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1.
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol ; 36: 3946320221133001, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064533

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The B.1.1.529 (Omicron) variant of SARS-CoV-2 is the most antigenically unique SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern to date, which is currently widespread across the world. Omicron variant and its sublineages contain a plethora of mutations than other variants of concern, which increases their transmissibility and virulence. Concerns regarding potential immunological evasion have been reignited by emerging subvariants of the Omicron variant. Determining the effectiveness of Omicron-induced immunity and whether it is cross-protective against other variants is a crucial aspect of the research. METHOD: A systematic search of relevant articles until September 25, 2022, from databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and ScienceDirect was done independently by two authors. A total of 11 articles discussing about immunological evasion of different Omicron subvariants were included in the study. RESULTS: Numerous studies have demonstrated that Omicron variant causes a restricted immune response after infection. Omicron infection boosts preexisting vaccine-induced immunity, but it may not be enough to establish widespread, cross-neutralizing humoral immunity in unvaccinated people. CONCLUSION: Due to co-circulation and the emergence of novel SARS-CoV-2 variants, findings highlight the importance of booster vaccinations for immune protection. More studies should focus on the efficacy of Omicron-induced immunity, its cross-protective properties against other variants, and development of a universal vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(29): e2205784119, 2022 07 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908386

ABSTRACT

Many neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) elicited to ancestral severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) through natural infection and vaccination have reduced effectiveness to SARS-CoV-2 variants. Here, we show that therapeutic antibody ADG20 is able to neutralize SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) including Omicron (B.1.1.529) as well as other SARS-related coronaviruses. We delineate the structural basis of this relatively escape-resistant epitope that extends from one end of the receptor binding site (RBS) into the highly conserved CR3022 site. ADG20 can then benefit from high potency through direct competition with ACE2 in the more variable RBS and interaction with the more highly conserved CR3022 site. Importantly, antibodies that are able to target this site generally neutralize a broad range of VOCs, albeit with reduced potency against Omicron. Thus, this conserved and vulnerable site can be exploited for the design of universal vaccines and therapeutic antibodies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Epitopes/immunology , Humans , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
3.
J Infect Dis ; 226(8): 1391-1395, 2022 Oct 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1831182

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variant omicron is now under investigation. We evaluated cross-neutralizing activity against omicron in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) convalescent patients (n = 23) who had received 2 doses of an mRNA vaccination (BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273). Intriguingly, after the second vaccination, the neutralizing antibody titers of subjects against SARS-CoV-2 variants, including omicron, all became seropositive, and significant fold-increases (21.1-52.0) were seen regardless of the disease severity. Our findings thus demonstrate that 2 doses of mRNA vaccination to SARS-CoV-2 convalescent patients can induce cross-neutralizing activity against omicron.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Neutralization Tests , RNA, Messenger , Vaccination
4.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 01 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1648557

ABSTRACT

The constant mutation of SARS-CoV-2 has led to the emergence of new variants, which call for urgent effective therapeutic interventions. The trimeric spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 is highly immunogenic with the receptor-binding domain (RBD) that binds first to the cellular receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and is therefore the target of many neutralizing antibodies. In this study, we characterized a broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb) 9G8, which shows potent neutralization against the authentic SARS-CoV-2 wild-type (WT), Alpha (B.1.1.7), and Delta (1.617.2) viruses. Furthermore, mAb 9G8 also displayed a prominent neutralizing efficacy in the SARS-CoV-2 surrogate virus neutralization test (sVNT) against the Epsilon (B.1.429/7), Kappa (B.1.617.1), Gamma (P.1), Beta (B.1.351), and Delta Plus (1.617.2.1) RBD variants in addition to the variants mentioned above. Based on our in vitro escape mutant studies, we proved that the mutations V483F and Y489H within the RBD were involved in ACE2 binding and caused the neutralizing evasion of the virus from mAb 9G8. The development of such a cross-reactive neutralizing antibody against majority of the SARS-CoV-2 variants provides an important insight into pursuing future therapeutic agents for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Serine-Arginine Splicing Factors/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cross Reactions , Epitopes/genetics , Epitopes/immunology , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Neutralization Tests , Protein Binding , Serine-Arginine Splicing Factors/genetics , Serine-Arginine Splicing Factors/therapeutic use , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vero Cells
5.
Front Mol Biosci ; 8: 670815, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278417

ABSTRACT

The 2019-2020 winter was marked by the emergence of a new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) related disease (COVID-19), which started in Wuhan, China. Its high human-to-human transmission ability led to a worldwide spread within few weeks and has caused substantial human loss. Mechanical antiviral control approach, drug repositioning, and use of COVID-19 convalescent plasmas (CPs) were the first line strategies utilized to mitigate the viral spread, yet insufficient. The urgent need to contain this deadly pandemic has led searchers and pharmaceutical companies to develop vaccines. However, not all vaccines manufactured are safe. Besides, an alternative and effective treatment option for such an infectious disease would include pure anti-viral neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (NmAbs), which can block the virus at specific molecular targets from entering cells by inhibiting virus-cell structural complex formation, with more safety and efficiency than the CP. Indeed, there is a lot of molecular evidence about the protector effect and the use of molecular feature-based NmAbs as promising therapeutics to contain COVID-19. Thus, from the scientific publication database screening, we here retrieved antibody-related papers and summarized the repertory of characterized NmAbs against SARS-CoV-2, their molecular neutralization mechanisms, and their immunotherapeutic pros and cons. About 500 anti-SARS-CoV-2 NmAbs, characterized through competitive binding assays and neutralization efficacy, were reported at the writing time (January 2021). All NmAbs bind respectively to SARS-CoV-2 S and exhibit high molecular neutralizing effects against wild-type and/or pseudotyped virus. Overall, we defined six NmAb groups blocking SARS-CoV-2 through different molecular neutralization mechanisms, from which five potential neutralization sites on SARS-CoV-2 S protein are described. Therefore, more efforts are needed to develop NmAbs-based cocktails to mitigate COVID-19.

6.
Cell Host Microbe ; 29(5): 806-818.e6, 2021 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1184886

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses have caused several human epidemics and pandemics including the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Prophylactic vaccines and therapeutic antibodies have already shown striking effectiveness against COVID-19. Nevertheless, concerns remain about antigenic drift in SARS-CoV-2 as well as threats from other sarbecoviruses. Cross-neutralizing antibodies to SARS-related viruses provide opportunities to address such concerns. Here, we report on crystal structures of a cross-neutralizing antibody, CV38-142, in complex with the receptor-binding domains from SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV. Recognition of the N343 glycosylation site and water-mediated interactions facilitate cross-reactivity of CV38-142 to SARS-related viruses, allowing the antibody to accommodate antigenic variation in these viruses. CV38-142 synergizes with other cross-neutralizing antibodies, notably COVA1-16, to enhance neutralization of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, including circulating variants of concern B.1.1.7 and B.1.351. Overall, this study provides valuable information for vaccine and therapeutic design to address current and future antigenic drift in SARS-CoV-2 and to protect against zoonotic SARS-related coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/prevention & control , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Cross Reactions , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
7.
Cell Rep ; 32(3): 107918, 2020 07 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-625076

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a worldwide threat to humans, and neutralizing antibodies have therapeutic potential. We have purified more than 1,000 memory B cells specific to SARS-CoV-2 S1 or its RBD (receptor binding domain) and obtain 729 paired heavy- and light-chain fragments. Among these, 178 antibodies test positive for antigen binding, and the majority of the top 17 binders with EC50 below 1 nM are RBD binders. Furthermore, we identify 11 neutralizing antibodies, eight of which show IC50 within 10 nM, and the best one, 414-1, with IC50 of 1.75 nM. Through epitope mapping, we find three main epitopes in RBD recognized by these antibodies, and epitope-B antibody 553-15 could substantially enhance the neutralizing abilities of most of the other antibodies. We also find that 515-5 could cross neutralize the SARS-CoV pseudovirus. Altogether, our study provides 11 potent human neutralizing antibodies for COVID-19 as therapeutic candidates.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Receptors, Virus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Epitope Mapping , Epitopes/immunology , Humans , Immunologic Memory/immunology , Neutralization Tests , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Protein Domains/immunology , SARS-CoV-2
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