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1.
Data Analytics in Bioinformatics: A Machine Learning Perspective ; : 283-291, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1888501

ABSTRACT

Trends of teaching and learning has changed its shape from offline teaching to online teaching as full mode and physical mode of teaching may become substitution of academic keeping in view the pandemic covid-19. Data science has become part of parcel of our daily life and most of the technical apps we are using contains machine Learning algorithms and helps us in many ways. With rising conditions, artificial intelligence will be the most prominent transformative technology and enabler for society in the present era. here is no uncertainty that AI and analogous frameworks are built to change global efficiency, working habits, and lifestyles and support healthcare, Pharma Industry and Transformation in diagnosis process, disease treatment and early identification of symptoms has been fuelled machine learning techniques and tools such as Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN), Deep Convolutional Networks, Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL), Gradient-boosted-tree models (GBM), etc. MRI and other sophisticated imaging systems immensely used for neural disorders, cancer diagnostics. In this chapter we are discussing various resources of medical datasets which can be used for diagnosis of dementia with the usage of machine learning approaches. We are presenting how various machine learning approaches can be useful in early diagnosis of many diseases and explained where machine learning and deep learning can be used on electronically stored medical data. Recent developments are achieved in what way machine learning can be applicable in multi-disciplinary research areas. The main emphasis of this chapter is to elaborate on the applicability of machine learning in the domain of healthcare. In the past, there had been substantial signs of progress in the way where machine learning can apply in innumerable research and industries. This chapter deliberates the prospect of using machine learning technologies in the healthcare sector and sketches several industry ingenuities implementing machine learning initiatives. © 2021 Scrivener Publishing LLC.

2.
Gerontological social work and COVID-19: Calls for change in education, practice, and policy from international voices ; : 148-151, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1888065

ABSTRACT

This reprinted chapter originally appeared in Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 2020, 63[6-7], 638-641. (The following of the original article appeared in record 2021-00510-016.) A well-supported and appropriately equipped social worker is essential for reducing the damaging impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on older persons with dementia in Nigeria. It is also imperative for government and nongovernment organizations to redress the pending social needs of older persons with dementia such as the provision of psychosocial support delivered by social workers including meditation exercise delivered through electronic platforms and behavioral management supported through the telephone hotlines. Distress helplines can be established to serve older persons with dementia experiencing abuse. Individuals with parents that have dementia are encouraged to spend more time with them by taking up some caregiving duties while professional carers get some respite time for themselves. Meeting the care needs of older persons with dementia during the pandemic is an integral part of the fulfillment of fundamental human rights of the new United Nations Convention. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

3.
Gerontological social work and COVID-19: Calls for change in education, practice, and policy from international voices ; : 211-213, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1887948

ABSTRACT

This reprinted chapter originally appeared in Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 2020, 63[6-7], 520-528. (The following of the original article appeared in record 2020-51139-001.) The COVID-19 pandemic challenges us to think outside of the box to respond to this unprecedented global crisis. In this letter, we propose a pilot study to use a socially assistive robot to help meet social needs for older adults with cognitive impairment residing in long-term care facilities. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

4.
Journal of Urology ; 207(SUPPL 5):e529, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1886516

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Insertion of a urinary catheter in the acute hospital ward is a commonly seen for a variety of indications. In these cases, where a patient is well enough for discharge from acute services yet may not be able to void without a catheter, a trial without catheter after a period of recuperation is warranted. In aged care facilities, where patients often have poor functional status, transfer to a hospital clinic may prove burdensome. We assess the feasibility of performing trials without catheters within the aged care home using a mobile geriatric service that can review patients within their residence. METHODS: We retrospectively analyse the electronic medical records of a tertiary teaching hospital for patients referred for a trial without catheter after an acute hospital admission. Patients who reside in aged care facilities where a trial without catheter performed within their home were identified. Data collection period was from 1st January 2018 to 30th April 2021. For patients who had voided successfully, follow up telephone reviews were performed for all patients the next day to identify any issues prior to formal discharge from the service. RESULTS: A total of 65 cases were identified. Mean age of the cases was 85.6 years. 44 referrals were for male patients and 21 were for female patients with 40 (61.5%) of all cases also having delirium or dementia, and 35 (53.8%) requiring assistance or hoist for transfers. Trial without catheter were performed successfully in 45 (69.2%) of cases. Of the remainder, 14 (21.5%) cases failed a trial without catheter and 6 cases were referred for acute admission for reasons unrelated to the urinary catheter. Of those that failed, 3 were planned for another trial without catheter and the remainder 11 (16.9%) were referred to outpatient urology review. On follow up telephone reviews for the 45 cases were trial without catheter were successful, no further voiding issues were identified. No new issues pertaining to patient's cognitive and mobility status were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Trial without catheter within the aged care facility is safe and feasible. Visiting clinicians were able to effectively manage trials without catheters, including patients who failed to void. All of these cases would otherwise require attendance to the trial without catheter clinic. In the current pandemic climate where services are limited to accommodate for COVID-19 patients, minimising transfer of frail, aged care residents to the hospital reduces urology clinic workload and keeps this vulnerable cohort away from potential COVID-19 exposure.

5.
Australasian Medical Journal ; 15(1):321-323, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1885223
6.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 869685, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1887138

ABSTRACT

Objective: The study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a program based on the telementoring model [Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes (ECHO)] for primary care physicians in diagnosing and treating patients with dementia. Method: The ECHO model was adapted through 12 live sessions of 2 h every 2 weeks consisting of a didactic presentation by the expert, peer-led new case discussions, and follow-up discussions. In addition, there were 10 h of self-paced e-learning and interim assignments. The impact was examined by noting participation, session ratings, monthly clinical reports, and comparing knowledge and competency scores before and after the course. Results: Among the 63 participants, 39.7% attended at least 80% of the sessions; completing the program successfully. The ratings for all sessions ranged from "good" to "excellent." The paired sample t-test revealed a statistically significant improvement (p < 0.001) in self-rated skills and confidence in diagnosing and treating dementia with an effect size of 1.25 and 1.37, respectively. No change in the knowledge score was observed throughout the course. A considerable increase in dementia-related clinical practice was observed during four monthly summary of clinical cases. Due to the limited data of monthly reports during the COVID pandemic, no statistical analysis was attempted. Conclusion: The ECHO model appears to have a positive immediate impact on the clinical ability of primary care physicians to diagnose and treat dementia. Its direct impact on patient health and at the community level should be aimed at in future studies.

7.
Cells ; 11(12)2022 06 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884016

ABSTRACT

The change from viewing noncoding RNA as "junk" in the genome to seeing it as a critical epigenetic regulator in almost every human condition or disease has forced a paradigm shift in biomedical and clinical research. Small and long noncoding RNA transcripts are now routinely evaluated as putative diagnostic or therapeutic agents. A prominent role for noncoding microRNAs in the central nervous system has uncovered promising new clinical candidates for dementia-related disorders, treatments for which currently remain elusive even as the percentage of diagnosed patients increases significantly. Cognitive decline is a core neurodegenerative process in Alzheimer's Disease, Frontotemporal Dementia, Lewy body dementia, vascular dementia, Huntington's Disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and a significant portion of Parkinson's Disease patients. This review will discuss the microRNA-associated networks which influence these pathologies, including inflammatory and viral-mediated pathways (such as the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus implicated in COVID-19), and their current status in clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Cognition , Dementia , MicroRNAs , COVID-19 , Dementia/genetics , Humans , MicroRNAs/genetics
8.
J Fam Nurs ; : 10748407221102462, 2022 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883447

ABSTRACT

Although the value of family caregivers' involvement with relatives in long-term care (LTC) is well recognized, tensions remain regarding their role. Such tensions were exacerbated during the COVID-19 pandemic as strict public health measures restricted family access to LTC homes. Using interpretive description, we examined the impact of visitation restrictions on family caregivers' experiences caring for a relative in LTC between March 2020 and June 2021. In-depth interviews were conducted with 14 family caregivers (five spouses and nine adult daughters) and two key themes were identified. The first theme, "seeking to maintain relational continuity," illustrates how caregivers sought to sustain connections with residents prior to and during the pandemic. The second theme, "disrupted relational continuity," highlights the impact of severed relational connections on caregivers' sense of self and ongoing feelings of loss and anger. Findings call for a trauma-informed approach that recognizes the pervasiveness of trauma for family caregivers and the avoidance of re-traumatization.

9.
J Fam Nurs ; : 10748407221101638, 2022 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883446

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to explore how formal social support changed after implementation of the COVID-19 public health measures and how these restrictions affected people living with dementia and their informal carers in Australia. Sixteen informal carers and two people living with dementia were interviewed between August and November 2020. Participants were asked about their experiences of the pandemic and the impact that the restrictions had on their lives and care. Thematic analysis identified four overarching themes describing (a) prepandemic limitations of the aged care system, (b) the aged care system's response to the COVID-19 restrictions, (c) changes affecting informal carers, and (d) the challenges faced by people living with dementia. The findings highlighted the challenges faced by the Australian aged care system before the pandemic and the additional burden placed on informal carers who supported people living with dementia across residential and home settings during the pandemic.

10.
J Fam Nurs ; : 10748407221100553, 2022 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883445

ABSTRACT

This study examines the experiences and needs of family caregivers (FCGs) for people living with dementia (PLWD) during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Six focus groups were conducted with 21 FCGs from across the care continuum and thematic analysis was used to illuminate FCGs descriptions of their experiences and needs. Three main themes were identified that highlight the disruption the pandemic caused for FCGs: changes in the caregiving role, information use and needs, and mental and physical health outcomes. To better support FCGs during COVID-19 and future public health emergencies, we recommend that (a) information is accessible, specific, and centralized; (b) resources are tailored to the caregiving dyad (FCG and PLWD) and creatively adapted to public health restrictions; and (c) opportunities for the caregiving dyad to receive physical, social, and emotional engagement and support are maintained.

11.
J Fam Nurs ; : 10748407221100284, 2022 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883444

ABSTRACT

Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, community-dwelling people living with dementia and their family caregivers have experienced many challenges. The unanticipated consequences of public health measures have impacted these families in a myriad of ways. In this interpretive policy analysis, which used a longitudinal, qualitative methodology, we purposively recruited 12 families in British Columbia, Canada, to explore the impacts of pandemic public health measures over time. Semi-structured interviews were conducted every 3 months and participants completed diary entries. Twenty-eight interviews and 34 diary entries were thematically analyzed. The findings explore ways that families adopted and adapted to public health measures, loss of supports, both formal and informal, and the subsequent consequences for their mental and physical well-being. Within the ongoing context of the pandemic, as well as potential future wide-spread emergencies, it is imperative that programs and supports are restarted and maintained to avoid further harm to these families.

12.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 37(6)2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1881407
13.
Dementia and Neurocognitive Disorders ; : 1-10, 2018.
Article | WPRIM (Western Pacific), WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: covidwho-1880572

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) is a widely used drug for various neurodegenerative diseases including dementia. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the efficacy of ALC in dementia patients with cerebrovascular disease (vascular cognitive impairment; VCI). METHODS: Fifty-six patients were randomized to treatment with 500 mg ter in die ALC, or placebo in this 28-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The primary outcome measure was the Korean version of Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA-K). RESULTS: Following treatment with ALC, the cognitive function measured by the MoCA-K was significantly improved in the ALC-treated groups. However, other secondary outcomes were not statistically significant between ALC- and placebo-treated groups. In MoCA-K analysis, attention and language sub-items significantly favored the ALC-treated group. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with placebo, treatment with ALC 1,500 mg/day produced significant changes in MoCA-K in dementia patients with VCI. ALC was well tolerated in this population. Despite the study limitations, the findings suggested the potential benefits associated with the use of ALC in dementia patients with VCI.


Subject(s)
Acetylcarnitine , Cerebrovascular Disorders , Cognition , Cognition Disorders , Dementia , Humans , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Outcome Assessment, Health Care
14.
Ann Indian Acad Neurol ; 25(2): 235-238, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879548

ABSTRACT

Background: To combat the COVID-19 pandemic, several countries imposed strict lockdown to ensure social distancing to limit the spread of the virus. This caused difficulties in the management and care of patients with various chronic disorders including dementia. Objectives: The objective of the study was to explore the health condition of patients with dementia and assess their caregivers' burden during the lockdown. Methods: A total of 57 caregivers of patients with dementia who had attended the cognitive clinic of the institute for a follow-up within 1 year preceding the lockdown were assessed through telephonic interviews. Caregivers' details were noted following an interview related to the patients' health condition during lockdown and caregiver concerns. Results: Findings showed a deterioration in memory in 66.7% of patients with dementia and an increase in symptoms like agitation, sleeplessness, low mood, restlessness, aggression, etc., Caregivers felt helpless and had to manage new concerns and they were not sure as to how to deal with the situation. Conclusion: The lockdown situation disrupted the health conditions of dementia patients and caregivers faced novel challenges while managing them.

15.
JMIR Aging ; 5(2): e38363, 2022 Jun 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879377

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is taking a serious toll on people with dementia. Given the rapidly evolving COVID-19 context, policymakers and practitioners require timely, evidence-informed research to address the changing needs and challenges of people with dementia and their family care partners. OBJECTIVE: Using Twitter data, the objective of this study was to examine the COVID-19 impact on people with dementia from the perspective of their family members and friends. METHODS: Using the Twint application in Python, we collected 6243 relevant tweets over a 15-month time frame. The tweets were divided among 11 coders and analyzed using a 6-step thematic analysis process. RESULTS: Based on our analysis, 3 main themes were identified: (1) frustration and structural inequities (eg, denied dignity and inadequate supports), (2) despair due to loss (eg, isolation, decline, and death), and (3) resiliency, survival, and hope for the future. CONCLUSIONS: As the COVID-19 pandemic persists and new variants emerge, people with dementia and their family care partners are facing complex challenges that require timely interventions. More specifically, tackling COVID-19 challenges requires revisiting pandemic policies and protocols to ensure equitable access to health and support services, recognizing the essential role of family care partners, and providing financial assistance and resources to help support people with dementia in the pandemic. Revaluating COVID-19 policies is critical to mitigating the pandemic's impact on people with dementia and their family care partners.

16.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 2022 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879063

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Assisted living (AL) is the largest residential long-term care provider in the United States, including for persons with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias. Despite recognizing the challenge of infection control for persons with dementia, this study of 119 AL communities is the first to describe dementia-relevant COVID-19 infection control across different types of AL communities, and to discuss implications for the future. METHODS: From a parent study sampling frame of 244 AL communities across seven states, 119 administrators provided data about COVID-19 infection control practices and resident behaviors. Data were collected from July 2020 through September 2021. Communities were differentiated based on the presence of beds/units dedicated for persons living with dementia, as being either dementia-specific, mixed, or integrated. Data obtained from administrators related to feasibility of implementing seven infection control practices, and the extent to which residents themselves practiced infection prevention. Analyses compared practices across the three community types. RESULTS: Less than half of administrators found it feasible to close indoor common areas, all community types reported a challenge organizing group activities for safe distancing, and more than half of residents with dementia did not wear a face covering or maintain physical distance from other residents when indicated. Dementia-specific AL communities were generally the most challenged with infection control during COVID-19. CONCLUSION: All AL community types experienced infection control challenges, more so in dementia-specific communities (which generally provide care to persons with more advanced dementia and have fewer private beds). Results indicate a need to bolster infection prevention capacity when caring for this especially vulnerable population, and have implications for care in nursing homes as well.

17.
Aging Ment Health ; : 1-12, 2022 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878668

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To identify factors that predict the risk of loneliness for people with dementia and carers during a pandemic. METHODS: People with dementia and their carers completed assessments before (July 2019-March 2020; 206 dyads) and after (July-October 2020) the first Covid-19 'lockdown' in England. At follow-up, the analytic sample comprised 67 people with dementia and 108 carers. We built a longitudinal path model with loneliness as an observed outcome. Carer type and social contacts at both measurements were considered. Other social resources (quality of relationship, formal day activities), wellbeing (anxiety, psychological wellbeing) and cognitive impairment were measured with initial level and change using latent growth curves. We adjusted for socio-demographic factors and health at baseline. RESULTS: In carers, higher levels of loneliness were directly associated with non-spouse coresident carer type, level and increase of anxiety in carer, more formal day activities, and higher cognitive impairment in the person with dementia. In people with dementia, non-spouse coresident carer type, and higher initial levels of social resources, wellbeing, and cognitive impairment predicted the changes in these factors; this produced indirect effects on social contacts and loneliness. CONCLUSION: Loneliness in the Covid-19 pandemic appears to be shaped by different mechanisms for people with dementia and their carers. The results suggest that carers of those with dementia may prioritize providing care that protects the person with dementia from loneliness at the cost of experiencing loneliness themselves. Directions for the promotion of adaptive social care during the Covid-19 pandemic and beyond are discussed.

18.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 37(7)2022 May 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1877591

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The burden on care partners, particularly once dementia emerges, is among the greatest of all caregiving groups. This meta-review aimed to (1) synthesis evidence on the self-reported needs of care partners supporting people living with neurodegenerative disorders; (2) compare the needs according to care partner and care recipient characteristics; and (3) determine the face validity of existing care partner needs assessment tools. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of reviews involving a thematic synthesis of care partner needs and differences in needs according to demographic and other characteristics. We then conducted a gap analysis by identifying the themes of needs from existing needs assessment tools specific to dementia and cross-matching them with the needs derived from the thematic synthesis. RESULTS: Drawing on 17 published reviews, the identified range of needs fell into four key themes: (1) knowledge and information, (2) physical, social and emotional support, (3) care partner self-care, and (4) care recipient needs. Needs may differ according to disease trajectory, relationship to the care recipient, and the demographic characteristics of the care partner and recipient. The 'captured needs' range between 8% and 66% across all the included needs assessment tools. CONCLUSIONS: Current tools do not fully or adequately capture the self-identified needs of care partners of people living with neurodegenerative disorders. Given the high burden on care partners, which has been further exacerbated by the COVID-19 (SARS CoV-2) pandemic, the needs assessment tools should align with the self-reported needs of care partners throughout the caregiving trajectory to better understand unmet needs and target supportive interventions.

19.
J Am Board Fam Med ; 35(3): 638-639, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875337

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: One of the most vulnerable groups is older persons who seek medical care (patients), especially those who are cognitively impaired with limited access to technology or knowledge of its use. INTERVENTION: Cuyahoga County Adult Protective Services (APS) partnered with the geriatricians who work at Cleveland Clinic to arrange for clients to be seen virtually in their home environment. Once a patient was identified as having cognitive concerns or an unaddressed medical issue, an appointment was scheduled for a concurrent in-home nurse and virtual visit with a geriatrician.The APS nurse visited the patient's residence to perform an in-home assessment followed by the virtual portion of the visit concurrent with the geriatrician using a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)-compliant electronic platform. OUTCOMES: Fifty-six patients were seen and evaluated in-home by a nurse and then simultaneously virtually by a geriatrician over a 12-month period. Among these patients, 53% had a guardian assigned, 55% were able to stay in their home, and 55% lacked regular health care before the visit, but afterward, 74% started primary medical care. CONCLUSION: Physicians working collaboratively with community agencies for in-home technology-enhanced visits led to positive outcomes for this vulnerable older population.


Subject(s)
Telemedicine , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Vulnerable Populations
20.
JMIR Form Res ; 6(5): e37014, 2022 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875298

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the aging of populations worldwide, early detection of cognitive impairments has become a research and clinical priority, particularly to enable preventive intervention for dementia. Automated analysis of the drawing process has been studied as a promising means for lightweight, self-administered cognitive assessment. However, this approach has not been sufficiently tested for its applicability across populations. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of automated analysis of the drawing process for estimating global cognition in community-dwelling older adults across populations in different nations. METHODS: We collected drawing data with a digital tablet, along with Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scores for assessment of global cognition, from 92 community-dwelling older adults in the United States and Japan. We automatically extracted 6 drawing features that characterize the drawing process in terms of the drawing speed, pauses between drawings, pen pressure, and pen inclinations. We then investigated the association between the drawing features and MoCA scores through correlation and machine learning-based regression analyses. RESULTS: We found that, with low MoCA scores, there tended to be higher variability in the drawing speed, a higher pause:drawing duration ratio, and lower variability in the pen's horizontal inclination in both the US and Japan data sets. A machine learning model that used drawing features to estimate MoCA scores demonstrated its capability to generalize from the US dataset to the Japan dataset (R2=0.35; permutation test, P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study presents initial empirical evidence of the capability of automated analysis of the drawing process as an estimator of global cognition that is applicable across populations. Our results suggest that such automated analysis may enable the development of a practical tool for international use in self-administered, automated cognitive assessment.

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