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1.
Heliyon ; 8(10): e11127, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2069057

ABSTRACT

Air quality in dental clinics is critical, especially in light of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, given that dental professionals and patients are at risk of regular exposure to aerosols and bioaerosols in dental clinics. High levels of ultrafine particles (UFP) may be produced by dental procedures. This study aimed to quantify ultrafine particles (UFP) concentrations in a real multi-chair dental clinic and compare the levels of UFP produced by different dental procedures. The efficiency of a high-volume evacuator (HVE) in reducing the UFP concentrations during dental procedures was also assessed. UFP concentrations were measured both inside and outside of a dental clinic in Shanghai, China during a 12-day period from July to September 2020. Dental activities were recorded during working hours. The mean (±standard deviation) concentrations of indoor and outdoor UFP during the sampling period were 8,209 (±4,407) counts/cm3 and 15,984 (±7,977) counts/cm3, respectively. The indoor UFP concentration was much higher during working hours (10,057 ± 5,725 counts/cm3) than during non-working hours (7,163 ± 2,972 counts/cm3). The UFP concentrations increased significantly during laser periodontal treatment, root canal filling, tooth drilling, and grinding, and were slightly elevated during ultrasonic scaling or tooth extraction by piezo-surgery. The highest UFP concentration (241,136 counts/cm3) was observed during laser periodontal treatment, followed by root canal filling (75,034 counts/cm3), which showed the second highest level. The use of an HVE resulted in lower number concentration of UFP when drilling and grinding teeth with high-speed handpieces, but did not significantly reduce UFP measured during laser periodontal therapy. we found that many dental procedures can generate high concentration of UFP in dental clinics, which may have a great health impact on the dental workers. The use of an HVE may help reduce the exposure to UFP during the use of high-speed handpieces.

2.
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 16(8):136-139, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067747

ABSTRACT

Background: The use of smart phones inside hospitals especially in clinically sensitive areas is a subject of debate because it may improve the quality of healthcare but can also be a vehicle of hospital acquired infections. Aim: To determine dentist's knowledge and behavior related to the use of smart phones in clinical environment and to determine the presence of microbial growth on these devices. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study in which validated survey tool was used to collect data about knowledge and behavior of 397 dental graduates from 8 dental colleges of Pakistan, regarding their usage of smart phones in clinical environment. Bacterial isolates were collected from the smart phones of 45 participants from Fatima Memorial Dental Hospital, Lahore. Results: The SPTC Scale was used to divide the participants into 3 categories;low, moderate and high users. The behavior related to smart phone usage in clinical environment was significantly different among the participants. Moderate users had significantly higher average behavior score of 3.7 (p-value = 0.034). The growth of pathogenic bacterial flora was greater on high users of smart phones (95%,) whereas those participants who were low users the percentage was 37%. Conclusion: Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) are increasing significantly in number of patients and these can be prevented by adhering to proper hand hygiene practices and if hand hygiene is improved the amount of bacterial load will be less and disinfection of smart phone devices will not be required.

3.
Int J Dent Hyg ; 20(4): 739-747, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2052494

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to review cases of dental visits by patients who had confirmed COVID-19 infection in Seoul and Gyeonggi-do. It analyses the patterns of infection transmission among dental healthcare professionals and dental clinic visitors. METHODS: This study obtained data from reports on disease trends and press releases published by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) on its COVID-19 website. RESULTS: After examining cases of patients with a confirmed COVID-19 infection, 24 people (10 in Seoul and 14 in Gyeonggi-do) visited the dental office 1-13 days prior to their case confirmation; however, the spread of the virus in the dental office was not confirmed. CONCLUSION: The WHO and KCDC guidelines must be followed to curb transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus among dental patients and professionals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , United States , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Dental Clinics , Health Personnel , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
4.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 10(9)2022 Sep 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2032901

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, the global pandemic, has significantly interrupted the provision of oral health care to many individuals. This study aims to evaluate patients' attitudes to and perceptions of dental visits in the COVID-19 pandemic and assess if socio-economic status influences their perception of risk associated with dental visits. Patients attending the dental clinic were invited to participate in this study by completing a questionnaire administered in August 2021. Composite indicators for access, attitude, perception and socio-economic status were created based on subsets of questions. A total of 247 completed questionnaires were obtained. Analysis was performed with the perception, attitude and access indicators against the socio-economic status indicator. This study found that there is a statistically significant difference between socio-economic groups and their attitudes and perceptions around dental health care services in the current COVID-19 pandemic. Individuals from lower socio-economic status groups were less influenced by the pandemic. Participants from higher socio-economic status groups were found to be more cautious around COVID-19 and its risks.

5.
Risk Management and Healthcare Policy ; 15:1421-1431, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1968921

ABSTRACT

This study aims to identify the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the psychological health and dental practice of oral health-care workers (OHCWs). The search for relevant literature was carried out online using PubMed, Web of science, and science direct databases from January 2020 to February 2021. Those articles were included that provided complete information about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on oral health-care workers during covid-19 and were original articles and reviews. Those articles were excluded from the current study that was not in English Language and involved case reports/book chapters/short communica-tions. Finally, only 8 articles were selected for the scoping review considering that complete information regarding the provision of dental care in the time of COVID-19 was provided. Increased psychological distress (especially those with existing comorbidities) was noted among the OHCWs during this pandemic. They had enough knowledge about COVID-19 and showed concern regarding the future of dentistry. Either complete or partial closure of dental clinics had introduced financial constraints among them. However, the majority of them did not switch their profession. The institutions were not prepared for any such situation and no training was conducted to control the spread of COVID-19 infection. OHCWs are fully aware of the knowledge regarding COVID-19 and showed concerns for dentistry and dental health-care workers during this pandemic. Complete or partial closure of dental clinics has had adverse effects on the future of dentistry, economically as well as psychologically. Institutions need to upgrade and strengthen their systems to cater to any such situation efficiently. Proper counseling sessions should be conducted for the OHCWs to monitor, identify and treat the cases found.

6.
Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents ; 36:381-397, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1965429

ABSTRACT

Aim: This retrospective research was aimed to evaluate the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on orthodontic emergencies and Patients’ perceptions of orthodontic patients. Material and Methods: A total of 204 patients were gathered who were not seen for nearly 5 months from the first of March 2020 to the end of July 2020 due to dental clinic closure. The mean age of the samples was 20.2 (SD = 12.5) years consisting of 134 females (66%) and 70 males (34%). All patients had undergone active orthodontic treatment with fixed and removable appliances before the pandemic. The survey included demographics, types of orthodontic emergencies, and Patients’ perceptions of orthodontic treatment during the closure of the dental clinic. Continuous variables were analyzed by mean and standard deviation, while categorical variables were analyzed by frequency and percentage. Results: In general, 46.5% of the patients suffered from various emergencies. The incidence of emergencies was approximately 3 times higher than that of the normal appointment times. Debonding and poking wire had the most frequently reported classification respectively (14.2%) (7.9%). 30.4% of patients stated that pandemic had a significant impact on the efficacy of orthodontic treatment. Conclusions: This study showed that the COVID-19 pandemic had a negative impact on patient care due to a higher number of emergencies and in turns, it delayed the therapeutic progress of patients. 16% of patients with active orthodontic appliances did not continue their treatment due to pandemics. More than half of the patients were willing to be seen every 8 weeks.

7.
Journal of Clinical Periodontology ; 49:227, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1956762

ABSTRACT

Background and Aim: This study aims to audit the process of patient management with aerosol generating procedure (ultrasonic scaling) while adherence to the guidelines for healthcare workers during the COVID-19. Methods: Audits records at the Department of Periodontology at University College of Dentistry Hospital Lahore - Pakistan were collected (prospectively) over the period of 1 October to 30 November 2020 (1st cycle) and 14 December 2020 to 12 February 2021 (2nd cycle). The audit was divided into three components based on the guidelines: (i) Physical environment, (ii) patients/appointments and (iii) COVID SOPs related to HCWs. Results: The recommended physical layout and procedural factors, as suggested by the guidelines for dental clinics, were observed during the first cycle of audit, and discrepancy of ventilation system was fixed after the first cycle. Only one house officer got COVID positive (PCR) on 3rd day of house job. There were four procedural slots per day with three fallow time of half an hour each in the first cycle. Audit team reported the observance of fallow time three times daily, which revealed that 83.3% observance of fallow time. Later in the 2nd cycle when the extra oral high volume air evacuator was installed, the fallow time was reduced to 15 min and not only we did five procedural slots per day but our fallow time was also observed 100% of the time. There were few occasions in each cycle where the appointed patients had to wait more than 10 min before they were seated, and waiting time decreased in the cycle 2 when the dental staff were sensitized with its importance repeatedly as part of our weekly dissemination of knowledge. Conclusions: Following the standard guidelines resulted in more efficient working environment and lesser risk for health care workers while performing aerosol-generating procedures.

8.
Journal of Clinical Periodontology ; 49:84, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1956753

ABSTRACT

The aim is to determine oral manifestations in patients with COVID-19 disease and in the postcovid period. Methods: A special survey (questionnaire) was made in 424 people who had COVID-19 confirmed by RT-PCR, ELISA for specific IgM and IgG antibodies and Chest CT scan (168 people). 123 people had complaints and clinical symptoms in the oral cavity 2-6 months after the illness and they came to the University dental clinic. Laboratory tests have been performed (clinical blood test, blood immunogram, virus and fungal identification). Results: Survey results showed that 16,0% participants had asymptomatic COVID-19, 23,6% - mild and 48,1% moderate disease. 12,3% with severe COVID-19 were treated in a hospital with oxygen support. In the first 2 weeks 44,3% indicated xerostomia, dysgeusia (21,7%), muscle pain during chewing (11,3%), pain during swallowing (30,2%), burning and painful tongue (1,9%), tongue swelling (30,2%), catharal stomatitis (16,0%), gingival bleeding (22,6%), painful ulcers (aphthae) (8,5%) and signs of candidiasis - white plaque in the tongue (12,3%). After illness (3-6 months), patients indicated dry mouth (12,3%), progressing of gingivitis (20,7%) and periodontitis (11,3%). In patients who applied to the clinic we identified such diagnoses: desquamative glossitis - 16 cases, glossodynia (11), herpes labialis and recurrent herpetic gingivostomatitis (27), hairy leukoplakia (1), recurrent aphthous stomatitis (22), aphthosis Sutton (4), necrotising ulcerative gingivitis (13), oral candidiasis (14), erythema multiforme (8), Stevens-Johnson syndrome (2), oral squamous cell papillomas on the gingiva (4) and the lower lip (1). According to laboratory studies, virus reactivation (HSV, VZV, EBV, CMV, Papilloma viruces) was noted in 52 patients (42,3%), immunodeficiency in 96 people (78,0%), immunoregulation disorders (allergic and autoimmune reactions) in 24 people (19,5%). Conclusions: Lack of oral hygiene, hyposalivation, vascular compromise, stress, immunodeficiency and reactivation of persistent viral and fungal infections in patients with COVID-19 disease are risk factors for progression of periodontal and oral mucosal diseases.

9.
Kathmandu University Medical Journal ; 20(77):12-18, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1925450

ABSTRACT

Background Patients are hesitant to enter a dental hospital because of the significant danger of cross infection and illness transmission due to rapid spread of corona virus. Objective To assess knowledge regarding Covid-19, oral health practices and circumstances on dental treatment during a pandemic. Method Cross sectional study was conducted among patients visiting dental department of Dhulikhel hospital from September to October 2020. Questionnaires were interviewed following safety protocols regarding the pandemic and descriptive analysis was performed. Both verbal and written consent as well as ethical approval was taken before the study. Result A total 411 patients aged 14 to 75 years old from 14 different districts across Nepal participated in the study. All of the patient were free of Covid-19 symptoms and had strong knowledge and awareness about disease transmission. During the crisis 96% of the people maintain good oral hygiene while 25.8% acquire new dental problems where majority experienced oral discomfort and swelling, 93.2% of them did not attend a dental clinic or hospital in the interim owing to fear and inaccessibility. Majority of the participants were impressed by the safety precautions and preparations during treatment and 99.3% strongly suggest or pledge to visit dental department if necessary during the pandemic. Conclusion Dental patient visiting Dhulikhel hospital is highly aware of current health crisis, possible transmission and preventive measures. Proper safe hospital setup can encourage them to seek dental treatment during crisis. Dental pain and swelling in Endodontic department recorded most common dental emergency during this pandemic.

10.
IOP Conference Series. Earth and Environmental Science ; 1026(1):012023, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1922155

ABSTRACT

Covid-19 pandemic has directed hospitals to concentrate services for patients who are positive or still in undefined status. Some countries are even forced to build temporary structures or utilize multifunctional buildings such as sports/public halls. On the other hand, hospitals still have to keep performing other routine services and this becomes a challenge for them. When global attention nowadays focuses more on how hospitals serve the Covid-19 cases, this research proposes another side of healthcare service needed by people in the pandemic, which is the dental clinic. The spread of Covid-19 through droplets puts both dental patients and practitioners at risk target of Covid-19 transmission. Therefore, particular standards and protocols are mandatory to be deployed. A prototype design of the temporary dental clinic is the main output from this research. The main objective is to provide service for the community without being afraid of contracting the pandemic as the clinic will be isolated from the regular hospital buildings. To achieve this objective, this research employed three approaches for the methodology. It was started with the desk study to review references on recent technology of temporary building structures. Followed by the online questionnaire using the Google platform distributed to 206 registered dental practitioners in Aceh, in collaboration with the Indonesian Dental Association, Aceh Province, Indonesia. The questionnaire collected the data related to the needs, standards, procedures, and dental service protocols under the Covid-19 pandemic as the main reference for the design process. The last approach was gathering feedback from dentists and international architects who are experts in building science and technology. This was done through a series of pre-design reviews. This research has a high degree of urgency globally, including Saudi Arabia, which is also impacted by the Covid-19 pandemic. It is also in line with Saudi Vision 2030 to enhance the standard quality and sustainability of healthcare services. The prototype design proposed in this research does not only contribute to the Covid-19 pandemic in particular but also post-Covid scenarios or other possible global pandemics in the future.

11.
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research ; 16(6):ZC29-ZC34, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1897156

ABSTRACT

Introduction: It is necessary to prioritize occupational welfare, safety of dental students and health professionals to reduce coronavirus transmission, to offer the best benefit for patients. Aim: To assess knowledge regarding standard operating procedures to be adhered in clinical setting during pandemic amongst undergraduate, postgraduate dental students and dental interns of dental colleges in northwest region, Karnataka. Materials and Methods: This observational cross-sectional study was undertaken in dental colleges in northwest region, Karnataka from January 2021 to February 2021. Sample size was estimated to be 360 based on a pilot study. Participants were selected by the simple random sampling technique and were interviewed using a questionnaire comprising of 20 close-ended questions. The questionnaire was evaluated for reliability with Cronbach's α value of 0.82, face validity 0.85%, and content validity ratio 0.76. The collected data was entered in MS Excel and analysed using Statistical Package of the Social Science (IBM-SPSS) statistics-version 21 using descriptive analysis, Chi-square analysis, spearman's correlation coefficient test, and regression. Results: The mean age of the participants was 24.6±1.35 years with marked gender distribution of 261 (72.5%) females and 99 (27.5%) males. Overall knowledge score for the standard operating procedure to be adhered during the pandemic was found to be 10.92±1.96 (undergraduates), 12.68±1.80 (postgraduates) and 11.55±1.82 (interns). More than half of the respondents 57.78% displayed a moderate level of knowledge. Spearman's correlation coefficient test revealed a high statistically significant difference between awareness about Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among participants and recommended masks during the procedure. Conclusion: Postgraduate students had higher knowledge regarding standard operating procedures to be adhered in dental clinics compared to undergraduate students and interns. It's necessary that dental students are aware of latest infection control guidelines and implement them into their practices right from beginning.

12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(50): 75338-75343, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1872664

ABSTRACT

After the outbreak of COVID-19, many dental clinics use dry fogging of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to disinfect the air and surfaces. Inhalation of highly concentrated solutions of H2O2 may cause severe respiratory problems. This study aimed to estimate the health risk assessments of inhalation exposure to dry fogging of H2O2 in a dental clinic. This cross-sectional, descriptive-analytical study was performed to determine the inhalation exposure and health risk of 9 dental clinic staff with H2O2 in six rooms. Occupational exposure to H2O2 was assessed using the OSHA VI-6 method and a personal pump with the flow rate of 500 mL/min connected to the midget fritted-glass impinger containing 15 mL of TiOSO4 collecting solution. The health effects of H2O2 exposure were assessed using a respiratory symptoms questionnaire. The health risk assessment of inhaled exposure to H2O2 was also performed using the method provided by the Singapore occupational health department. The mean respiratory exposure of clinic staff to H2O2 was ranged from 1.3 to 2.83 ppm for six rooms which was above the limits recommended by international organizations. Dyspnea (44.4%), cough (33.3%), and nasal burning (22.2%) were the most prevalent health problems. The results also showed a medium risk for endodontics and surgery, and lower risk for periodontics, restorative care, orthodontics, and prosthetics. The results of this study indicate that when using an automated hydrogen peroxide-vapor fogger, calculating the spraying time based on room volume and using the rooms after 30 min of fogging is very important and can greatly reduce the risk ranking.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inhalation Exposure , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dental Clinics , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/analysis , Pandemics , Risk Assessment
13.
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 16(4):509-513, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1870361

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak has affected dentists all over the world, including those in the Pakistan. It has had a huge impact on the practice of dental professionals as they are in direct contact with oral and nasal secretions of patients in the field. We conducted this study to find out how dental practitioners felt about the outbreak and how they believed it will affect the dental profession. To assess the impact of COVID-19 outbreak in Pakistan an exploratory cross-sectional study of dental professionals was conducted. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to consenting participants between October and December 2021 via an online data collection platform (Google forms). These questionnaires were to collect the data about the understanding and awareness about the pandemics impact on respondent’s sociodemo graphics and psychological health. The data analysis in this study was done using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. The study included 118 dental practitioners from the Pakistan, with an average age of 39.25 years and a majority of the participants were males. COVID 19 was determined to be well-understood by nearly 91 (77.1 %) respondents. COVID-19 was of the grave concern for more than half of the participants, 64 (54.24%), with the danger of catching the virus in the dentistry clinic being the most concerning cause of concern 64 (54.24%). It is concluded that the dental practitioners had an excellent awareness about the epidemiology, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of COVID-19.

14.
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science ; 21(2):467-469, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1736749

ABSTRACT

Inserted a big size of rubber ear phone cover into the nose is a rare case.Foreign body regarding children is common and need to be seriously considered.Nowadays, using an earphone for music players and games isverycommon among children that need to be more cautious.In general practitioner’s practice, several limitations seen with no fully equipped and emergency trolley, no general anaesthetic set up and no X ray. In this case report, we reported a 10-year-old child with bad smelling breath for 2 years with on and off pain and difficulty in breathing. It has become worsened until the child informshis mother regarding this incidence last weeks. Last 2 weeks, the child was examined in dental clinic for this bad smelling breath and no dental problem identify. The parents were refused to bring the child to the hospital because of this Covid-19 situation worsening in this state currently. They decided to cometo nearby general practitioner where the smelly and soaked with pus in this ear was removed without any complication in that clinic without any anaesthesia using blunt crocodile forceps.

15.
Chiang Mai University Journal of Natural Sciences ; 21(1), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1709128

ABSTRACT

Criteria for dental clinic design in Thailand are recommended by the Design and Construction Division, Department of Health Service Support, Ministry of Public Health. During the Coronavirus disease pandemic (COVID-19), there were several procedures regarding dental operations and infection prevention suggested by researchers and international health organizations, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the World Health Organization (WHO). However, some criteria still have discrepancies in practice, since they have no definite correct answers. This research describes the dental clinic redesign for COVID-19 control using dental setting design guidelines in both Thailand and foreign countries. The re-designed planning of the clinic was reviewed by dentists, engineers, and physicians. The issue of concern is the cost and the design’s value in the disinfection of facilities. Significant proven methods of disinfection are used in this paper, including functional re-consideration, negative air pressure rooms, filters, Ultra-Violet devices, and ozonators. This research contributes to the literature by providing a functional diagram for dental clinic adjustment in the COVID-19 situation. The 12 air changes per hour (ACH) ventilation combined with management protocol ensures that patients’ safety is a priority and provides a feasible option for adaptation in a developing country such as Thailand. © 2021. Author (s). This is an open access article distributed under the term of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution, and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author (s) and the source.

16.
European Journal of Molecular and Clinical Medicine ; 9(1):676-685, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1695497

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of the COVID-19virus and related pneumonia has posed a major challenge for healthcare systems worldwide. The infection was discovered in the city of Wuhan, Central of China and swept across the world.Theincubation period of the viruscan range from 1-14 days, and the virus spread can happen in the absence of clinical symptoms as well.The most frequently reported symptoms are fever, cough, dyspnea, and myalgia or fatigue. Modes for transmission of virus include direct transmission through coughing,sneezing, and inhalation of droplets and contact transmission through contact with nasal, oral, and ocular mucosa. Droplet and aerosol transmission of the virus are the most common causes of COVID-19 infection in dental clinics and hospitals.COVID-19 virus has lately been detected in saliva of infected patients, thus posing an alert to health professionals to be customarily vigilant in protecting against the infectious disease spread. Because of the presence of virus in saliva, it may be helpful as a non-invasive tool in the rapid detection of the virus.During this pandemic dissemination of COVID-19, dental treatment must be confined to the procedures that cannot be deferred. All the precautions must be taken in terms of triaging, personal protective equipment, hand hygiene, pre-procedural mouthrinse, use of rubber dam, disinfection of the surfaces. Dental professionals are at the highest risk of COVID-19 infection;hence, dental practicehas to be reorganized in order to ensure higher safety standards for both dentists and patients.

17.
Current Medical Issues ; 19(4):230-235, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1592195

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the risk of airborne transmission of infections in health-care facilities such as dental clinics. In this experimental study, methods to control airborne particles in a simulated dental clinic setting were measured and compared using a low cost and convenient technique. Materials and Methods: Particles representing inhalable airborne particles were generated using smoke from incense sticks and their concentration measured by handheld particle sensors whereas using different engineering controls for the particle removal in dental clinic equivalent settings. Measurements were made at short (<3 ft) and intermediate (between 3 and 6 ft) distance from the source. The particle filtration through surgical masks and N95 masks was also studied. Results: Natural ventilation, by keeping windows open, can reduce intermediate range particles (removal of 4.7% of ambient particles/min). However, in closed facilities without natural ventilation, particle removal by air purifier combined with overhead fan or with high volume evacuators was found most suitable for intermediate range particles (25.9%/min) and for short range particles (27.6%/min), respectively. N95 masks were found to filter out 99.5% of the generated PM 2.5 particles. Conclusions: Potentially inhalable airborne particles can persist in the air of a dental clinic. The use of N95 masks and environmental controls is essential for the dental team's safety. The choice of an engineering control is governed by multiple factors explained in the study. Smoke particles generated by incense sticks and measurement by handheld particle sensors are low-cost methods to estimate the effectiveness of airborne particle controls.

18.
Med Educ Online ; 26(1): 1983927, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483271

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The volume of literature about serious gaming in dental education has increased, however, none of the previous studies have developed a serious game for closing the gap between preclinical and clinical training. OBJECTIVE: Virtual Dental Clinic (VDC) is a serious game that was created to help develop clinical reasoning skills in dental students. This study aimed to evaluate VDC as an educational tool and its effectiveness on clinical skill and knowledge gain among clerkship dental students. METHODS: The following three stages of VDC design and testing were addressed from 2016 to 2020: development, validation, and application. The VDC was developed using Unity game engine. In the validation stage, the content validity was reviewed by five visiting staff; construct validity and face validity were examined by 9 postgraduate-year dentists and 14 clerkship dental students. Concurrent validity and predictive validity were examined by 34 fifth-year dental students during their clerkship from September, 2018 to May, 2019, the associations between VDC experiences, clerkship performance, and the score on a national qualification test were explored. In the application stage, the VDC was set up as a self-learning tool in the Family Dentistry Department from August, 2019, quantitative and qualitative analyses were conducted using the 92 clerkship students' feedback. RESULTS: The VDC showed good validity and a high potential for education in practice. Students who have used VDC received significantly higher scores on qualification test (p = 0.029); the VDC experiences significantly predicted higher performance score on periodontics (p = 0.037) and endodontics (p = 0.040). After the outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic, significantly higher proportion of students confirmed the value of VDC as an assistant tool for learning clinical reasoning (p = 0.019). CONCLUSIONS: The VDC as an educational tool, and the effectiveness on clinical reasoning skills and knowledge gain among clerkship dental students has been validated and confirmed in this study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clinical Clerkship , Students, Medical , Clinical Competence , Dental Clinics , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Students, Dental , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
Build Environ ; 205: 108225, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454045

ABSTRACT

The exposure risk of droplets and aerosols emitted from the oral cavity to the dental professionals and patients has received more attention especially the ongoing outbreak of COVID-19. The aim of this study is to address the question about how the use of the high-volume evacuation (HVE) alters the risk profiles compared with the situation only personal protective equipment (PPE). The risk profiles of the different situations were analyzed in terms of droplet velocity, flow field characteristics, and particle removal efficiency. The ultrasonic scaling with suction was performed in the mock-up experimental dental clinic, and the instantaneous moment when the HVE acted on the droplets was visualized using a laser light scattering technique. From the results of the velocity profiles, the hypothesis about the moderate effect of the HVE on high-velocity small droplets near the mannequin's mouth had been firstly proven in this study. The suction can be characterized as low-threshold equipment to bring substantial benefits to reduce the area of the contaminated region. Once the cooperation of suction, the pair of vortexes that were in the face shield area of the dental professional would be eliminated, removing the high-level contaminated region near the breathing area of dental professionals. Compared with the low and medium volume evacuation, the particle removal efficiency of the HVE was more stable at 60%. The research will provide references to the HVE recommendation in the dentistry clinical practice guidelines.

20.
Sci Prog ; 104(3): 368504211042980, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430320

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the truthfulness of patients about their pre-appointment COVID-19 screening tests at a dental clinic. METHODS: A total of 613 patients were recruited for the study from the dental clinic at the Faculty of Dentistry, Najran University, Saudi Arabia. The data collection was done in three parts from the patients who visited the hospital to receive dental treatment. The first part included the socio-demographic characteristics of the patients and the COVID-19 swab tests performed within the past 14 days. The second part was the clinical examination, and the third part was a confirmation of the swab test taken by the patient by checking the Hesen website using the patient ID. After data collection, statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 26.0. Descriptive analysis was done and expressed as mean, standard deviation, frequency, and percentage (%). A cross-tabulation, also described as a contingency table, was used to identify trends and patterns across data and explain the correlation between different variables. RESULTS: It was seen from the status of the swab test within 14 days of the patient's arrival at the hospital for the dental treatment that 18 (2.9%) patients lied about the pre-treatment swab test within 14 days, and 595 (97.1%) were truthful. The observed and expected counts showed across genders and diagnosis a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001), and there was no significant difference seen across different age groups (p = 0.064) of the patients. CONCLUSIONS: Dental healthcare workers are worried and assume a high risk of COVID-19 infection as the patients are not truthful about the pre-treatment COVID-19 swab test. Routine rapid tests on patients and the healthcare staff are a feasible option for lowering overall risks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Patient Compliance/statistics & numerical data , Truth Disclosure/ethics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Testing , Dental Offices/ethics , Dental Offices/organization & administration , Female , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Office Visits/statistics & numerical data , Patient Compliance/psychology , Risk , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
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