
Research in International Business and Finance ; 64:101856, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2165811

ABSTRACT

We present the publication trends in the literature on venture capital financing during crises and highlight the top publishing source with the most contributing authors in their affiliated countries using bibliometric and content analysis of 115 documents retrieved from the Scopus database. This study provides insight into the theme with the help of co-occurrence, co-citation, and bibliographic coupling analysis. The authors' keyword co-occurrence analysis shows the spatial links among the articles based on venture capital during the financial crisis and the COVID-19 pandemic. The top productive and influential source is the journal Venture Capital, followed by Small Business Economics and the Journal of Business Venturing. The Journal of Business Venturing is the top journal in terms of citations per document. The United States is the most contributing affiliated country having strong links with several nations. The publications on crisis-led venture capital increased significantly after the financial crisis of 2008.

11.
Public Relations Review ; : 102285, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2165777

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 created a challenging environment both for businesses and individuals. Effects of the pandemic on companies had the potential to create negative public relations as entities attempted to deal with the worldwide crisis and to communicate their situation. Many companies were quick to provide information to customers and employees early in the pandemic about how they were responding to the crisis, while other companies provided limited immediate response to COVID-19. An examination of the top 300 companies listed in the 2020 Fortune 500 found that 186 of those companies communicated their status and plans in press releases posted from January 2020 through May 2020 regarding the COVID-19 pandemic. This study, based on Situational Crisis Communication Theory, qualitatively analyzed the releases via constant comparative method. The analysis resulted in four primary categories that dominated company releases: (1) In This Together, (2) Perseverance Through Strength, (3) We are Here for You, and (4) Fighting for the Team.

12.
Pacific-Basin Finance Journal ; : 101928, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2165747

ABSTRACT

This study examines the formal and informal institutions that affected trade credit during the pandemic periods. To this end, we analyze 590,025 firm-year observations across 107 countries during six recent pandemic crises: SARS (2003), H1N1 (2009), MERS (2012), Ebola (2014), Zika (2016), and COVID-19 (2020). The study finds that formal legal institutions and firms' information transparency during pandemic periods act as a "brake” for trade credit usage. By contrast, informal institutions with religious connotations or attributes, social trust, and policy stability play a "cushion” role in softening the impact of pandemic crises when a firm applies for trade credit. These results remain robust after alternating the estimation techniques, trade credits, pandemic variables, and different samples. This study offers new evidence on the role of trade credit from the perspectives of formal and informal institutions during pandemic crises. The outcomes thus provide information worthy of consideration by policymakers when faced with informal institutional conditions and support government efforts to improve unstable formal systems and prevent severe shocks in the future.

13.
Journal of Business Research ; 157:113608, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2165500

ABSTRACT

This study analyzes how the resources and capabilities of the owner-manager influence the firm's capacity to survive during crises. We conceptualize that only the deliberate use of available resources (bricolage) can enhance this capacity, and that "making-do” behaviors mediate the influence of the owner's social and human resources on the firm's capacity to survive crises. Based on a sample of 462 Chilean owner-managed small and medium enterprises (SME), we test our hypotheses using a complementary partial least squares-structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) and fuzzy set-qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) approach. The results indicate that when founders deliberatively use their social and cognitive resources, they enhance the firm's capacity to survive in crisis environments. The fsQCA results complement these outcomes by showing that low levels of survival capacity are related to low levels of bricolage and founders' ties.

14.
International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction ; : 103516, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2165369

ABSTRACT

Social service providers work to alleviate social disadvantages, which may particularly loom during crises. These organisations have a close understanding of the needs of their clients. However, this knowledge is rarely taken into account in tailoring crisis measures, which may lead to increased vulnerability and create additional suffering. In this paper, we take a novel look at the role of care organisations as intermediaries between their clients and the authorities in representing the needs and capabilities of vulnerable people and explore the factors hindering or facilitating this representation. We focused on care organisations in Europe and collected data from 32 interviews, followed by 5 workshops and an international colloquium with 6 language-based discussion groups with participants from organisations offering care services to socially marginalised individuals. The results demonstrate the role these organisations had in advocating their clients' needs to the authorities to adapt the crisis measures accordingly ("bottom-up approach”), and communicating official information about the risks and government rules to their clients ("top-down approach”). We found effective mediation to stem from long-term, trusting client relationship to be able to reflect on clients' needs, while the lack of collaboration protocol and tradition can be seen as the main barrier to inclusive crisis management. Networking with social care services to bring their expertise into crisis management systems is essential to promote the resilience of the diverse society.

15.
Clin Simul Nurs ; 2022 Mar 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2158750

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) required innovative training strategies for emergent aerosol generating procedures (AGPs) in intensive care units (ICUs). This manuscript summarizes institutional operationalization of COVID-specific training, standardized across four ICUs. An interdisciplinary team collaborated with the Simulator Program and OpenPediatrics refining logistics using process maps, walkthroughs and simulation. A multimodal approach to information dissemination, high-volume team training in modified resuscitation practices and technical skill acquisition included instructional videos, training superusers, small-group simulation using a flipped classroom approach with rapid cycle deliberate practice, interactive webinars, and cognitive aids. Institutional data on application of this model are presented. Success was founded in interdisciplinary collaboration, resource availability and institutional buy in.

17.
Procedia Comput Sci ; 204: 581-590, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2150434

ABSTRACT

This study examines the resilience behaviors of women entrepreneurs (WE) in Tunisia during the covid-19 crisis. We explore this question through the life stories of nine WE. An in-depth interview attempted to identify the repercussions of the crisis on WE and their businesses. The field study showed that this pandemic has imposed several constraints. The results obtained made it possible to identify the strengths, weaknesses, threats and opportunities experienced by the interviewed WE in the management of their businesses. They faced the following dilemmas: Audacity Vs Caution, Stability Vs Flexibility, Effectiveness Vs Efficiency and Individual Vs Collective.

18.
Scientific Papers of the University of Pardubice-Series D-Faculty of Economics and Administration ; 29(1), 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2164757

ABSTRACT

The emergence and spreading of COVID-19 pandemic were surprising and sudden. It caused the need for competent crisis management throughout the public administration to manage the initial stage of the crisis. The purpose of our research is to identify the connection between the competencies of crisis management in self-governments and employee performance, measured at the time of the initial stage of the crisis, by their feeling of satisfaction, safety and establishment of conditions for work. In this research report, we expect these variables to be connected via the sharing of information, teamwork and cognitive diversity of work teams. The research used the mediator model according to Baron and Kenny. Sobel's test was used to test the mediator effect. Regression analysis was used to verify the hypotheses. The ANOVA variance analysis was used to analyze multiple dependency. The level of significance was 5%. The research sample consisted of 207 managers in self-government organizations operating in Slovakia. The hypothesis on the dependency between the crisis management competencies and team performance during the initial stage of the crisis, facilitated by sharing of information, teamwork and cognitive diversity of crisis management, was confirmed.

19.
Hitotsubashi Journal of Economics ; 63(2):104-125, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2164321

ABSTRACT

Daily variations in government bond yields and foreign exchange spot rates for 46 countries on FOMC meeting days show that the influence of U.S. monetary policy surprises intensified after the financial crisis. Keywords: financial crisis, monetary policy, interest rates, exchange rate JEL Classification Codes: E43, E52, F31 I. Introduction The COVID-19 pandemic forced the Federal Reserve (Fed) to cut the Fed Funds rate to zero and launch a new round of quantitative easing (QE). Using daily variations in government bond yields and foreign exchange spot rates for 46 sample countries on FOMC meeting days, I find that the global influence of U.S. monetary policy surprises intensified after the financial crisis: When taking into account exchange rate regimes (hard pegs, soft pegs, managed float, and free float), I find that free-floating arrangements lead to the larger responses to U.S. monetary policy surprises.

20.
Pan African Medical Journal ; 43 (no pagination), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2164237

ABSTRACT

Introduction: over the last decade, insecurity in the Lake Chad Basin has triggered an unprecedented humanitarian crisis in the Niger's Diffa Region with a significant population movement. In this humanitarian setting, we reviewed the implementation process and the contribution of temperature screening and handwashing practice at points of entry as part of non-pharmaceutical interventions against COVID-19. Method(s): in Diffa, border officers were trained on the fundamentals of infection prevention and control in relation to COVID-19 readiness and response and a 14-day district response team was constituted. To examine the significance of the implementation process of temperature screening and handwashing practices at points of entry, we conducted a secondary analysis of data submitted by the six health districts of the Diffa Region between March and July 2020. Result(s): travellers screened for fever ranged from 10,499 (in March 2020) to 62,441 (in April 2020) with the health districts of Diffa (mean: standard error of the mean: 25,999: 9,220) and of Bosso (mean: standard error of the mean: 30.4: 19.1) accounting for the most and the least of activities during the entire period, respectively. Overall, 125/169,475 travellers presented fever and were effectively quarantined. Only the Ngourti Health District reported travellers who declined handwashing (54/169,475);this was during the first three months of the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusion(s): we have documented a successful implementation of measures related to temperature screening with some unsubstantial denial of handwashing. Given the importance of border traffic due to insecurity in the Diffa Region, maintaining temperature screening and handwashing in this humanitarian setting is necessary but requires coordinated actions of all stakeholders involved in the region. Copyright © Lawali Mahaman Rabiou et al.

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