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1.
Applied Sciences ; 12(9):4199, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1837783

ABSTRACT

This study aims to develop a method for multivariate spatial overdispersion count data with mixed Poisson distribution, namely the Geographically Weighted Multivariate Poisson Inverse Gaussian Regression (GWMPIGR) model. The parameters of the GWMPIGR model are estimated locally using the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method by considering spatial effects. Therefore, the significance of the regression parameter differs for each location. In this study, four GWMPIGR models are evaluated based on the exposure variable and the spatial weighting function. We compare the performance of those four models in real-world application using data on the number of infant, under-5 and maternal deaths in East Java in 2019 using five predictor variables. In this study, the GWMPIGR model uses one exposure variable and three exposure variables. Compared to the fixed kernel Gaussian weighting function, the GWMPIGR model with the fixed kernel bisquare weighting function and one exposure variable has a better fit based on the AICc value. Furthermore, according to the best GWMPIGR model, there are several regional groups formed based on predictors that significantly affected each event in East Java in 2019.

2.
Intertax ; 50(5):476, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1837232

ABSTRACT

An obituary for Frans Vanistendael who died in 2021 is presented.

3.
Journal of Indian Academy of Forensic Medicine ; 43(4):363-365, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1835580

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 virus and disease were unknown before the outbreak began in Wuhan, China, and now it is a pandemic affecting many countries globally including India. On 30th of January, 2020 India reported its first case of COVID-19 in Kerala and on 24th of March 2020;the Government of India ordered a nationwide first phase of lockdown for 21 days. Our study is to compare the number and type of cases brought for medico legal autopsies in our institution during the complete lockdown period of first 68 days i.e., 25th of March to 31st of May, 2020 versus the cases brought to the same mortuary during the same period of the years 2018 and 2019. In total, 55 cases (42 were of males and 13 were of females) were brought to the mortuary in this lockdown period constituting 19% of total case of 2020 as compared to 91(21%) cases and 99 cases (21%) in the years 2019 and 2018 respectively. Present study shows drastic fall in motor vehicle accidents and shows increase in natural causes of deaths but the suicidal tendencies in the form of hanging and poisoning remained almost same as compared to previous two years and did not increase © 2021, Journal of Indian Academy of Forensic Medicine.All Rights Reserved.

4.
Journal of Indian Academy of Forensic Medicine ; 43(3):227-231, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1835577

ABSTRACT

On 24th March 2020, the Government of India ordered a nationwide lockdown for 21 days, starting from 25th March, limiting the movement of India's entire 1.3 billion population as a preventive measure against the COVID-19 pandemic in India. The Lockdown eventually extended in 4 phases, spanning entire 68 days till 31st May 2020. The first of its kind lockdown impacted the lives of all the countrymen in different aspects, viz. personal, social, psychological and economic aspects. The different studies carried out in the past had proven that the profile of Medico-legal autopsy cases in particular geographical regions reflects the crime prevailing in the society. It helps to assess the social and economic profile of the deceased. It is necessary for understanding the nature of crime in a particular area. It helps identify the demographic needs and take necessary preventive measures to stop the crime or unnatural deaths using spreading awareness and psychological counselling if needed. This study was carried out retrospectively on death cases brought for medico-legal autopsies at the mortuary of Civil Hospital and B. J. Medical College, Ahmedabad between the Covid-19 pandemic lockdown period of 25th March 2020 to 31st May 2020. © 2021, Journal of Indian Academy of Forensic Medicine. All Rights Reserved.

5.
Intercultural Pragmatics ; 19(3):271-297, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1833725

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is the greatest global health threat in over 100 years. Its impact is seen in large numbers of premature deaths and the loss of economic stability for many millions of people. A significant number of people who contract the SARS-CoV-2 virus – the virus that causes COVID disease – experience symptoms many months after their acute illness. So-called Long COVID is now a recognized condition, with many affected individuals unable to return to work and engage in other daily activities. Among the complex symptoms of this condition is “brain fog”, a constellation of cognitive-linguistic problems that manifest as forgetfulness, word-finding difficulty, a lack of attention and concentration, and problems engaging in conversation. In this paper, I examine two women who had moderate COVID-19 infection during the first wave of the pandemic in Belgium and the UK. Both participants reported cognitive-linguistic difficulties several months after first becoming unwell. The UK participant is a native English speaker while the participant in Belgium speaks English as a second language. Case studies are used to examine their pre-morbid functioning and lifestyle, the onset and course of their COVID illness, and its impact on their language skills. It is argued that Long COVID has the potential to disrupt pragmatic and discourse skills even as structural language skills are intact. As such, this condition requires further systematic study by clinical linguists and speech-language pathologists.

6.
Rhetoric Society Quarterly ; 51(3):177-181, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1830467

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus pandemic has inundated the globe with discussions of time. Incubation periods, contagion intervals, exponential growth curves, hospitalization timelines, belated government responses, supply chain delays, limited store hours, paused economies, weeks of quarantine, months of isolation, years to develop and distribute the vaccines, decades of consequences, and millions of lives cut tragically short. These temporalities are ubiquitous and alarming but not distributed or experienced equally (Chirindo et al.). Most of Singapore’s early cases stemmed from overcrowded foreign workers’ dormitories where social distancing was impossible and workers were surveilled by police 24 hours a day (Ng). The Navajo Nation struggled to adequately protect their people through routinized hand washing because many did not have access to clean running water (Lee). Formerly colonized African nations like Zimbabwe and the Central African Republic lacked sufficient medical supplies and expertise to respond in a timely manner to large outbreaks (Baker). And it quickly became apparent that COVID-19 disproportionately took the lives of Black Americans due to the accumulated force of decades of systemic racism (Kendi). Even the ways that nations collectively mourned, or failed to mourn, these untimely deaths become politicized events that marked some bodies as worthy of remembrance and others as forgettable (McElya). The unequal power regimes that pervade healthcare systems, policy decisions, political structures, and economic activities distort the temporal frameworks that give shape to our daily interactions and form an oppressive dynamic that is further amplified in a global pandemic. Crucially, rhetoric operates at this nexus of time and power, both as a tool for facilitating these injustices and as the inventive means to critique, resist, and rectify them. In response to these inequities, rhetorical studies must better account for the multiplicity and asymmetricality of the temporal regimes that structure rhetorical relations and, at the same time, work toward articulating and enacting more just temporal frameworks.

7.
Études Anglaises ; 75(1):30-45,121-122, 2022.
Article in French | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1823944

ABSTRACT

On the Beach (1957) est l'un des nuclear novels britanniques les plus influents. Il présente une situation post-apocalyptique ou les survivants d'une guerre atomique totale et mondiale, réfugiés en Australie, se préparent a vivre une apocalypse plus individuelle, dans la mesure ou le nuage radioactif qui entraînera leur déces se rapproche inexorablement. Il s'agit donc d'un texte qui, loin de se concentrer sur la question de l'immunité - qui implique vaccin ou antidote - s'intéresse a celle de la toxicité radicale, a laquelle personne ne peut se soustraire. Il permet d'explorer les manifestations extremes de la vulnérabilité, en proposant un récit de la chute dans la vie nue, en une invitation a considérer le vivant comme soumis a diverses dépendances et interdépendances. En outre, contre les manifestations de la dénégation ou du déni, si fréquentes dans la fiction climatique, il propose une éthique de la sollicitude et de la considération. C'est donc le fil rouge du care, qui se fonde sur la responsabilité envers autrui et sur la pratique de l'attention a l'autre, qui traverse cet article, lequel envisage successivement les interdépendances, le rôle des émotions et l'attention a l'ordinaire au cœur des éthiques du care.Alternate :On the Beach (1957) is one of the most influential British nuclear novels. It presents a post-apocalyptic situation in which the survivors of a total, worldwide atomic war, who have taken refuge in Australia, are preparing for a more individual apocalypse, as the radioactive cloud that will lead to their deaths draws inexorably closer. This is a text which, far from concentrating on the question of immunity-which implies a vaccine or antidote-is concerned with that of radical toxicity, from which no one can escape. It allows us to explore the extreme manifestations of vulnerability, proposing a narrative of the fall into bare life, in an invitation to consider the living as subject to dependencies and interdependencies. Moreover, against the manifestations of denial, so frequent in climate change fiction, it promotes an ethic of solicitude and consideration. This is why I use care, which is based on the responsibility for and attention to the other, as the main line of inquiry of this article by focusing successively on interdependences, emotions and attention to the ordinary.

8.
Production and Operations Management ; : 18, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1822058

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a highly contagious disease that has spread to most countries at unprecedented transmission speed. Medical resources and treatments provided by the healthcare system help reduce the mortality rate and spread of COVID-19 by isolating infectious individuals. We introduce a modified SEIR model that considers individuals access to limited medical resources to characterize the central role of medical resources during the pandemic. We discuss how the three hospital admission policies (hierarchy, mixed, and Fangcang healthcare system) affect the spread of the disease and the number of deaths and infections. We find that the Fangcang system results in the least number of infections, deaths, and occupied beds. When hospital capacity is relatively high or the transmission rate of the mildly infected patient is not ignorable, a mixed system can lead to fewer infections and deaths than a hierarchy system, but greater numbers of occupied beds. This occurs by preventing disease transmission to a great extent. The results are confirmed by our surveys with healthcare workers in major hospitals in Wuhan, China. We also investigate the performance of the three healthcare systems under a social distancing policy. We find that the Fangcang system results in the largest reduction in infections and deaths, especially even when the medical capacity is small. Moreover, we compare a one-time off policy with a bed trigger policy. We find that a one-time off policy could achieve the similar performance as bed trigger policy when it is initiated neither too early nor too late.

9.
International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction ; : 103001, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1819504

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the unprecedented death tolls resulting from epidemics and natural disasters made everyone interested, from the general public to country heads, to know about the mortality rates. The coronavirus issue is the most recent example all over the media, and everyone is talking about corona-induced mortality. The study aimed to estimate the disaster-induced mortality rates at the global level for two hundred and ten countries for fifteen years (2001–2015). Using a retrospective study design, we extracted datasets from two data sources, EM-DAT and UNFPA, in October 2019. The cut-off time for the data download was midnight Central European Time, October 17, 2019. The most noticeably finding in this study is that, against the common prevailing notion, both developed and developing countries equally carry the brunt of disaster-induced mortality. This study proposes empirical confirmation of the direction and magnitude of any year-over-year correlation of disaster and mortality rates. Furthermore, the analysis of the trend in mortality rate over the past fifteen years concludes that the mortality rate is not linear. However, there are huge variations across the years and the countries. The study is of paramount importance to initiate a debate amongst the concerned policymakers and stakeholders to monitor the disaster-induced mortality rates regularly. So that effective interventions can be devised to decrease the disaster-induced mortality rate.

10.
Econ Disaster Clim Chang ; : 1-12, 2021 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1813973

ABSTRACT

This study investigates empirically how air pollution in earlier periods as measured by three air pollutants, namely N O 2, P M 10, and P M 2.5 may have affected the spread and fatality of COVID-19 in 31 European countries. Using panel data with fixed effects to examine the relationship between previous exposure to air pollution and COVID-19 new cases and COVID-19 deaths, we find that previous air pollution levels have both acted as an important factor in explaining the COVID-19 spread and its high fatality rate. This result may explain the negative impact that these pollutants may have on health and in particular on the respiratory functions that are mainly attacked by the virus. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at doi:10.1007/s41885-021-00099-y.

11.
Pain Physician ; 25(2):97-124, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1812860

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, data has shown that age-adjusted overdose death rates involving synthetic opioids, psychostimulants, cocaine, and heroin have been increasing, including prescription opioid deaths, which were declining, but, recently, reversing the trends. Contrary to widely held perceptions, the problem of misuse, abuse, and diversion of prescription opioids has been the least of all the factors in recent years. Consequently, it is important to properly distinguish between the role of illicit and prescription opioids in the current opioid crisis. Multiple efforts have been based on consensus on administrative policies for certain harm reduction strategies for individuals actively using illicit drugs and reducing opioid prescriptions leading to curbing of medically needed opioids, which have been ineffective. While there is no denial that prescription opioids can be misused, abused, and diverted, the policies have oversimplified the issue by curbing prescription opioids and the pendulum has swung too far in the direction of severely limiting prescription opioids, without acknowledgement that opioids have legitimate uses for persons suffering from chronic pain. Similar to the opioid crisis, interventional pain management procedures have been affected by various policies being applied to reduce overuse, abuse, and finally utilization. Medical policies have been becoming more restrictive with reduction of access to certain procedures, with the pendulum swinging too far in the direction of limiting interventional techniques. Recent utilization assessments have shown a consistent decline for most interventional techniques, with a 18.7% decrease from 2019 to 2020. The causes for these dynamic changes are multifactorial likely including the misapplication of the 2016 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines for prescribing opioids for chronic pain, the relative ease of access to illicit synthetic opioids and more recently issues related to the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, recent publications have shown association of dose tapering with overdose or mental health crisis among patients prescribed long-term opioids. These findings are leading to the hypothesis that federal guidelines may inadvertently be contributing to an increase in overall opioid deaths and diminished access to interventional techniques. Together, these have resulted in a fourth wave of the opioid epidemic. METHODS: A narrative review. RESULTS: The fourth wave results from a confluence of multiple factors, including misapplication of CDC guidelines, the increased availability of illicit drugs, the COVID-19 pandemic, and policies reducing access to interventional procedures. The CDC guidelines and subsequent regulatory atmosphere have led to aggressive tapering up to and including, at times, the overall reduction or stoppage of opioid prescriptions. Forced tapering has been linked to an increase of 69% for overdoses and 130% for mental health crisis. The data thus suggests that the diminution in access to opioid prescriptions may be occurring simultaneously with an increase in illicit narcotic use. Combined with CDC guidelines, the curbing of opioid prescriptions to medically needed individuals, among non-opioid treatments, interventional techniques have been affected with declining utilization rates and medical policies reducing access to such modalities. CONCLUSION: The opioid overdose waves over the past three decades have resulted from different etiologies. Wave one was associated with prescription opioid overdose deaths and wave two with the rise in heroin and overdose deaths from 1999 to 2013. Wave three was associated with a rise in synthetic opioid overdose deaths. Sadly, wave four continues to escalate with increasing number of deaths as a confluence of factors including the CDC guidelines, the COVID pandemic, increased availability of illicit synthetic opioids and the reduction of access to interventional techniques, which leads patients to seek remedies on their own.

12.
Journal of International Women's Studies ; 23(3):41-55, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1812588

ABSTRACT

Using a qualitative methodology of personal interviews and participant observation, this research investigates the role of Emirati women in the fight against the Covid-19 pandemic and the subsequent impact/challenges. Research participants included female Emirati health care workers and educationists. We observed Emirati families to help better understand the challenges women went through during the pandemic. Contrary to existing narratives about the invisibility, docility, marginalization, victimhood, and dependency of Arab women, this research reveals that Emirati women were able to exercise agency in the fight against the pandemic due to the following factors: longstanding government empowerment of women, a sense of patriotism, supportive male relatives, and female dominance in the health and educational sectors. During the pandemic, Emirati women have contributed in the following ways as: volunteers;international aid workers;care givers;health information agents;and virtual teachers. Despite this, challenges abound because of the following: increased family conflict;domestic violence;the psychological toll of Covid-related deaths;economic challenges;and increased domestic responsibilities. The Emirati women's case provides lessons for policy makers and societies desirous of women's empowerment.

13.
Stanovnistvo ; 59(1):17-30, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1809254

ABSTRACT

This paper presents new data on the age structure of hospitalised SARI (severe acute respiratory infection) patients, with or without COVID-19, broken down by gender, place of infection, and region. The leading hypothesis that COVID-19 deaths are overestimated despite the high share of excess deaths was confirmed, bringing to light the important issue of the demographic breakdown of the population at risk. Thus, the main reason for the decreasing number of COVID-19 deaths is to be sought within the exhausted demographic pool of the elderly population in 2020, when the mortality rate was 19% higher compared to the previous five-year period (2015–2019). Demographic disparities across regions are immense and statistically explain the differences in the “infected versus deceased” ratio. The excess mortality in 2020 was unusually high, but the projected value for 2020 based on the mortality pattern across age groups from 2015 to 2019 contributed up to one-third of the surplus. So, for one-quarter of alleged COVID-19 deaths (roughly 600 out of some 3,300 in 2020), death was expected to take place in 2020 anyway. © The Authors.

14.
Journal of American Folklore ; 135(535):95-97, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1801730

ABSTRACT

An obituary for Janet L. Langlois, a leading legend scholar, who died on May 22, 2021, is presented. Langlois received a master's degree in Library Science and then joined the doctoral program in folklore at Indiana University, receiving her PhD in 1977. That same year, she became Professor of English and Folklore Studies at Wayne State University, where she taught for 38 years. A two-time winner of Wayne State's President';s Award for Excellence in Teaching, she influenced countless students and fellow scholars, both in classes at Wayne State and through her folklore publications and talks.

15.
Economics & Human Biology ; : 101140, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1800088

ABSTRACT

This paper studies the impact on reported coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) cases and deaths in Spain resulting from large mass gatherings that occurred from March 6 to March 8, 2020. To study these outcomes, the geographic differences in the planned pre-pandemic major events that took place on these dates were exploited, which is a quasi-random source of variation for identification purposes. We collected daily and detailed information about the number of attendees at football (soccer) and basketball matches in addition to individuals participating in the Women’s Day marches across Spain, which we merged with daily data on reported COVID-19 cases and deaths at the provincial level. Our results reveal evidence of non-negligible COVID-19 cases related to the differences in the percentage of attendees at these major events from March 6 to March 8. In a typical province, approximately 31% of the average daily reported COVID-19 cases per 100,000 inhabitants between mid-March and early April 2020 can be explained by the participation rate in those major events. A back-of-the-envelope calculation suggests that this implies almost five million euros (169,000 euros/day) of additional economic cost in the health system of a typical province with one million inhabitants in the period under consideration. Several mechanisms behind the spread of COVID-19 are also examined.

16.
Journal of Government and Economics ; : 100039, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1799845

ABSTRACT

We examine the effectiveness of non-pharmaceutical government interventions (NPIs) against COVID-19. In particular, we focus on the impact of strictness and variability in government interventions on the reproduction rate (Rt) and the number of new deaths (per million of inhabitants) in five different world regions (G7, G20, EU28, Central America and Asia). In line with existing evidence, we observe that more stringent and frequent NPIs contributed to slow down contagion. Unfortunately, no benefits in terms of mortality are found. In fact, with few exceptions, both strictness and variability in NPIs are associated with a rise in the number of new deaths. This evidence is observed to be stronger among advanced economies and over the second pandemic wave. Take together, our research findings advocate early and decisive implementation of NPIs, but gradual and staggered relaxation of NPIs when the pandemic appears to recede.

17.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-333327

ABSTRACT

In this study, we want to investigate whether having a high dividend yield has a catalyst effect on stock prices during the COVID-19 turmoil period. 164 manufacturing firms in Borsa Istanbul are classified as firms with high and low dividend yield according to their last five-years’ (2015-2019) averages. The analysis results show that the stock returns of firms with high dividend yield are less impacted in this COVID-19 crash. Likewise, firms with a high frequency of dividend payouts are less affected than those who do not. This study reveals that firms with high dividend yield are regarded as safe havens by investors in this crash caused by COVID-19.

18.
China CDC Weekly ; 4(14):288-292, 2022.
Article in English | China CDC Weekly | ID: covidwho-1786623

ABSTRACT

< -type="Summary"> <sec> <strong>What is already known about this topic?</strong> COVID-19 vaccines are important tools to protect populations from severe disease and death.</sec><sec> <strong>What is added by this report?</strong> Among persons aged ≥60 years in Hong Kong, 49%, had received ≥2 doses of a COVID-19 vaccine, and vaccination coverage declined with age. During January–March 2022, reported COVID-19–associated deaths rose rapidly in Hong Kong. Among these deaths, 96% occurred in persons aged ≥60 years;within this age group, the risk for death was 20 times lower among those who were fully vaccinated compared with those who were unvaccinated.</sec><sec> <strong>What are the implications for public health practice?</strong> Efforts to identify and address gaps in age-specific vaccination coverage can help prevent high mortality from COVID-19, especially in older adults.</sec></>

19.
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1783455

ABSTRACT

Summary There were significantly lower number of Care Homes deaths caused by COVID-19 during the Delta variant surge in England and Wales. Care Home residents are at highest risk for mortality, all preventive interventions should be followed.

20.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 8(4): e36022, 2022 Apr 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779876

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the available evidence on its severity, COVID-19 has often been compared with seasonal flu by some conspirators and even scientists. Various public discussions arose about the noncausal correlation between COVID-19 and the observed deaths during the pandemic period in Italy. OBJECTIVE: This paper aimed to search for endogenous reasons for the mortality increase recorded in Italy during 2020 to test this controversial hypothesis. Furthermore, we provide a framework for epidemiological analyses of time series. METHODS: We analyzed deaths by age, sex, region, and cause of death in Italy from 2011 to 2019. Ordinary least squares (OLS) linear regression analyses and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) were used to predict the best value for 2020. A Grubbs 1-sided test was used to assess the significance of the difference between predicted and observed 2020 deaths/mortality. Finally, a 1-sample t test was used to compare the population of regional excess deaths to a null mean. The relationship between mortality and predictive variables was assessed using OLS multiple regression models. Since there is no uniform opinion on multicomparison adjustment and false negatives imply great epidemiological risk, the less-conservative Siegel approach and more-conservative Holm-Bonferroni approach were employed. By doing so, we provided the reader with the means to carry out an independent analysis. RESULTS: Both ARIMA and OLS linear regression models predicted the number of deaths in Italy during 2020 to be between 640,000 and 660,000 (range of 95% CIs: 620,000-695,000) against the observed value of above 750,000. We found strong evidence supporting that the death increase in all regions (average excess=12.2%) was not due to chance (t21=7.2; adjusted P<.001). Male and female national mortality excesses were 18.4% (P<.001; adjusted P=.006) and 14.1% (P=.005; adjusted P=.12), respectively. However, we found limited significance when comparing male and female mortality residuals' using the Mann-Whitney U test (P=.27; adjusted P=.99). Finally, mortality was strongly and positively correlated with latitude (R=0.82; adjusted P<.001). In this regard, the significance of the mortality increases during 2020 varied greatly from region to region. Lombardy recorded the highest mortality increase (38% for men, adjusted P<.001; 31% for women, P<.001; adjusted P=.006). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the absence of historical endogenous reasons capable of justifying the mortality increase observed in Italy during 2020. Together with the current knowledge on SARS-CoV-2, these results provide decisive evidence on the devastating impact of COVID-19. We suggest that this research be leveraged by government, health, and information authorities to furnish proof against conspiracy hypotheses that minimize COVID-19-related risks. Finally, given the marked concordance between ARIMA and OLS regression, we suggest that these models be exploited for public health surveillance. Specifically, meaningful information can be deduced by comparing predicted and observed epidemiological trends.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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