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1.
Arch Med Res ; 53(7): 694-710, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095059

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The mutations in SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC) facilitate the virus' escape from the neutralizing antibodies induced by vaccines. However, the protection from hospitalization and death is not significantly diminished. Both vaccine boosters and infection improve immune responses and provide protection, suggesting that conserved and/or cross-reactive epitopes could be involved. While several important T- and B-cell epitopes have been identified, mainly in the S protein, the M and N proteins and their potential cross-reactive epitopes with other coronaviruses remain largely unexplored. AIMS: To identify and map new potential B- and T-cell epitopes within the SARS-CoV-2 S, M and N proteins, as well as cross-reactive epitopes with human coronaviruses. METHODS: Different bioinformatics tools were used to: i) Identify new and compile previously-reported B-and T-cell epitopes from SARS-CoV-2 S, M and N proteins; ii) Determine the mutations in S protein from VOC that affect B- and T-cell epitopes, and; iii) Identify cross-reactive epitopes with coronaviruses relevant to human health. RESULTS: New, potential B- and T-cell epitopes from S, M and N proteins as well as cross-reactive epitopes with other coronaviruses were found and mapped within the proteins' structures. CONCLUSION: Numerous potential B- and T-cell epitopes were found in S, M and N proteins, some of which are conserved between coronaviruses. VOCs present mutations within important epitopes in the S protein; however, a significant number of other epitopes remain unchanged. The epitopes identified here may contribute to augmenting the protective response to SARS-CoV-2 and its variants induced by infection and/or vaccination, and may also be used for the rational design of novel broad-spectrum coronavirus vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte , Humans , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , Computational Biology , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J Clin Med ; 11(21)2022 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090226

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Both natural immunity and vaccine-induced immunity to COVID-19 may be useful to reduce the mortality/morbidity of this disease, but still a lot of controversy exists. AIMS: This narrative review analyzes the literature regarding these two immunitary processes and more specifically: (a) the duration of natural immunity; (b) cellular immunity; (c) cross-reactivity; (d) the duration of post-vaccination immune protection; (e) the probability of reinfection and its clinical manifestations in the recovered patients; (f) the comparisons between vaccinated and unvaccinated as to the possible reinfections; (g) the role of hybrid immunity; (h) the effectiveness of natural and vaccine-induced immunity against Omicron variant; (i) the comparative incidence of adverse effects after vaccination in recovered individuals vs. COVID-19-naïve subjects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: through multiple search engines we investigated COVID-19 literature related to the aims of the review, published since April 2020 through July 2022, including also the previous articles pertinent to the investigated topics. RESULTS: nearly 900 studies were collected, and 246 pertinent articles were included. It was highlighted that the vast majority of the individuals after suffering from COVID-19 develop a natural immunity both of cell-mediated and humoral type, which is effective over time and provides protection against both reinfection and serious illness. Vaccine-induced immunity was shown to decay faster than natural immunity. In general, the severity of the symptoms of reinfection is significantly lower than in the primary infection, with a lower degree of hospitalizations (0.06%) and an extremely low mortality. CONCLUSIONS: this extensive narrative review regarding a vast number of articles highlighted the valuable protection induced by the natural immunity after COVID-19, which seems comparable or superior to the one induced by anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Consequently, vaccination of the unvaccinated COVID-19-recovered subjects may not be indicated. Further research is needed in order to: (a) measure the durability of immunity over time; (b) evaluate both the impacts of Omicron BA.5 on vaccinated and healed subjects and the role of hybrid immunity.

3.
Clin Transl Immunology ; 11(10): e1422, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2084351

ABSTRACT

Objective: Influenza A, B and C viruses (IAV, IBV and ICV, respectively) circulate globally, infecting humans and causing widespread morbidity and mortality. Here, we investigate the T cell response towards an immunodominant IAV epitope, NP265-273, and its IBV and ICV homologues, presented by HLA-A*03:01 molecule expressed in ~ 4% of the global population (~ 300 million people). Methods: We assessed the magnitude (tetramer staining) and quality of the CD8+ T cell response (intracellular cytokine staining) towards NP265-IAV and described the T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire used to recognise this immunodominant epitope. We next assessed the immunogenicity of NP265-IAV homologue peptides from IBV and ICV and the ability of CD8+ T cells to cross-react towards these homologous peptides. Furthermore, we determined the structures of NP265-IAV and NP323-IBV peptides in complex with HLA-A*03:01 by X-ray crystallography. Results: Our study provides a detailed characterisation of the CD8+ T cell response towards NP265-IAV and its IBV and ICV homologues. The data revealed a diverse repertoire for NP265-IAV that is associated with superior anti-viral protection. Evidence of cross-reactivity between the three different influenza virus strain-derived epitopes was observed, indicating the discovery of a potential vaccination target that is broad enough to cover all three influenza strains. Conclusion: We show that while there is a potential to cross-protect against distinct influenza virus lineages, the T cell response was stronger against the IAV peptide than IBV or ICV, which is an important consideration when choosing targets for future vaccine design.

4.
Biology (Basel) ; 11(10)2022 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081964

ABSTRACT

During the last two years, the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 has led to millions of deaths worldwide, with a devastating socio-economic impact on a global scale. The scientific community's focus has recently shifted towards the association of the T cell immunological repertoire with COVID-19 progression and severity, by utilising T cell receptor sequencing (TCR-Seq) assays. The Multiplexed Identification of T cell Receptor Antigen (MIRA) dataset, which is a subset of the immunoACCESS study, provides thousands of TCRs that can specifically recognise SARS-CoV-2 epitopes. Our study proposes a novel Machine Learning (ML)-assisted approach for analysing TCR-Seq data from the antigens' point of view, with the ability to unveil key antigens that can accurately distinguish between MIRA COVID-19-convalescent and healthy individuals based on differences in the triggered immune response. Some SARS-CoV-2 antigens were found to exhibit equal levels of recognition by MIRA TCRs in both convalescent and healthy cohorts, leading to the assumption of putative cross-reactivity between SARS-CoV-2 and other infectious agents. This hypothesis was tested by combining MIRA with other public TCR profiling repositories that host assays and sequencing data concerning a plethora of pathogens. Our study provides evidence regarding putative cross-reactivity between SARS-CoV-2 and a wide spectrum of pathogens and diseases, with M. tuberculosis and Influenza virus exhibiting the highest levels of cross-reactivity. These results can potentially shift the emphasis of immunological studies towards an increased application of TCR profiling assays that have the potential to uncover key mechanisms of cell-mediated immune response against pathogens and diseases.

5.
Embase; 2021.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-344405

ABSTRACT

As the SARS-COV-2 pandemic evolves, what is expected of vaccines extends beyond efficacy to include consideration of both durability and variant cross-reactivity. This report expands on previously reported immunogenicity results from a Phase 1 trial of an AS03-adjuvanted, plant-based coronavirus-like particle (CoVLP) displaying the spike (S) glycoprotein of the ancestral SARS-CoV-2 virus in healthy adults 18-49 years of age (NCT04450004). When humoral and cellular responses against the ancestral strain were evaluated 6 months post-second dose (D201), 100% of vaccinated individuals retained binding antibodies, and ~95% retained neutralizing antibodies;interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin 4 (IL-4) responses directed against the ancestral S protein were also still detectable in ~94% and ~92% of vaccinees respectively. Variant-specific, cross-reactive neutralizing antibody (NAb) levels were assessed at D42 and D201 using both live wild-type and pseudovirion assays (Alpha, Beta, Gamma) or the wild-type assay alone (Delta, Omicron). In the wild-type assay, broad cross-reactivity was detected against all variants at D42 (100% Alpha and Delta, 94% Beta and Gamma, 74% Omicron). At D201, cross-reactive antibodies were detectable in almost all participants against Alpha, Gamma and Delta variants (94%) and the Beta variant (83%) and in a smaller proportion against Omicron (44%). Results were similar in the pseudovirion assay (D42, 100% cross-reactivity to Alpha and Gamma variants, 95% to Beta variant, D201, 94% for Alpha, Beta and Gamma variants). These data suggest that two doses of 3.75 microg CoVLP+AS03 elicit a durable and cross-reactive response that persists for at least 6 months post-vaccination. Copyright The copyright holder for this preprint is the author/funder, who has granted medRxiv a license to display the preprint in perpetuity. All rights reserved. No reuse allowed without permission.

6.
Drug Safety ; 45(10):1194-1195, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2045928

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is one of the ingredients in the Pfizer/BioNTech COVID 19 vaccine (mRNA vaccine) and has been known to cause hypersensitivity [1-3]. Polysorbate is an ingredient in the Johnson vaccine (adenovirus vaccine) which may crossreact with PEG. Objective: We report a case of cross-reactivity between Pfizer/ BioNTech and Johnsson vaccines. Methods: This observation was notified in the pharmacovigilance center of Sfax, Tunisia (faculty of medicine of Sfax). The study of drug imputability was carried out according to the WHO method. Results: We report the case of a 32-year-old Tunisian woman with a history of atopy and intolerance to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) but no history of SARS-CoV-2 infection. On August 15, 2021 (at 08:30), she developed sweating, vomiting and dizziness immediately after receiving the initial dose of Johnson COVID-19 vaccine. Her blood pressure became lower (less than 90/60 mmHg). She had to stay at the vaccination centre for one hour, and the clinical signs improved spontaneously after one hour. In the evening of the same day, the patient presented a febrile maculopapular eruption in the abdomen, trunk, and face. The rash resolved spontaneously over a week. The patient was referred to the pharma-covigilance center of Sfax (Tunisia). The messenger RNA vaccine was advocated for the second vaccine. On December 2021, she was received the second dose of the Pfizer/BioNTech COVID 19 vaccine (mRNA vaccine). Six hours later, she experienced a pruritic maculopapular rash on the abdomen, trunk, neck, and face. These clinical signs improved spontaneously after two days. the diagnosis of cross-allergy between these two vaccines was retained for this patient Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first cross-allergy between mRNA and adenovirus COVID-19 vaccines notified in Tunisian population. Healthcare professionals should be aware that hypersen-sitivity can occur with COVID-19 vaccines containing macrogols/ PEGs and those containing polysorbates. Its recognition may be challenging and often require skin testing. Per CDC guidance, con-sultation with an allergist-pharmacologist should be considered to help determine if the patient can safely receive vaccination [4].

7.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 414(28): 7957-7965, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2035028

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has mutated many times since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, and the omicron is currently the most dominant variant. Determining the specific strain of the virus is beneficial in providing proper care and containment of the disease. We have previously reported a novel method of counting the number of particle immunoagglutination on a paper microfluidic chip using a smartphone-based fluorescence microscope. A single-copy-level detection was demonstrated from clinical saline gargle samples. In this work, we further evaluated two different SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies to spike vs. nucleocapsid antigens for detecting omicron vs. delta and spike vs. nucleocapsid proteins. The SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibody to nucleocapsid proteins could distinguish omicron from delta variants and nucleocapsid from spike proteins. However, such distinction could not be found with the monoclonal antibody to spike proteins, despite the numerous mutations found in spike proteins among variants. This result may suggest a clue to the role of nucleocapsid proteins in recognizing different variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Pandemics , Microfluidics , Antibodies, Viral , Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Immunoassay , Antibodies, Monoclonal
8.
Viruses ; 14(9)2022 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2033151

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 in late 2019 led to the global pandemic COVID-19, causing a profound socioeconomic crisis. Adequate diagnostic tools need to be developed to control the ongoing spread of infection. Virus-specific humoral immunity in COVID-19 patients and those vaccinated with specific vaccines has been characterized in numerous studies, mainly using Spike protein-based serology tests. However, Spike protein and specifically its receptor-binding domain (RBD) are mutation-prone, suggesting the reduced sensitivity of the validated serology tests in detecting antibodies raised to variants of concern (VOC). The viral nucleocapsid (N) protein is more conserved compared to Spike, but little is known about cross-reactivity of the N-specific antibodies between the ancestral B.1 virus and different VOCs. Here, we generated recombinant N phosphoproteins from different SARS-CoV-2 strains and analyzed the magnitude of N-specific antibodies in COVID-19 convalescent sera using an in-house N-based ELISA test system. We found a strong positive correlation in the magnitude of anti-N (B.1) antibodies and antibodies specific to various VOCs in COVID-19-recovered patients, suggesting that the N-binding antibodies are highly cross-reactive, and the most immunogenic epitopes within this protein are not under selective pressure. Overall, our study suggests that the RBD-based serology tests should be timely updated to reflect the constantly evolving nature of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein, whereas the validated N-based test systems can be used for the analysis of sera from COVID-19 patients regardless of the strain that caused the infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Epitopes , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Nucleocapsid , Phosphoproteins , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Trop Med Int Health ; 27(11): 1009-1012, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029427

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether prepandemic sera from patients with Chagas disease recognise SARS-CoV-2 antigens. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty sera from patients with Chagas disease were tested for the presence of IgG cross-reactivity against the nucleocapsid protein (NP) and spike (S) SARS-CoV-2 proteins by ELISA. Positive samples were tested again using a different ELISA and CLIA, both against NP. RESULTS: None of the sera from patients with Chagas disease, previously confirmed as positive for the presence of anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies reacted against the SARS-CoV-2 S protein, and six samples tested positive for the NP antigen (15%). The six positive samples were re-tested, five remained positive by ELISA and all were negative by CLIA. CONCLUSION: According to our data, false-positive results might be a concern in the detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in patients with Chagas disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chagas Disease , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Viral , Chagas Disease/diagnosis , Sensitivity and Specificity
10.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(8)2022 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2024315

ABSTRACT

Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) treated with anti-tumor-necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) exhibited lower serologic responses one-month following the second dose of the COVID-19 BNT162b2 vaccine compared to those not treated with anti-TNFα (non-anti-TNFα) or to healthy controls (HCs). We comprehensively analyzed long-term humoral responses, including anti-spike (S) antibodies, serum inhibition, neutralization, cross-reactivity and circulating B cell six months post BNT162b2, in patients with IBD stratified by therapy compared to HCs. Subjects enrolled in a prospective, controlled, multi-center Israeli study received two BNT162b2 doses. Anti-S levels, functional activity, specific B cells, antigen cross-reactivity, anti-nucleocapsid levels, adverse events and IBD disease score were detected longitudinally. In total, 240 subjects, 151 with IBD (94 not treated with anti-TNFα and 57 treated with anti-TNFα) and 89 HCs participated. Six months after vaccination, patients with IBD treated with anti-TNFα had significantly impaired BNT162b2 responses, specifically, more seronegativity, decreased specific circulating B cells and cross-reactivity compared to patients untreated with anti-TNFα. Importantly, all seronegative subjects were patients with IBD; of those, >90% were treated with anti-TNFα. Finally, IBD activity was unaffected by BNT162b2. Altogether these data support the earlier booster dose administration in these patients.

11.
Int J Infect Dis ; 122: 576-584, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2015433

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Observing the serological cross-reactivity between SARS-CoV-2 and dengue virus (DV), we aimed to elucidate its effect on dengue serodiagnosis and infectivity in a highly dengue-endemic city in India. METHODS: A total of 52 COVID-19 (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction [RT-PCR] positive) serum samples were tested in rapid lateral flow immunoassays and DV immunoglobulin G (IgG) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect DV or SARS-CoV-2 IgG/immunoglobulin M. The COVID-19 antibody (Ab) positive samples were subjected to a virus neutralization test (Huh7 cells) using DV type 1 (DV1) clinical isolate. RESULTS: Most (93%) of the SARS-CoV-2 Ab-positive serum samples cross-reacted with DV in rapid or ELISA tests. All were DV RNA and nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) antigen-negative. COVID-19 serum samples that were DV cross-reactive neutralized DV1. Of these, 57% had no evidence of DV pre-exposure (DV NS1 Ab-negative). The computational study also supported potential interactions between SARS-CoV-2 Ab and DV1. CONCLUSION: DV serodiagnosis will be inconclusive in areas co-endemic for both viruses. The COVID-19 pandemic appears to impart a protective response against DV in DV-endemic populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dengue Virus , Dengue , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Neutralization Tests , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serologic Tests
12.
25th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences, MicroTAS 2021 ; : 1445-1446, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2012281

ABSTRACT

A portable and low-cost electrochemical immunosensor platform is developed for rapid (13 min) and accurate quantification of SARS-CoV-2 serum antibodies (10.1 ng/mL − 60 µg/mL for IgG and 1.64 ng/mL − 50 µg/mL for IgM). No obvious cross-reactivity with other interference proteins was observed. Stable performance of the immunosensor within 24-week storage at room temperature was achieved. The practical use of the immunosensor was demonstrated using real patient samples. © 2021 MicroTAS 2021 - 25th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences. All rights reserved.

13.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 7(9)2022 Aug 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2006213

ABSTRACT

Thrombocytopenia and platelet dysfunction commonly occur in both dengue and COVID-19 and are related to clinical outcomes. Coagulation and fibrinolytic pathways are activated during an acute dengue infection, and endothelial dysfunction is observed in severe dengue. On the other hand, COVID-19 is characterised by a high prevalence of thrombotic complications, where bleeding is rare and occurs only in advanced stages of critical illness; here thrombin is the central mediator that activates endothelial cells, and elicits a pro-inflammatory reaction followed by platelet aggregation. Serological cross-reactivity may occur between COVID-19 and dengue infection. An important management aspect of COVID-19-induced immunothrombosis associated with thrombocytopenia is anticoagulation with or without aspirin. In contrast, the use of aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and anticoagulants is contraindicated in dengue. Mild to moderate dengue infections are treated with supportive therapy and paracetamol for fever. Severe infection such as dengue haemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome often require escalation to higher levels of support in a critical care facility. The role of therapeutic platelet transfusion is equivocal and should not be routinely used in patients with dengue with thrombocytopaenia and mild bleeding. The use of prophylactic platelet transfusion in dengue fever has strained financial and healthcare systems in endemic areas, together with risks of transfusion-transmitted infections in low- and middle-income countries. There is a clear research gap in the management of dengue with significant bleeding.

14.
Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents ; 36(2):19-25, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1995262

ABSTRACT

Although onset/exacerbation of bullous Pemphigoid (BP) has been reported to occur frequently following exposure to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the link, if any, between BP dermatoses and the viral infection remains obscure. Therefore, searching for possible molecular mechanisms, we hypothesise that molecular mimicry between BP antigens and the SARS-CoV-2 proteins might lead to autoimmune responses cross-reacting with the BP proteins, thus triggering the dermatosis pathologies. Using this research paradigm, we analyzed the Bullous Pemphigoid antigen 1 (BP230) and the SARS-CoV-2 proteome to share minimal immune determinants, i.e., pentapeptides. Results indicate a high level of molecular mimicry between BP230 and SARS-CoV-2, thus supporting the hypothesis of cross-reactivity as a possible major mechanism in the SARS-CoV-2-associated BP etiopathogenesis.

15.
Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents ; 36(2):13-18, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1995261

ABSTRACT

Bullous pemphigoid (BP) has been repeatedly reported to occur following exposure to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This study analyzes the molecular mimicry between the 180 kDa bullous pemphigoid antigen 2 (BP180) and the SARS-CoV-2 proteome to further our understanding of the molecular link between the BP and the SARS-CoV-2 infection. Results indicate a high degree of molecular mimicry between BP180, SARS-CoV-2, hCoV-229E and hCoV-NL63.

16.
Adv Immunol ; 154: 1-69, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1995923

ABSTRACT

Despite effective spike-based vaccines and monoclonal antibodies, the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic continues more than two and a half years post-onset. Relentless investigation has outlined a causative dynamic between host-derived antibodies and reciprocal viral subversion. Integration of this paradigm into the architecture of next generation antiviral strategies, predicated on a foundational understanding of the virology and immunology of SARS-CoV-2, will be critical for success. This review aims to serve as a primer on the immunity endowed by antibodies targeting SARS-CoV-2 spike protein through a structural perspective. We begin by introducing the structure and function of spike, polyclonal immunity to SARS-CoV-2 spike, and the emergence of major SARS-CoV-2 variants that evade immunity. The remainder of the article comprises an in-depth dissection of all major epitopes on SARS-CoV-2 spike in molecular detail, with emphasis on the origins, neutralizing potency, mechanisms of action, cross-reactivity, and variant resistance of representative monoclonal antibodies to each epitope.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Epitopes , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
17.
Pathogens ; 11(8)2022 Aug 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987914

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), belonging to family Coronaviridae and genus Deltacoronavirus, is a major enteric pathogen in swine. Accurate PDCoV diagnosis relying on laboratory testing and antibody detection is an important approach. This study evaluated the potential of the receptor-binding subunit of the PDCoV spike protein (S1), generated using a mammalian expression system, for specific antibody detection via indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Serum samples were collected at day post-inoculation (DPI) -7 to 42, from pigs (n = 83) experimentally inoculated with different porcine coronaviruses (PorCoV). The diagnostic sensitivity of the PDCoV S1-based ELISA was evaluated using serum samples (n = 72) from PDCoV-inoculated animals. The diagnostic specificity and potential cross-reactivity of the assay was evaluated on PorCoV-negative samples (n = 345) and samples collected from pigs experimentally inoculated with other PorCoVs (n = 472). The overall diagnostic performance, time of detection, and detection rate over time varied across different S/P cut-offs, estimated by Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The higher detection rate in the PDCoV group was observed after DPI 21. An S/P cut-off of 0.25 provided 100% specificity with no serological cross-reactivity against other PorCoV. These results support the use of S1 protein-based ELISA for accurate detection of PDCoV infections, transference of maternal antibodies, or active surveillance.

18.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases ; 22(8):1126, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1984275

ABSTRACT

The authors reported no adverse reactions to phage therapy, regardless of type of bacterial infection, type of phages used, or method of treatment. 11 patients displayed some measure of symptom improvement or reduced bacterial presence;four exhibited no response to treatment. T-helper cells key to malaria vaccine Scientists studying why immunity against Plasmodium falciparum lasts only a short time after immunisation found that T-helper cells reacted exclusively to the protein sequence of the vaccine strain and showed hardly any cross-reactivity with naturally occurring variants. For more on cancer drug and SARS-CoV-2 see ACS Infect Dis 2022;published online June 29. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsinfecdis.2c00008 For more on COVID-19 in pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa see Clin Infect Dis 2022;published online June 8. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciac294 For more on the spread of enteric viruses through saliva see Nature 2022;published online June 29. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-022-04895-8 For more on influenza vaccination and Alzheimer's disease see J Alzheimers Dis 2022;published online June 13. https://doi.org/10.3233/jad-220361 For more on extensively drug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae see Euro Surveill 2022;27: 2200455 For more on bacteriophage therapy case series see Clin Infect Dis 2022;published online June 9. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciac453 For more on T-helper cells and malaria vaccine see Sci Immunol 2022;7: eabm9644

19.
Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents ; 36(2):7-12, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1980545

ABSTRACT

The blistering disease Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita is a genetic/autoimmune disorder deriving from alterations of the human protein Collagen alpha-1(VII) chain (CO7A1). Exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) promotes a wide variety of autoimmune diseases and might be a risk factor for Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita;in order to further our understanding of the link between this blistering disease and SARS-CoV-2, this study analyzes the peptide-sharing between CO7A1 and SARS-CoV-2 proteome. Results indicate a high level of molecular mimicry between CO7A1 and SARS-CoV-2 and hCoV-229E, and hCoV-NL63, thus suggesting a potential role of COVID-19 as a risk factor for Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita.

20.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(7)2022 Jul 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964129

ABSTRACT

Vaccine safety is measured by the disease protection it confers compared to the harm it may cause; both factors and their relative numbers have been the subject of disagreement. Cross-reactive attack of analogous self-antigens modified by dietary and microbiome factors is one of the poorly explored likely causes of harm. Screening for that and other risk factors might point out those most likely to develop severe vaccine reactions. Cooperation from those with opinions for and against vaccination in data gathering and vetting will lead to greater safety. Screening should include an integrative medical perspective regarding diet, microbiome, leaky gut, and other antigen sources. It might include emerging electronic technology or integrative energetic techniques vetted ultimately by cross-reactive lymphocyte testing or genetic evaluation. The knowledge gained from evaluating those with reactions could enhance the screening process and, since similar antigenic stimuli and reactions are involved, help long COVID sufferers. Centers for early identification and rescue from vaccine reactions could lower morbidity and mortality, and increase the percentage of people choosing to be vaccinated. Additional platforms for boosting; using lower dosage; other routes of administration, such as intranasal or intradermal needles; and possibly different antigens could make it easier to vaccinate globally to address the new variants of viruses rapidly arising.

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