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J Intensive Care Med ; 37(9): 1121-1132, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820051


BACKGROUND: A significant proportion of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients require admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) and invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Tracheostomy is increasingly performed when a prolonged course of IMV is anticipated. OBJECTIVES: To determine clinical and resource utilization benefits of early versus late tracheostomy among COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Pubmed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and Embase were used to identify relevant studies comparing outcomes of COVID-19 patients undergoing early and late tracheostomy from January 1, 2020, to December 1, 2021. RESULTS: Twelve studies were selected, and 2222 critically ill COVID-19 patients hospitalized between January to December 2020 were included. Among the included patients, 34.5% and 65.5% underwent early and late tracheostomy, respectively. Among the included studies, 58.3% and 41.7% defined early tracheostomy using cutoffs of 14 and 10 days, respectively. All-cause in-hospital mortality was not different between the early and late tracheostomy groups (32.9% vs. 33.1%; OR = 1.00; P = 0.98). Sensitivity analysis demonstrated a similar mortality rate in studies using a cutoff of 10 days (34.6% vs. 35.5%; OR = 0.97; P = 0.89) or 14 days (31.2% vs. 27.7%; OR = 1.05; P = 0.78). The early tracheostomy group had shorter ICU length of stay (LOS) (mean: 23.18 vs. 30.51 days; P < 0.001) and IMV duration (mean: 20.49 vs. 28.94 days; P < 0.001) than the late tracheostomy group. The time from tracheostomy to decannulation was longer (mean: 23.36 vs. 16.24 days; P = 0.02) in the early tracheostomy group than in the late tracheostomy group, but the time from tracheostomy to IMV weaning was similar in both groups. Other clinical characteristics, including age, were similar in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Early tracheostomy reduced the ICU LOS and IMV duration among COVID-19 patients compared with late tracheostomy, but the mortality rate was similar in both groups. The findings have important implications for the treatment of COVID-19 patients, especially in a resource-limited setting.

COVID-19 , Tracheostomy , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness/therapy , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Respiration, Artificial , Time Factors , Tracheostomy/adverse effects
OTO Open ; 5(3): 2473974X211041040, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1378099


OBJECTIVE: Patients with COVID-19 are at risk for laryngeal injury and dysfunction secondary to respiratory failure, prolonged intubation, and other unique facets of this illness. Our goal is to report clinical features and treatment for patients presenting with voice, airway, and/or swallowing concerns postacute COVID-19. STUDY DESIGN: Case series. SETTING: Academic tertiary care center. METHODS: Patients presenting with laryngeal issues following recovery from COVID-19 were included after evaluation by our laryngology team. Data were collected via retrospective chart review from March 1, 2020, to April 1, 2021. This included details of the patient's COVID-19 course, initial presentation to laryngology, and subsequent treatment. RESULTS: Twenty-four patients met inclusion criteria. Twenty (83%) patients were hospitalized, and 18 required endotracheal intubation for a median (range) duration of 14 days (6-31). Ten patients underwent tracheostomy. Patients were evaluated at a median 107 days (32-215) after their positive SARS-CoV-2 test result. The most common presenting concerns were dysphonia (n = 19, 79%), dyspnea (n = 17, 71%), and dysphagia (n = 6, 25%). Vocal fold motion impairment (50%), early glottic injury (39%), subglottic/tracheal stenosis (22%), and posterior glottic stenosis (17%) were identified in patients who required endotracheal intubation. Patients who did not need intubation were most frequently treated for muscle tension dysphonia (67%). CONCLUSION: Patients may develop significant voice, airway, and/or swallowing issues postacute COVID-19. These complications are not limited to patients requiring intubation or tracheostomy. Multidisciplinary laryngology clinics will continue to play an integral role in diagnosing and treating patients with COVID-19-related laryngeal sequelae.