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1.
Asia Pac Allergy ; 12(2): e16, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847575

ABSTRACT

Erythrodermic psoriasis (EP) is characterized by generalized erythema and desquamation affecting more than 75% of body surface area and usually accompanied by systemic symptoms. The triggers are medication withdrawal, drugs reactions, and systemic infections including coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A 46-year-old man with plaque psoriasis suffered from EP following the sudden discontinuation of medications. He was diagnosed with COVID-19 one month before erythroderma appeared. The body surface area involvement was 96% and psoriasis area severity index was 49.8. His general condition and laboratory examination were within normal limits. He was treated with cyclosporine-A for one month after being healed from COVID-19 with significant improvement. Excessive production of proinflammatory cytokines in COVID-19 plays a role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. This condition should be managed appropriately to minimize the complication. Cyclosporine-A is the first-line therapy for EP because of its effectiveness and good safety profile. It is also shown a beneficial effect in COVID-19 infection in vitro.

2.
Organic Communications ; - (4):31, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1623002

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus, accountable for the COVID-19 pandemic, is now sweeping the globe. As a result, as this disease resists testing and adoption of new treatments, repositioning existing medications may provide a quick and appealing method with established safety, features, and dose used. They are not, however, specific or focused. However, numerous medications have been studied for their efficacy and safety in treatment of COVID-19, with the majority currently undergoing clinical trials. The goal is to rapidly expand novel preventative and therapeutic medications, as well as to apply preventive methods such as early patient identification, isolation, and treatment. Moreover, reducing transmission through physical contact is also important. In the fight against this dangerous disease, finding the proper treatment is crucial. This article summarizes several anti-malarial, anti-parasitic, monoclonal antibodies, immunosuppressant, and immunomodulating agents in clinical trials for COVID-19. The purpose of this article is to evaluate and explore the potential roles of several medications now utilized in COVID-19.

3.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(1): e0150421, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604818

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, a new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) started spreading worldwide causing the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The hyperactivation of the immune system has been proposed to account for disease severity and death in COVID-19 patients. Despite several approaches having been tested, no therapeutic protocol has been approved. Given that Cyclosporine A (CsA) is well-known to exert a strong antiviral activity on several viral strains and an anti-inflammatory role in different organs with relevant benefits in diverse pathological contexts, we tested its effects on SARS-CoV-2 infection of lung cells. We found that treatment with CsA either before or after infection of CaLu3 cells by three SARS-CoV-2 variants: (i) reduces the expression of both viral RNA and proteins in infected cells; (ii) decreases the number of progeny virions released by infected cells; (iii) dampens the virus-triggered synthesis of cytokines (including IL-6, IL-8, IL1α and TNF-α) that are involved in cytokine storm in patients. Altogether, these data provide a rationale for CsA repositioning for the treatment of severe COVID-19 patients. IMPORTANCE SARS-CoV-2 is the most recently identified member of the betacoronavirus genus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. Repurposing of available drugs has been a "quick and dirty" approach to try to reduce mortality and severe symptoms in affected patients initially, and can still represent an undeniable and valuable approach to face COVID-19 as the continuous appearance and rapid diffusion of more "aggressive"/transmissible variants, capable of eluding antibody neutralization, challenges the effectiveness of some anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Here, we tested a known antiviral and anti-inflammatory drug, Cyclosporine A (CsA), and found that it dampens viral infection and cytokine release from lung cells upon exposure to three different SARS-CoV-2 variants. Knock down of the main intracellular target of CsA, Cyclophilin A, does not phenocopy the drug inhibition of viral infection. Altogether, these findings shed new light on the cellular mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 infection and provide the rationale for CsA repositioning to treat severe COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/virology , Cyclosporine/pharmacology , Cytokines/immunology , Lung/virology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Release/drug effects , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Cytokines/genetics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
4.
Recent Adv Drug Deliv Formul ; 16(1): 3-15, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528764

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Serious COVID-19 respiratory problems start when the virus reaches the alveolar level, where type II cells get infected and die. Therefore, virus inhibition at the alveolar level would help preventing these respiratory complications. METHOD: A literature search was conducted to collect physicochemical properties of small molecule compounds that could be used for the COVID-19 treatment. Compounds with low melting points were selected along with those soluble in ethanol, hydrogen-bond donors, and acceptors. RESULTS: There are severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus inhibitors with physicochemical properties suitable for the formulation as an ultrafine pressurised metered-dose inhaler (pMDI). Mycophenolic acid, Debio 025, and cyclosporine A are prime candidates among these compounds. Cyclosporine A (hereafter cyclosporine) is a potent SARS-CoV-2 inhibitor, and it has been used for the treatment of COVID-19 patients, demonstrating an improved survival rate. Also, inhalation therapy of nebulised cyclosporine was tolerated, which was used for patients with lung transplants. Finally, cyclosporine has been formulated as a solution ultrafine pMDI. Although vaccine therapy has started in most countries, inhalation therapies with non-immunological activities could minimise the spread of the disease and be used in vaccine-hesitant individuals. CONCLUSION: Ultrafine pMDI formulation of cyclosporine or Debio 025 should be investigated for the inhalation therapy of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cyclosporine/therapeutic use , Humans , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 99: 108012, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330894

ABSTRACT

ALK targeting with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) is a highly potent treatment option for the therapy of ALK positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, pharmacokinetics of TKIs leads to clinically significant drug interactions, and the interfering co-medication may hamper the anti-cancer therapeutic management. Here, we present for the first time a drug interaction profile of ALK-TKIs, crizotinib and alectinib, and immunosuppressive agent cyclosporine A in kidney transplant recipients diagnosed with ALK+ lung cancer. Based on therapeutic drug monitoring of cyclosporin A plasma level, the dose of cyclosporine A has been adjusted to achieve a safe and effective therapeutic level in terms of both cancer treatment and kidney transplant condition. Particularly, 15 years upon the kidney transplantation, the stage IV lung cancer patient was treated with the 1st-line chemotherapy, the 2nd-line ALK-TKI crizotinib followed by ALK-TKI alectinib. The successful therapy with ALK-TKIs has been continuing for more than 36 months, including the period when the patient was treated for COVID-19 bilateral pneumonia. Hence, the therapy of ALK+ NSCLC with ALK-TKIs in organ transplant recipients treated with cyclosporine A may be feasible and effective.


Subject(s)
Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase/antagonists & inhibitors , Carbazoles/pharmacology , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Crizotinib/pharmacology , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Piperidines/pharmacology , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/secondary , Drug Interactions , Humans , Kidney Transplantation , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology
6.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(6): ofab189, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263681

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The advent of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) provoked researchers to propose multiple antiviral strategies to improve patients' outcomes. Studies provide evidence that cyclosporine A (CsA) decreases SARS-CoV-2 replication in vitro and decreases mortality rates of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. CsA binds cyclophilins, which isomerize prolines, affecting viral protein activity. METHODS: We investigated the proline composition from various coronavirus proteomes to identify proteins that may critically rely on cyclophilin's peptidyl-proline isomerase activity and found that the nucleocapsid (N) protein significantly depends on cyclophilin A (CyPA). We modeled CyPA and N protein interactions to demonstrate the N protein as a potential indirect therapeutic target of CsA, which we propose may impede coronavirus replication by obstructing nucleocapsid folding. RESULTS: Finally, we analyzed the literature and protein-protein interactions, finding evidence that, by inhibiting CyPA, CsA may impact coagulation proteins and hemostasis. CONCLUSIONS: Despite CsA's promising antiviral characteristics, the interactions between cyclophilins and coagulation factors emphasize risk stratification for COVID patients with thrombosis dispositions.

7.
J Intern Med ; 289(6): 906-920, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066727

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic causes high global morbidity and mortality and better medical treatments to reduce mortality are needed. OBJECTIVE: To determine the added benefit of cyclosporine A (CsA), to low-dose steroid treatment, in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Open-label, non randomized pilot study of patients with confirmed infection of SARS-CoV-2 hospitalized from April to May 2020 at a single centre in Puebla, Mexico. Patients were assigned to receive either steroids or CsA plus steroids. Pneumonia severity was assessed by clinical, laboratory, and lung tomography. The death rate was evaluated at 28 days. RESULTS: A total of 209 adult patients were studied, 105 received CsA plus steroids (age 55.3 ± 13.3; 69% men), and 104 steroids alone (age 54.06 ± 13.8; 61% men). All patients received clarithromycin, enoxaparin and methylprednisolone or prednisone up to 10 days. Patient's death was associated with hypertension (RR = 3.5) and diabetes (RR = 2.3). Mortality was 22 and 35% for CsA and control groups (P = 0.02), respectively, for all patients, and 24 and 48.5% for patients with moderate to severe disease (P = 0.001). Higher cumulative clinical improvement was seen for the CsA group (Nelson Aalen curve, P = 0.001, log-rank test) in moderate to severe patients. The Cox proportional hazard analysis showed the highest HR improvement value of 2.15 (1.39-3.34, 95%CI, P = 0.0005) for CsA treatment in moderate to severe patients, and HR = 1.95 (1.35-2.83, 95%CI, P = 0.0003) for all patients. CONCLUSION: CsA used as an adjuvant to steroid treatment for COVID-19 patients showed to improve outcomes and reduce mortality, mainly in those with moderate to severe disease. Further investigation through controlled clinical trials is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Cyclosporine/therapeutic use , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Prednisone/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Cyclosporine/adverse effects , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Humans , Lung/pathology , Male , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Prednisone/administration & dosage , Treatment Outcome
8.
EClinicalMedicine ; 28: 100591, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-880445

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 outbreak challenges the Spanish health system since March 2020. Some available therapies (antimalarials, antivirals, biological agents) were grounded on clinical case observations or basic science data. The aim of this study is to describe the characteristics and impact of different therapies on clinical outcomes in a cohort of severe COVID-19 patients. METHODS: In this retrospective, single-center, observational study, we collected sequential data on adult patients admitted to Hospital Universitario Quironsalud Madrid. Eligible patients should have a microbiological (positive test on RT-PCR assay from a nasal swab) or an epidemiological diagnosis of severe COVID-19. Demographic, baseline comorbidities, laboratory data, clinical outcomes, and treatments were compared between survivors and non-survivors. We carried out univariate and multivariate logistic regression models to assess potential risk factors for in-hospital mortality. FINDINGS: From March 10th to April 15th, 2020, 607 patients were included. Median age was 69 years [interquartile range, {IQR} 22; 65% male). The most common comorbidities were hypertension (276 [46·94%]), diabetes (95 [16·16%]), chronic cardiac (133 [22·62%]) and respiratory (114 [19·39%]) diseases. 141 patients (23·2%) died. In the multivariate model the risk of death increased with older age (odds ratio, for every year of age, 1·15, [95% CI 1·11 - 1·2]), tocilizumab therapy (2·4, [1·13 - 5·11]), C-reactive protein at admission (1·07, per 10 mg/L, [1·04 - 1·10]), d-dimer > 2·5 µg/mL (1·99, [1·03 - 3·86]), diabetes mellitus (2·61, [1·19 - 5·73]), and the PaO2/FiO2 at admission (0·99, per every 1 mmHg, [0·98 - 0·99]). Among the prescribed therapies (tocilizumab, glucocorticoids, lopinavir/ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine, cyclosporine), only cyclosporine was associated with a significant decrease in mortality (0·24, [0·12 - 0·46]; p<0·001). INTERPRETATION: In a real-clinical setting, inhibition of the calcineurin inflammatory pathway, NF-κΒ, could reduce the hyperinflammatory phase in COVID-19. Our findings might entail relevant implications for the therapy of this disease and could boost the design of new clinical trials among subjects affected by severe COVID-19. FUNDING: Hospital Universitario Quironsalud Madrid. Own fundings for COVID-19 research.

9.
Med Drug Discov ; 7: 100056, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-651663

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of pneumonia caused by a new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) occurred in December 2019, and spread rapidly throughout the world. There have been other severe coronavirus outbreaks worldwide, namely, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV). Because the genetic diversity of coronaviruses renders the design of vaccines complicated, broad spectrum-anti-coronavirus drugs have become a critical approach to control the coronavirus epidemic. Cyclophilin A is an important protein needed for coronavirus replication, and its inhibitor cyclosporine A has the ability to suppress coronavirus on a broad spectrum. CD147-S protein was found to be one route by which SARS-CoV-2 invades host cells, while CD147 was found to play a functional role in facilitating the infection of host cells by SARS-CoV. The CyPA/CD147 interaction may play a critical role in the ability of the SARS-CoV-2 virus to enter the host cells. However, cyclosporine A has immunosuppressive effects, so the conditions for its use as an antiviral drug are limited. As a result, cyclosporine A analogues without immunosuppressive side effects have attracted lots of interest. This review primarily discusses the drug development prospects of cyclophilin A as a therapeutic target for the treatment of coronavirus infection, especially coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and non-immunosuppressive cyclosporine analogues.

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