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1.
JMIR Serious Games ; 10(3): e38433, 2022 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963267

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recently, the demand for mechanical ventilation (MV) has increased with the COVID-19 pandemic; however, the conventional approaches to MV training are resource intensive and require on-site training. Consequently, the need for independent learning platforms with remote assistance in institutions without resources has surged. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of an augmented reality (AR)-based self-learning platform for novices to set up a ventilator without on-site assistance. METHODS: This prospective randomized controlled pilot study was conducted at Samsung Medical Center, Korea, from January to February 2022. Nurses with no prior experience of MV or AR were enrolled. We randomized the participants into 2 groups: manual and AR groups. Participants in the manual group used a printed manual and made a phone call for assistance, whereas participants in the AR group were guided by AR-based instructions and requested assistance with the head-mounted display. We compared the overall score of the procedure, required level of assistance, and user experience between the groups. RESULTS: In total, 30 participants completed the entire procedure with or without remote assistance. Fewer participants requested assistance in the AR group compared to the manual group (7/15, 47.7% vs 14/15, 93.3%; P=.02). The number of steps that required assistance was also lower in the AR group compared to the manual group (n=13 vs n=33; P=.004). The AR group had a higher rating in predeveloped questions for confidence (median 3, IQR 2.50-4.00 vs median 2, IQR 2.00-3.00; P=.01), suitability of method (median 4, IQR 4.00-5.00 vs median 3, IQR 3.00-3.50; P=.01), and whether they intended to recommend AR systems to others (median 4, IQR 3.00-5.00 vs median 3, IQR 2.00-3.00; P=.002). CONCLUSIONS: AR-based instructions to set up a mechanical ventilator were feasible for novices who had no prior experience with MV or AR. Additionally, participants in the AR group required less assistance compared with those in the manual group, resulting in higher confidence after training. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT05446896; https://beta.clinicaltrials.gov/study/NCT05446896.

2.
Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex ; 79(3): 170-179, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964981

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are only a few reports of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in patients with SARS-CoV-2 in pediatrics. This study aimed to describe the characteristics of critically ill pediatric patients with COVID-19, the frequency of ARDS, ventilatory mechanics and results of prone position. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, observational study of patients admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) between April 1 to September 30, 2020. RESULTS: Thirty-four patients were admitted to pediatric intensive care unit, 31.7% were SARS-CoV-2 positive. 13 presented ARDS, 11 required invasive mechanical ventilation, and seven were pronated as an oxygenation strategy. All patients classified as severe ARDS were pronated. Obesity was the most important comorbidity. The complications associated with ARDS were multisystemic inflammatory syndrome (8 vs. 4; p < 0.05) and acute kidney injury (8 vs. 3; p < 0.05). Procalcitonin was higher in patients with ARDS, as were the days of stay in PICU (p < 0.05). The success of the pronation maneuver was achieved 8 hours later , with the following results: arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen ratio 128 vs. 204, oxygenation index 8.9 vs. 5.9, static lung compliance 0.54 vs. 0.70 ml/cmH2O/kg, plateau pressure 24 vs. 19 cmH2O (p < 0.05). The use of narcotics was higher in the group with ARDS plus pronation 124 vs. 27 hours in the non-pronated (p < 0.01). Mortality associated with SARS-CoV-2 was 5.8%. CONCLUSIONS: ARDS was presented in 38.2% of the children admitted to PICU and was more frequent in obese patients. Pronation, performed in severe cases, improved oxygenation and lung mechanics indexes. No patient died of ARDS.


INTRODUCCIÓN: Existen pocos reportes de síndrome de dificultad respiratoria aguda (SDRA) con COVID-19 en pacientes pediátricos. El objetivo de este estudio fue describir las características de los pacientes pediátricos críticamente enfermos con COVID-19, la frecuencia del SDRA, la mecánica ventilatoria y los resultados de la posición prona. MÉTODOS: Se llevó a cabo un estudio retrospectivo y observacional de los pacientes ingresados del 1 de abril al 30 de septiembre de 2020. RESULTADOS: Ingresaron 34 pacientes a la unidad de terapia intensiva pediátrica (UTIP) con prueba positiva para SARS-CoV-2. De ellos, 13 presentaron SDRA, 11 requirieron ventilación mecánica invasiva y siete fueron pronados como estrategia de oxigenación. Todos los pacientes clasificados como SDRA graves fueron pronados. La obesidad fue la comorbilidad más importante. Las complicaciones asociadas con SDRA fueron el síndrome inflamatorio multisistémico (p < 0.05) y la lesión renal aguda (p < 0.05). La procalcitonina fue mayor en los pacientes con SDRA, al igual que los días de estancia en la UTIP (p < 0.05). El éxito de la maniobra de pronación se alcanzó 8 horas después.Los resultados observados fueron los siguientes relación presión arterial de oxígeno/fracción inspirada de oxígeno 128 vs. 204, índice de oxigenación 8.9 vs. 5.9, distensibilidad pulmonar estática 0.54 vs. 0.70 ml/cmH2O/kg, y presión meseta 24 vs. 19 cmH2O (p < 0.05). El uso de narcóticos fue mayor en el grupo de SDRA más pronación que en los no pronados (124 vs. 27 h; p < 0.01). La mortalidad asociada con SARS-CoV-2 fue del 5.8%. CONCLUSIONES: El SDRA se presentó en el 38.2% de los niños admitidos a UTIP, y con mayor frecuencia en los pacientes con obesidad. La maniobra de pronación aplicada en los casos severos, mejoró la oxigenación de la mécanica pulmonar. Ninguno de los pacientes falleció por SDRA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Humans , Oxygen , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Cureus ; 14(6): e26172, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964579

ABSTRACT

Traumatic macroglossia is a rare condition characterized by a sudden edematous swelling of the tongue due to trauma that can progress into upper airway obstruction and asphyxia. We are presenting a case of a 20-year-old female with medical history significant for Rett syndrome who developed severe tongue swelling after multiple attempts of intubation secondary to low Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) from a high dose of benzodiazepines. Traumatic macroglossia in this case was worsened further by uncontrolled bruxism. Multiple approaches were made to control the situation including placement of bite block, use of paralytics, and steroids. Multiple cases were reported about traumatic macroglossia but our case was unique in the sense that our patient did not respond well to conservative medical therapy and surgical approach was not possible as it was set to be done in a tertiary center; however, transferring the patient was not possible with the COVID-19 pandemic as hospitals were on diversion.

4.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 8(7)2022 Jul 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964016

ABSTRACT

Highly variable estimates of COVID-19-associated fungal diseases (IFDs) have been reported. We aimed to determine the incidence of clinically important fungal diseases in hospitalized COVID-19 patients during the first year of the pandemic. We performed a multicenter survey of IFDs among patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in 13 hospitals in Israel between February 2020 and May 2021. COVID-19-associated pulmonary mold disease (PMD) and invasive candidiasis (IC) were defined using ECMM/ISHAM and EORTC/MSG criteria, respectively. Overall rates of IC and PMD among patients with critical COVID-19 were 10.86 and 10.20 per 1000 admissions, respectively, with significant variability among medical centers. PMD rates were significantly lower in centers where galactomannan was a send-out test versus centers with on-site testing (p = 0.035). The 30-day mortality rate was 67.5% for IC and 57.5% for PMD. Treatment with an echinocandin for IC or an extended-spectrum azole for PMD was associated with significantly lower mortality rates (adjusted hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], 0.26 [0.07-0.91] and 0.23 [0.093-0.57], respectively). In this multicenter national survey, variable rates of PMD were associated with on-site galactomannan testing, suggesting under-detection in sites lacking this capacity. COVID-19-related IFDs were associated with high mortality rates, which were reduced with appropriate antifungal therapy.

5.
Update in Anaesthesia ; 36:68-76, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1960258

ABSTRACT

Clinicians worldwide have been called to action against COVID-19, requiring development of effective systems to respond to the surge of pandemic cases. Anaesthesiologists are equipped to fulfil many roles in the operating room, critical care and retrieval settings. However, it was anticipated that the case load could overwhelm our existing referral structures, and put staff and patients at increased risk. We describe, using the “4S” components of surge capacity development, how systems, staff, space and stuff were utilised to create a COVID Anaesthesia, Intubation and Retrieval (CAIR) Team at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa. The primary aims of the team are to provide safe anaesthesia for patients with known or suspected COVID-19, and perform intubation and transfer in COVID wards or high care areas to intensive care units. Concurrently, promotion of strict infection control practices and risk mitigation through the use of a dedicated group of low-risk, highly trained individuals was achieved. Staff support systems, protocols for streamlined patient management, reallocation of spaces within the hospital, the capital and disposable equipment required for the service, and use of continual audit and iterative improvement are discussed in this article. © World Federation of Societies of Anaesthesiologists 2022.

6.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2022 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960978

ABSTRACT

We compared the performance of prognostic tools for SARS-CoV-2 using parameters fitted either at time of admission or across all time points of an admission. This cohort study used clinical data to model the dynamic change in prognosis of SARS-CoV-2 in a single hospital in England including all patients admitted from 1st February 2020 until 31st December 2020, and then followed up for ICU admission, death, or discharge from hospital for 60 days. We incorporated clinical observations and blood tests into two-time varying Cox proportional hazards models predicting daily 24-48-hour risk of admission to ICU for those eligible, or death for those ineligible for escalation. To develop the model 491 patients were eligible for ICU escalation and 769 were ineligible for escalation. Our model had good discrimination of daily risk of ICU admission in the validation cohort (n = 1141, C statistic = 0.91 (95% CI 0.89 -0.94)) and performed better than other scores (NEWS2, ISCARIC 4C) calculated using only parameters on admission, but overestimated escalation (calibration slope 0.7). A bespoke daily SARS-CoV-2 escalation risk prediction score can predict need for clinical escalation better than a generic early warning score or a single estimation of risk calculated at admission.

7.
Enferm Intensiva ; 33: S31-S39, 2022 Sep.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956137

ABSTRACT

The Bacteraemia Zero (BZ) Project was the first of the Zero Projects to be implemented in Intensive Care Unit (ICU), achieving a decrease in catheter-related infection rates below those recommended by the quality standards of scientific societies. Following the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in ICU, a significant increase in these infection rates has been observed. Increase in infection rates and the need to incorporate the best available evidence into clinical practice justifies the need to update the recommendations of the BZ project. A working group formed by members of the different scientific societies considered that the mandatory measures of the project should not be modified due to its proven efficacy. In addition, this group decided to incorporate the following optional measures: use of catheters impregnated with antimicrobials, use of dressings impregnated with chlorhexidine, use of caps with an antiseptic solution in connectors, and daily body hygiene with chlorhexidine.

8.
J Clin Med ; 11(15)2022 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957361

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic heavily impacted healthcare workers, increasing their physical and psychological workload. Specifically, COVID-19 patients' airway management is definitely a challenging task regarding both severe and acute respiratory failure and the risk of contagion while performing aerosol-generating procedures. The category of anesthesiologists and intensivists, the main actors of airway management, showed a poor psychological well-being and a high stress and burnout risk. Identifying and better defining the specific main SARS-CoV-2-related stressors can help them deal with and effectively plan a strategy to manage these patients in a more confident and safer way. In this review, we therefore try to analyze the relevance of human factors and non-technical skills when approaching COVID-19 patients. Lessons from the past, such as National Audit Project 4 recommendations, have taught us that safe airway management should be based on preoperative assessment, the planning of an adequate strategy, the optimization of setting and resources and the rigorous evaluation of the scenario. Despite, or thanks to, the critical issues and difficulties, the "take home lesson" that we can translate from SARS-CoV-2 to every airway management is that there can be no more room for improvisation and that creating teamwork must become a priority.

9.
Nurs Crit Care ; 2022 Jul 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956787

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic placed unprecedented stress on the National Health Service and critical care units including those with Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) facility as this intervention had proved successful with H1N1 patients in 2009. To successfully care for the influx of ECMO patients, an ECMO clinical support team (ECST) formed by redeployed staff was created to assist critical care nurses. AIM: This service evaluation aims to review the experience of critical care nursing staff working with an ECST during the period of increased provision of ECMO care. DESIGN: A UK-based single-site qualitative service evaluation was followed. METHOD: Critical care nursing staff's feedback was anonymously collected using a paper questionnaire designed for this project. Data were analysed using inductive content analysis. FINDINGS: Approximately 40 critical care nurses were invited to complete a questionnaire, 19 (48%) of whom completed it within the available timeframe. A variety of themes were identified including 'Prior knowledge of ECST', 'Management matters', 'ECST in action', 'ECST response', 'Emotions' and 'Overall experience of the ECST'. Staff initially reported apprehension regarding a new team and training responsibilities. Following the rollout of the ECST, nurses' accounts described the utilization of the ECST and subsequent stress relief. Feedback commented on the ECST's positive attitude, effective team working with the critical care team and provision of moral support. Nurses' gratitude was strongly conveyed throughout, with many expressing the positive effect of the ECST on staff emotional well-being. CONCLUSION: The implementation of the ECST provided clinical and emotional support to nurses. The ECST demonstrated the effective use of redeployed health care staff to support the critical care unit at a time of a significant increase in patients requiring ECMO. This could be used as a model to enhance staffing levels in the event of future viral outbreaks.

10.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 176, 2022 06 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951306

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of treatment with steroids on the incidence and outcome of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients. DESIGN: Propensity-matched retrospective cohort study from February 24 to December 31, 2020, in 4 dedicated COVID-19 Intensive Care Units (ICU) in Lombardy (Italy). PATIENTS: Adult consecutive mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients were subdivided into two groups: (1) treated with low-dose corticosteroids (dexamethasone 6 mg/day intravenous for 10 days) (DEXA+); (2) not treated with corticosteroids (DEXA-). A propensity score matching procedure (1:1 ratio) identified patients' cohorts based on: age, weight, PEEP Level, PaO2/FiO2 ratio, non-respiratory Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), C reactive protein plasma concentration at admission, sex and admission hospital (exact matching). INTERVENTION: Dexamethasone 6 mg/day intravenous for 10 days from hospital admission. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Seven hundred and thirty-nine patients were included, and the propensity-score matching identified two groups of 158 subjects each. Eighty-nine (56%) DEXA+ versus 55 (34%) DEXA- patients developed a VAP (RR 1.61 (1.26-2.098), p = 0.0001), after similar time from hospitalization, ICU admission and intubation. DEXA+ patients had higher crude VAP incidence rate (49.58 (49.26-49.91) vs. 31.65 (31.38-31.91)VAP*1000/pd), (IRR 1.57 (1.55-1.58), p < 0.0001) and risk for VAP (HR 1.81 (1.31-2.50), p = 0.0003), with longer ICU LOS and invasive mechanical ventilation but similar mortality (RR 1.17 (0.85-1.63), p = 0.3332). VAPs were similarly due to G+ bacteria (mostly Staphylococcus aureus) and G- bacteria (mostly Enterobacterales). Forty-one (28%) VAPs were due to multi-drug resistant bacteria. VAP was associated with almost doubled ICU and hospital LOS and invasive mechanical ventilation, and increased mortality (RR 1.64 [1.02-2.65], p = 0.040) with no differences among patients' groups. CONCLUSIONS: Critically ill COVID-19 patients are at high risk for VAP, frequently caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria, and the risk is increased by corticosteroid treatment. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04388670, retrospectively registered May 14, 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated , Adult , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Humans , Incidence , Intensive Care Units , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/etiology , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies
11.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 124, 2022 05 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951295

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Some academic organizations recommended that physicians intubate patients with COVID-19 with a relatively lower threshold of oxygen usage particularly in the early phase of pandemic. We aimed to elucidate whether early intubation is associated with decreased in-hospital mortality among patients with novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who required intubation. METHODS: A multicenter, retrospective, observational study was conducted at 66 hospitals in Japan where patients with moderate-to-severe COVID-19 were treated between January and September 2020. Patients who were diagnosed as COVID-19 with a positive reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction test and intubated during admission were included. Early intubation was defined as intubation conducted in the setting of ≤ 6 L/min of oxygen usage. In-hospital mortality was compared between patients with early and non-early intubation. Inverse probability weighting analyses with propensity scores were performed to adjust patient demographics, comorbidities, hemodynamic status on admission and time at intubation, medications before intubation, severity of COVID-19, and institution characteristics. Subgroup analyses were conducted on the basis of age, severity of hypoxemia at intubation, and days from admission to intubation. RESULTS: Among 412 patients eligible for the study, 110 underwent early intubation. In-hospital mortality was lower in patients with early intubation than those with non-early intubation (18 [16.4%] vs. 88 [29.1%]; odds ratio, 0.48 [95% confidence interval 0.27-0.84]; p = 0.009, and adjusted odds ratio, 0.28 [95% confidence interval 0.19-0.42]; p < 0.001). The beneficial effects of early intubation were observed regardless of age and severity of hypoxemia at time of intubation; however, early intubation was associated with lower in-hospital mortality only among patients who were intubated later than 2 days after admission. CONCLUSIONS: Early intubation in the setting of ≤ 6 L/min of oxygen usage was associated with decreased in-hospital mortality among patients with COVID-19 who required intubation. Trial Registration None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypoxia , Intubation, Intratracheal , Oxygen , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
12.
BMC Med Ethics ; 23(1): 66, 2022 06 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951191

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In end-of-life situations, the phrase "do everything" is sometimes invoked by physicians, patients, or substitute decision-makers (SDM), though its meaning is ambiguous. We examined instances of the phrase "do everything" in the archive of the Ontario Consent and Capacity Board (CCB) in Canada, a tribunal with judicial authority to adjudicate physician-patient conflicts in order to explore its potential meanings. METHODS: We systematically searched the CCB's online public archive from its inception to 2018 for any references to "do everything" in the context of critical care medicine and end-of-life care. Two independent assessors reviewed decisions, collected characteristics, and identified key themes. RESULTS: Of 598 cases in the archive, 41 referred to "do everything" in end-of-life situations. The phrase was overwhelmingly invoked by SDMs (38/41, 93%), typically to advocate for life-prolonging measures that contradicted physician advice. Physicians generally related "doing everything" to describe the interventions they had already performed (3/41, 7%), using it to recommend focusing on patients' quality of life. SDMs were generally reluctant to accept death, whereas physicians found prolonging life at all costs to be morally distressing. The CCB did not interpret appeals to "do everything" legally but followed existing laws by deferring to patients' prior wishes whenever known, or to concepts of "best interests" when not. The CCB generally recommended against life-prolonging measures in these cases (26/41, 63%), focusing on patients' "well-being" and "best interests." CONCLUSIONS: In this unique sample of cases involving conflict surrounding resuscitation and end-of-life care, references to "do everything" highlighted conflicts over quantity versus quality of life. These appeals were associated with signs of cognitive distress on the behalf of SDMs who were facing the prospect of a patient's death, whereas physicians identified moral distress related to the prolongation of patients' suffering through their use of life-sustaining interventions. This divergence in perspectives on death versus suffering was consistently the locus of conflict. These findings support the importance of tools such as the Serious Illness Conversation Guide that can be used by physicians to direct conversations on the patients' goals, wishes, trade-offs, and to recommend a treatment plan that may include palliative care. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Not applicable.


Subject(s)
Decision Making , Quality of Life , Death , Humans , Informed Consent , Ontario
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 637, 2022 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951104

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Airspace disease as seen on chest X-rays is an important point in triage for patients initially presenting to the emergency department with suspected COVID-19 infection. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a previously trained interpretable deep learning algorithm for the diagnosis and prognosis of COVID-19 pneumonia from chest X-rays obtained in the ED. METHODS: This retrospective study included 2456 (50% RT-PCR positive for COVID-19) adult patients who received both a chest X-ray and SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test from January 2020 to March of 2021 in the emergency department at a single U.S. INSTITUTION: A total of 2000 patients were included as an additional training cohort and 456 patients in the randomized internal holdout testing cohort for a previously trained Siemens AI-Radiology Companion deep learning convolutional neural network algorithm. Three cardiothoracic fellowship-trained radiologists systematically evaluated each chest X-ray and generated an airspace disease area-based severity score which was compared against the same score produced by artificial intelligence. The interobserver agreement, diagnostic accuracy, and predictive capability for inpatient outcomes were assessed. Principal statistical tests used in this study include both univariate and multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: Overall ICC was 0.820 (95% CI 0.790-0.840). The diagnostic AUC for SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR positivity was 0.890 (95% CI 0.861-0.920) for the neural network and 0.936 (95% CI 0.918-0.960) for radiologists. Airspace opacities score by AI alone predicted ICU admission (AUC = 0.870) and mortality (0.829) in all patients. Addition of age and BMI into a multivariate log model improved mortality prediction (AUC = 0.906). CONCLUSION: The deep learning algorithm provides an accurate and interpretable assessment of the disease burden in COVID-19 pneumonia on chest radiographs. The reported severity scores correlate with expert assessment and accurately predicts important clinical outcomes. The algorithm contributes additional prognostic information not currently incorporated into patient management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deep Learning , Adult , Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Prognosis , Radiography, Thoracic , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , X-Rays
14.
SAGE Open Nurs ; 8: 23779608221103627, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1950990

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Health care workers faced new challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic when physical contact with relatives more or less disappeared. Objectives: The aim of this study is to describe the experiences of critical care nurses (CCNs) working in intensive care units (ICUs) under the visiting restrictions imposed as a result of COVID-19. Method: This study followed a qualitative design. The purposive sample included CCNs with at least 1 year of experience working in an ICU with a visiting policy affected by the pandemic. Data collection was carried out via semi-structured interviews and analyzed through a qualitative content analysis with an inductive approach. Results: The study results are presented in three categories with 10 subcategories. CCNs value the presence of patients' relatives at the bedside and described many challenges when relatives could not be present with the patient during the pandemic. Conclusion: Close relatives are able to share essential information about the patients and provide much-needed emotional support to them, the relatives' role is of central importance and CCNs value their presence in ICUs more than any positive consequences of them not being there.

15.
Intensive Crit Care Nurs ; : 103274, 2022 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1945120

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 infection can profoundly affect patients' lives. Coping with difficult life crises can also lead to increased stress or positive psychological change called post-traumatic growth. This research was conducted to examine the symptoms of stress and post-traumatic growth symptoms in the patients diagnosed with COVID-19 (Coronavirus). METHOD: The present study, which is in a descriptive design, was conducted with 175 patients who were discharged after being treated in the intensive care units with the diagnosis of COVID-19. The personal information form, the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PTDS), and the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) were used to collect data. RESULTS: The mean score for Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms of the participants was 19.18 ± 9.53, and the mean score for Posttraumatic Growth Inventory was 0.86 ± 0.47. In addition, a significant positive correlation was found between PTDS and PTGI mean scores (p < 0.001). As the degree of being affected by covid 19 increases, posttraumatic growth and traumatic stress symptom levels increase (p < 0.05). The posttraumatic growth levels increase as the time elapsed after the treatment of COVID-19 increases (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: It was determined that after the traumatic experience (COVID-19), the participants had moderate traumatic stress symptoms, and they overcame this situation by experiencing growth. It is recommended to take preventive measures against the symptoms of stress and support the patients in terms of overcoming this process by getting stronger.

16.
BMJ Open ; 12(5): e049949, 2022 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1950127

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess outcomes of patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 and to determine the predictors of mortality. SETTING: This study was conducted in six facilities, which included both government and privately run secondary and tertiary level facilities in the central and coastal regions of Kenya. PARTICIPANTS: We enrolled 787 reverse transcriptase-PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV2-infected persons. Patients whose records could not be accessed were excluded. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was COVID-19-related death. We used Cox proportional hazards regressions to determine factors related to in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Data from patients with 787 COVID-19 were available. The median age was 43 years (IQR 30-53), with 505 (64%) being men. At admission, 455 (58%) were symptomatic with an additional 63 (9%) developing clinical symptoms during hospitalisation. The most common symptoms were cough (337, 43%), loss of taste or smell (279, 35%) and fever (126, 16%). Comorbidities were reported in 340 (43%), with cardiovascular disease, diabetes and HIV documented in 130 (17%), 116 (15%), 53 (7%), respectively. 90 (11%) were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) for a mean of 11 days, 52 (7%) were ventilated with a mean of 10 days, 107 (14%) died. The risk of death increased with age (HR 1.57 (95% CI 1.13 to 2.19)) for persons >60 years compared with those <60 years old; having comorbidities (HR 2.34 (1.68 to 3.25)) and among men (HR 1.76 (1.27 to 2.44)) compared with women. Elevated white cell count and aspartate aminotransferase were associated with higher risk of death. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of death from COVID-19 is high among older patients, those with comorbidities and among men. Clinical parameters including patient clinical signs, haematology and liver function tests were associated with risk of death and may guide stratification of high-risk patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Kenya/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 2022 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1948156

ABSTRACT

DISCLAIMER: In an effort to expedite the publication of articles related to the COVID-19 pandemic, AJHP is posting these manuscripts online as soon as possible after acceptance. Accepted manuscripts have been peer-reviewed and copyedited, but are posted online before technical formatting and author proofing. These manuscripts are not the final version of record and will be replaced with the final article (formatted per AJHP style and proofed by the authors) at a later time. PURPOSE: To assess the quality of critical care clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) involving pharmacotherapy recommendations. METHODS: A systematic electronic search was performed using PubMed, MEDLINE, and Embase for critical care CPGs published between 2012 and 2022 and involving pharmacotherapy recommendations. The Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation II (AGREE II) instrument was employed to appraise CPG quality through independent assessment by 2 appraisers. RESULTS: Twenty-one CPGs were evaluated. The number of recommendations in each guideline ranged from 2 to 250, with a total of 1,604 recommendations. The number of strong (vs weak) recommendations in each guideline ranged from 0 to 31, with a total of 116 strong recommendations, or 7.23% of the total number of recommendations. There was at least 1 pharmacist author for 9 (43%) of the guidelines. The AGREE II domains for which mean quality scores of evaluated guidelines were highest were scope and purpose (0.88; 95% CI, 0.85-0.92), rigor of development (0.80; 95% CI, 0.77-0.83), clarity of presentation (0.84; 95% CI, 0.81-0.87), and editorial independence (0.86; 95% CI, 0.79-0.94), while those for which mean scores were lowest were stakeholder involvement (0.69; 95% CI, 0.63-0.75) and applicability (0.49; 95% CI, 0.43-0.55). Involvement of a pharmacist in CPG development was associated with significantly higher scoring for stakeholder involvement (P = 0.0356). CONCLUSION: Strong recommendations accounted for less than 10% of the recommendations in the evaluated CPGs. Moreover, there are concerns related to guideline applicability (ie, advice or tools for putting recommendations into practice) and stakeholder involvement (ie, inclusion of individuals from all relevant groups). It is important to involve pharmacists in CPGs with pharmacotherapy recommendations.

18.
J Crit Care ; 71: 154109, 2022 Jul 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1936751

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Critical Care Outreach Teams (CCOTs) have been associated with improved outcomes in patients with haematological malignancy (HM). This study aims to describe CCOT activation by patients with HM before and during the Covid-19 pandemic, assess amny association with worse outcomes, and examine the psychological impact on the CCOT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective, mixed-methods analysis was performed in HM patients reviewed by the CCOT over a two-year period, 01 July 2019 to 31 May 2021. RESULTS: The CCOT increased in size during the surge period and reviewed 238 HM patients, less than in the pre- and post-surge periods. ICU admission in the baseline, surge and the non-surge periods were 41.7%, 10.4% and 47.9% respectively. ICU mortality was 22.5%, 0% and 21.7% for the same times. Time to review was significantly decreased (p = 0.012). Semi-structured interviews revealed four themes of psychological distress: 1) time-critical work; 2) non-evidence based therapies; 3) feelings of guilt; 4) increased decision-making responsibility. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the increase in total hospital referrals, the number of patients with HM that were reviewed during the surge periods decreased, as did their ICU admission rate and mortality. The quality of care provided was not impaired, as reflected by the number of patients receiving bedside reviews and the shorter-than-pre-pandemic response time.

19.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 10(7)2022 Jul 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938761

ABSTRACT

Stressful or traumatic memories of an intensive care stay may lead to long-term psychological morbidity. Memory assessment is therefore essential to aid in the patients' recovery process. Acknowledging the large cohort of post ICU patients during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, a simple tool for the evaluation of ICU memories is needed. The aim of this study was, therefore, to develop and test the validity and reliability of a short stressful memory assessment checklist, including a distress intensity rating scale, for intensive care survivors. The consecutive sample consisted of 309 patients attending an intensive care follow-up consultation in Sweden. A methodological design was used consisting of four phases. The first three concerned construct and content validity and resulted in a 15-item checklist of potential stressful memories with a Likert-type scale including five response categories for distress intensity rating. To fill out the checklist, a median of 3 (2-3) minutes was needed. A test-retest approach yielded weighted kappa values between 0.419 and 0.821 for 12 of the single items and just below 0.4 for the remaining three. In conclusion, the stressful memory assessment checklist seems to be valid and reliable and can be used as a simple tool to evaluate the impact of stressful ICU memories.

20.
Front Pediatr ; 10: 896232, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938641

ABSTRACT

Technological advancements and rapid expansion in the clinical use of extracorporeal life support (ECLS) across all age ranges in the last decade, including during the COVID-19 pandemic, has led to important ethical considerations. As a costly and resource intensive therapy, ECLS is used emergently under high stakes circumstances where there is often prognostic uncertainty and risk for serious complications. To develop a research agenda to further characterize and address these ethical dilemmas, a working group of specialists in ECLS, critical care, cardiothoracic surgery, palliative care, and bioethics convened at a single pediatric academic institution over the course of 18 months. Using an iterative consensus process, research questions were selected based on: (1) frequency, (2) uniqueness to ECLS, (3) urgency, (4) feasibility to study, and (5) potential to improve patient care. Questions were categorized into broad domains of societal decision-making, bedside decision-making, patient and family communication, medical team dynamics, and research design and implementation. A deeper exploration of these ethical dilemmas through formalized research and deliberation may improve equitable access and quality of ECLS-related medical care.

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