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1.
Revista Brasileira de Oftalmologia ; 81, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1957667

ABSTRACT

With the advent of the pandemic scenario caused by SARS-CoV-2 in the beginning of the year 2020, a vast clinical picture was noticed among the infected individuals. Among the most common eye symptoms caused by Covid-19, dry eye (DE) has become quite prevalent in this environment. The narrative review study seeks to assess the risk factors associated with the emergence or intensification of DE conditions in the population during the pandemic period. A literature review showed the influence of positive pressure ventilation, incorrect use of masks, as well as electronic screens, in addition to anxiety and depression as predisposing factors for the development of dry eye disease. However, the need for more explanatory studies and for establishing a direct relationship between the causality of the factors is still noted

2.
Turk Geriatri Dergisi ; 25(2):291-300, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1957659

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The purpose of this research was to determine the individual factors that predict the subjective memory complaints of older adults during the Covid-19 pandemic. Materials and Method: The sample of the study consisted of 356 older adults aged between 60 and 88 years (x̄= 67.03, SD = 5.72). Subjective Memory Complaints Questionnaire, Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form, The Scale of Loneliness for the Elderly, Quality of Life Scale in Older People, and SocioDemographic Information Form were administered to the participants. In order to examine the relationships among the variables, correlation analysis was performed. In addition, a hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to determine the variables predicting subjective memory complaints. Results: The subjective memory complaints of this age group were found to be positively related to depression and loneliness levels, while they were discovered to be negatively associated with quality of life. The results of hierarchical regression analysis indicated that each of the variables of gender, perceived socioeconomic status, loneliness, quality of life, and depression included in the analysis at different steps were a significant predictors of subjective memory complaints. Conclusion: Our results showed that there is a need for interventions that will expand social support networks, improve quality of life, and reduce depression levels in order to prevent subjective memory complaints of elderly individuals during the Covid-19 pandemic.

3.
Nevrologiya, Neiropsikhiatriya, Psikhosomatika ; 14(3):4-11, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1957600

ABSTRACT

Currently, patients who attribute their complaints and disorders to the past COVID-19 are turning to a neurologist for a consultation. One should consider dangerous complications of COVID-19 such as stroke, including cerebral venous thrombosis, autoimmune encephalitis and myelitis, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, Guillain-Barre' syndrome. Disorders of consciousness, disorders of smell and taste, headache and dizziness are significantly more often present in the acute period of COVID-19. Long-term persistence of complaints and disorders after COVID-19 is regarded as post-COVID syndrome (PCS). Neurological complaints and disorders in a patient who has had COVID-19 are often caused by the development or exacerbation of a comorbid disease, including primary headache, musculoskeletal pain in the neck and back, various vestibular disorders, Alzheimer's disease, anxiety and depressive disorders. Unfortunately, in real clinical practice, these diseases are often not diagnosed, patients are observed with a diagnosis of PCS, and it is not taken into account that the basis for diagnosing PCS is the exclusion of other diseases that can explain complaints and disorders in a patient who has suffered from COVID-19.

4.
Revista Latinoamericana de Hipertension ; 17(2):176-184, 2022.
Article in Spanish | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1957534

ABSTRACT

Childhood obesity (CO) is a health problem whose primary cause is positive energy balance (increased food intake and decreased physical activity) and which has been ag-gravated by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and by the measures put in place to mitigate it by inducing a more obe-sogenic environment, sedentary lifestyles and poor eating habits. Method and Purpose: Through a narrative review, we will describe the evidence of prevalence changes in CO during the COVID-19 pandemic and its associated factors. Findings: During the COVID-19 pandemic, significant in-creases in CO prevalence have been observed versus the pre-pandemic period, mainly affecting preschoolers. In addition, it has been possible to identify some elements possibly related to the changes observed such as screen time, eating habits, obesogenic environment, physical activity and sedentary lifestyle, depression and anxiety. Conclusiones: Despite the limited information from some countries regarding the behaviour of CO prevalence during the COVID-19 pandemic, there is an evident need to improve epidemiological surveillance systems and make rigorous investments to improve research in this area.

5.
Neuropsychiatric Investigation ; 60(2):42-48, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1957532

ABSTRACT

Objective: Sleep disturbances are reported as common in children during the COVID-19 outbreak. This study was designed to investigate relationship between sleep problems of children and depression/anxiety symptoms in both children and their parents. Methods: A total of 372 parents completed a web-based survey on sociodemographic and clinical data. The psychiatric status was assessed using Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21), Health Anxiety Inventory (HAI), Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale–Parent Version (RCADS-P), and Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children. Results: It was found that significant sleep disturbances were higher in school-aged children (P =.015). HAI and RCADS-P scores were higher in children with sleep disturbances in all developmental periods. DASS-21 subscale scores were higher in preschoolers and school-aged children with significant sleep disturbances. Conclusion: Depression and anxiety symptoms in children and parents are associated with sleep problems in children. In addition, school-aged children can be thought to be more at risk for depression/anxiety symptoms and sleep problems. Psychiatric evaluation of children and their parents is recommended when sleep problems occur in children during the COVID-19 outbreak.

6.
Neuropsychiatric Investigation ; 59(3):70-75, 2021.
Article in Turkish | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1957530

ABSTRACT

Objective: The aim of this study is to reveal the relationship between the anxiety levels of children diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 and who are hospitalized and their parents’ levels of depression, hopelessness, anxiety, and perceived social support. Methods: Childhood State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Hopelessness Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Perceived Social Support Scale were applied. The control group consisted of 56 children hospitalized in the general pediatric service with the diagnosis of acute bronchitis, pneumonia, lower respiratory tract infection, and their accompanying parents. Results: Children hospitalized with the diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 had significantly higher CSTAI scores and their parents’ BDI and STAI scores. In both groups, there was a positive significant relationship between the anxiety levels of the children and their parents’ depression, hopelessness, and anxiety levels. Conclusion: With the pandemic, mental afflictions were inevitable in children, but studies examining the psychological effects of children and their parents who have been diagnosed with the disease and are hospitalized are limited. The findings of the study show that children hospitalized with the diagnosis of COVID-19 and their parents are more psychologically affected. This study can be a pioneer for more comprehensive studies and rehabilitation studies.

7.
Indian Journal of Psychiatry ; 64(4):408-414, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1957517

ABSTRACT

Context: There is an increasing prevalence of internet addiction among adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic, but very few Indian studies have assessed and taken into account various factors that can explain internet addiction in this vulnerable population. Aims: We examine the differences in family functioning, temperament, character and psychopathology in adolescents with and without internet addiction. Settings and Design: 1000 adolescents from urban middle-class families were included in this cross-sectional, two-randomized-group designed, comparative study. Clinical and control group population were selected from high schools. Those with severe internet addiction were compared to those with no addiction. Methods and Materials: Internet Addiction Test, Temperament and Character Inventory, Devereux Scale of Mental Disorders and McMaster Family Assessment Device were administered along with General Health and CRAFFT Questionnaire as screening tool. Statistical Analysis Used: Mann-Whitney U test was done along with Spearman's rank-difference coefficient of correlation. Result: Adolescents with internet addiction had high novelty seeking and low persistence. Internet addiction was also associated with conduct problems and depression. There was a significant positive association between depression and years of internet usage. Family of adolescents with internet addiction had increased difficulty in problem solving, communication, affective responsiveness, affective involvement and behavior control. Conclusion: Adolescents with internet addiction have temperament difficulties, more psychopathology and belong to dysfunctional families. Since the family plays a central role in an Indian context, family-focused strategies must also be included in the management of internet addiction.

8.
Indian Journal of Psychiatry ; 64(4):354-363, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1957516

ABSTRACT

Background: Literature suggests that the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in poor sleep quality, especially among the infected population. However, literature regarding the effect of COVID-19 pandemic and SARS-CoV-2 infection on occurrence of insomnia, restless legs syndrome and dream enactment behavior is either scarce or unavailable. Methods: This study was planned to assess the effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection on the occurrence of insomnia, restless legs syndrome (RLS) and dream enactment behavior (DEB). For this cross-sectional study, a questionnaire comprising of items related to demographic details, past medical history, and information related to SARS-CoV-2 infection was distributed through social media. Insomnia was diagnosed using clinical criteria. RLS, DEB, sleep quality, depression and anxiety were assessed using a validated questionnaire. Information regarding the use of hypnotic medications was also gathered. Results: Of the 1596 respondents, 37.2% reported disturbed sleep while insomnia was reported by 22.6% respondents. 27.3% of respondents reported RLS and 17.4% suffered DEB. The odds of insomnia were greater among males (OR = 1.27;95% CI: 1.03-1.58;P < 0.02) and among those who had SARS-CoV-2 infection (OR = 1.76;95% CI = 1.42-2.19;P < 0.001). Similarly, SARS-CoV-2 infection was also associated with increased odds of RLS (OR = 2.48;95% CI = 1.98-3.11;P < 0.001) and DEB (OR = 1.58;95%CI = 1.21-2.06;P < 0.001). Insomnia, RLS and DEB were more frequent among respondents who required oxygen therapy, those who experienced loss of taste and/or smell, depression and anxiety. Prevalence of insomnia, DEB and RLS was higher than said prevalence among respondents with no history of SARS-CoV-2 infection, but lower than that of those with positive history of SARS-CoV-2 infection. 5.3% of respondents reported taking hypnotic medications before infection, 7% during infection and 5.3% after infection. Conclusion: SARS-CoV-2-infection-related factors in association with environmental factors have increased the prevalence of insomnia, DEB and RLS among subjects having infection. SARS-CoV-2-associated immunological changes, hypoxia and neurotropism may play a role in occurrence of insomnia, DEB and RLS.

9.
Clinical Schizophrenia and Related Psychoses ; 16(2), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1957145

ABSTRACT

Background: Pregnant, childbirth, and postpartum women are a vulnerable population to COVID-19. Although our understanding of this disease is evolving every day, more answers are needed about the diagnosis and methods of clinical management in this group, the impact of the disease on pregnant women and newborns, and the potential for mother-to-child transmission, including anxiety and depression. Objectives: The study aims to identify factors that cause stress and depression in pregnant women during COVID-19. Methods: This study is a cross-sectional study on pregnant women. Descriptive analysis is to explore the distribution of variables using the frequency distribution test and the influence of these factors on fears, depression and anxiety in pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic using Structural Equation Modelling Analysis. Results: This study found that education, comorbid factors, economy, education and pregnancy status did not affect fears, depression and anxiety in pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic with a p-value >0.05. Conclusion: Fears, depression and anxiety among pregnant women purely occur due to individual psychological conditions and are not influenced by the situation. Psychological strengthening for pregnant women is needed to be carried out continuously and not influenced by the COVID-19 situation in Indonesia.

10.
Sexually Transmitted Infections ; 98:A16, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1956899

ABSTRACT

Introduction The COVID-19 pandemic presented challenges to delivery of reproductive health services. To explore effects, we examined patterns of contraceptive use, service access and pregnancy planning in the year following the first UK lockdown. Methods The Natsal-COVID Wave 2 survey was conducted in March-April 2021, one year after the first lockdown began in Britain. We analysed a subset of sexually-active participants aged 18-44 years and described as female at birth. We estimated differences in outcomes by age and markers of vulnerability. We examined changing contraception use, access to and unmet need for contraceptive services, and London Measure of Unplanned Pregnancy scores (LMUP;range 0-12). Results Of 1,488 eligible participants, 78.0% were considered at risk of unplanned pregnancies. Of 441 at-risk participants who tried to access contraceptive services, 16.4% faced barriers. Young participants (18-24 years) were most likely to report trying to access contraceptive services (38.4%;(32.2, 45.0);vs 28.4% overall) and to face barriers doing so (OR: 2.87 (1.36, 6.06)). Encountering barriers was more likely among participants reporting no educational qualifications and those reporting symptoms of anxiety or depression. 199 participants reported a pregnancy in the last year. Pregnancies to young participants were less likely to be 'planned' (difference in mean LMUP score: -2.95;(-3.91, -1.99)). Less 'planned' pregnancies were associated with lower social grades and becoming unemployed. Discussion Young and vulnerable participants were more likely to report difficulties accessing reproductive services and less planned pregnancies during the pandemic. In navigating pandemic recovery, sexual health services should consider the needs of these at-risk groups.

11.
Revista Española de Geriatría y Gerontología ; 2022.
Article in Spanish | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1956323

ABSTRACT

Resumen Antecedentes: Los riesgos para la salud que enfrentan los adultos mayores son diversos;sin embargo, poco se ha explorado acerca del uso y abuso de sustancias psicoactivas en esta población. La reclusión impuesta por la situación que prevalece debido al SARS-Cov2 ha incrementado los sentimientos de soledad, aislamiento y tristeza asociados a esta edad, que los convierte en un factor de riesgo para el consumo de drogas. Objetivo: Analizar el consumo de drogas legales e ilegales en el personas mayores de 60 años usuarios de Facebook y su relación con síntomas de depresión durante la pandemia por SARS-Cov2. Material y métodos: Estudio realizado a 380 personas mayores, usuarios de Facebook, que respondieron un cuestionario publicado en línea, que indagó sobre: datos sociodemográficos, frecuencia y cantidad de consumo de drogas legales e ilegales y sintomatología depresiva. Resultados: 50.26% fueron mujeres;la edad promedio fue de 66.79 años (DS=5.81);31.05% consumieron alcohol en los últimos 30 días, 22.63% tabaco, tranquilizantes sin prescripción médica 16.05% y mariguana 7.89%. El consumo de otras drogas ilegales no superaron al 2.6% de la población. Al comparar entre consumidores y no consumidores, resultó que el consumo en los últimos 30 días fue ligeramente mayor en mujeres, en solteros y no se observaron diferencias en función del nivel de escolaridad. Los síntomas de depresión leve y grave se encontró asociada con todas las drogas a excepción de tabaco y opiáceos. Discusión y conclusiones: Los resultados obtenidos demuestran la necesidad de visibilizar el consumo de drogas entre los adultos mayores y de desarrollar estrategias que disminuyan las alteraciones anímicas que pueden estar experimentando, como el miedo, la angustia y la depresión. Background: The health risks faced by older adults are diverse;however, little has been explored about the use and abuse of psychoactive substances in this population. The seclusion imposed by the situation that prevails due to SARS-Cov2 has increased the feelings of loneliness, isolation and sadness associated with this age, which makes them a risk factor for drug use. Objective: To analyze the consumption of legal and illegal drugs in people over 60 years of age who are Facebook users and its relationship with symptoms of depression during the SARS-Cov2 pandemic. Material and methods: Study carried out on 380 elderly people, Facebook users, who answered a questionnaire published online, which inquired about: sociodemographic data, frequency and amount of legal and illegal drug use, and depressive symptomatology. Results: 50.26% were women;the average age was 66.79 years (SD=5.81);31.05% consumed alcohol in the last 30 days, 22.63% tobacco, tranquilizers without medical prescription 16.05% and marijuana 7.89%. The consumption of other illegal drugs did not exceed 2.6% of the population. When comparing between users and non-users, it turned out that consumption in the last 30 days was slightly higher in women, in single people and no differences were observed depending on the level of schooling. Mild and severe depressive symptoms were found to be associated with all drugs except tobacco and opiates. Discussion and conclusions: The results obtained demonstrate the need to make drug use visible among older adults and to develop strategies that reduce the mood disorders they may be experiencing, such as fear, anguish and depression. When comparing between users and non-users, it turned out that consumption in the last 30 days was slightly higher in women, in single people and no differences were observed depending on the level of schooling.

12.
Psychiatry Research ; : 114748, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1956304

ABSTRACT

Preliminary research indicates that the COVID-19 illness affects the mental well-being of patients. This scoping review, thus, aims to examine the current state of research into mental health treatments for depression symptoms in COVID-19 patients. Select databases were searched on 7/1/2021. Full-text articles involved 1) mental health treatment 2) suicide and/or depression outcomes, 3) a quasi-experimental research trial, and 4) a primary analysis. 11 articles were included in this review. The studies spanned 5 countries, and demonstrated immediate positive effects of mental health treatments and tele-health as a treatment modality for depression in COVID-19 patients. 6 studies were randomized controlled trials. Various treatments were administered, including cognitive behavior therapy, mindfulness, and muscle relaxation. Most interventions were conducted in in-patient units and focused on acute symptoms. There were limitations in the design and description of methodology in many studies, which affects the generalizability and replicability of positive findings. Only two studies included a post-intervention follow-up and one study assessed suicide risk. Thus, this review found there is a pressing need for more research in the area, with greater rigor in study methodology, and for treatments targeting long-term symptoms and suicidality, and outpatient services.

13.
International Journal of Nursing Studies ; : 104328, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1956174

ABSTRACT

Background There is now a wealth of evidence showing that work is a major determinant of physical and mental health. Recent studies have suggested increased rates of depression in healthcare workers (HCWs) in the context of the Covid-19 pandemics, with direct impact on care quality and productivity. Aim To determine the rate of clinical depression in a national sample of HCWs in France during the post-Covid-19 area and to identify related factors (professional, individual and health-related risk behaviours) using a structural equation modelling analysis. Method A survey comprising of a number of standardized scales was sent to public and private national healthcare facilities through the mail or disseminated through emails from professional associations and social networks. Results 10325 participants were recruited;3122 (30.2%, 95% confidence interval [29.4-31.1]) met likely diagnostic criteria for clinical depression. Professional factors had the largest total effect (β=0.57) (burn-out :β=0.74, sustained bullying at the workplace β=0.48 and decision-making latitude β=-0.47). followed by individual factors (β=0.30) (the main individual factor was recurrent major depression, path coefficient = 0.67). Professional factors had both direct (path coefficient = 0.38) and indirect (through health risk behaviours, path coefficient = 0.19) effect on depression. Individual factors had a direct (path coefficient 0.21) and indirect (through health risk behaviours (path coefficient = 0.09) effect on depression. Health risk behaviours had a direct effect on depression (path coefficient = 0.31). Interpretation These results provide potential explanations for the likely causes of poor psychological health amongst HCWs. We propose several potential interventions related to professional factors and health risk behaviours. Our results suggest that improving organizational issues, reducing exposure to potentially morally injurious events, promoting brief naps at work and provision of evidence-based prevention approaches have been reported to be helpful in supporting the mental health of hospital staff (not only relaxation or stress management but training in leadership aspects, increasing the knowledge and practice of giving efficient performance feedback, reducing conflicting demands and peer support programs such as Trauma Risk Management. Our data suggest that developing caregivers reported experience and outcomes measures (CREMs/CROMs) would be helpful to monitor work environment and its effect on depression in healthcare workers.

14.
Archives of Psychiatric Nursing ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1956086

ABSTRACT

Purpose This research was conducted to determine the depression, anxiety, and stress levels of individuals during the COVID-19 epidemic. In addition, the compatibility of the Depression-Anxiety-Stress Scale (DASS-21) scale results with the participants' feeling depressed, anxious, and stressed were examined. Design and methods The sample of the study consisted of 870 individuals over the age of 18 between May–August 2021. The data of the study were collected online, using the personal information form and DASS-21. Results In our study, it was observed that 22.3 % of the participants were severely depressed, 19.0 % were highly anxious and 14.3 % were highly stressed. In addition, a relationship was determined between many sociodemographic variables and depression, anxiety, and stress levels. It was found that individuals who were not vaccinated, did not receive health care, and were not satisfied with health care were more depressed, anxious, and stressed. The agreement between all DASS-21 sub-dimensions and participants' feeling is poor in terms of Cohen's kappa. The agreement is poor in the anxiety sub dimension, but moderate in the other sub-dimensions in terms of Gwet's AC1. Practice implications It is recommended that nurses develop new care and evaluation strategies for the psychosocial field in order to protect and maintain the health of individuals during the COVID-19 pandemic process, as well as more practices promoting the COVID-19 vaccine in our country.

15.
Progress in Neurology and Psychiatry ; 26(2):16-17, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1955932
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(15)2022 Jul 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957329

ABSTRACT

Previous studies show detrimental effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and associated lockdowns on the lives of adolescents. Adolescents have experienced disruption in their daily routines, including changes in health behaviors such as an increased sedentary behavior and increased smartphone usage. The aim of this study was to assess the association of health behaviors with mental health problems in Austrian adolescents during the pandemic. Five cross-sectional surveys (February 2021 to May 2022) were performed during the pandemic assessing physical activity, smartphone usage, depressive symptoms (PHQ-9), anxiety symptoms (GAD-7), sleep quality (ISI-7), and stress (PSS-10). In total, N = 7201 adolescents (age: 14-20 years ((MW±SD): 16.63 ± 1.49 years); 70.2% female, 18.8% migration background) participated. A strong increase in mobile phone usage as well as a decrease in physical activity as compared to pre-pandemic data were observed (p < 0.001). Compared to the lowest smartphone user group (<1 h/d), the adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for all investigated mental health symptoms increased with increasing smartphone usage up to 3.2-6.8 in high-utilizers (>8 h/d). The aORs for depressive, anxiety, insomnia, and stress symptoms decreased in physically active compared to inactive adolescents. Results highlight the need for measures to promote responsible smartphone usage as well as to increase physical activity, so as to promote mental health in adolescence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Pandemics , Young Adult
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(15)2022 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957288

ABSTRACT

The impact of COVID-19 has forced higher education institutes to go into lockdown in order to curb the situation. This sudden change caused students within the institutions to forgo traditional face to face classroom settings and to attend immediate online classes. This review aims to summarize the evidence of the social demographic mental health impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on students in higher education institutes within the Asia Pacific region and identify the coping mechanisms adopted during these times. A systematic literature search was conducted using three databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scopus), out of which 64 studies met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. The findings revealed that the social demographic groups most at risk were female students, those who were in the final years of their studies (i.e., students who were almost graduating), and postgraduate students as well as students studying medical fields (nursing, dental, medicine, health sciences etc.). The majority of the studies identified that students were relying on mobile devices and extended screen time to cope with the pandemic. Having proper social support, be it through a network of friends or positive family cohesion, can be a good buffer against the mental impacts of COVID-19. Students in higher education institutes are at risk of mental consequences due to COVID-19. By reducing their screen time, finding a healthier coping system, increasing the availability of support within the family and community, as well as actively engaging in beneficial activities students may be able to alleviate general negative emotions, specifically during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Students/psychology
18.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 10(8)2022 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957275

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the recent pandemic, Healthcare Professionals (HCPs) presented a significant prevalence of psychological health problems and sleep disturbances. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of COVID-19 on HCPs' sleep and mental stress with a separate analysis for primary care HCPs. METHODS: A cross-sectional observational study with an online anonymized, self-reported questionnaire was conducted in May 2020 (1st wave) and repeated in December 2020 (2nd wave). Patient health questionnaire-4 (PHQ-4), dimensions of anger reactions-5 (DAR-5) scale, 3-item UCLA loneliness scale (LS) and sleep condition indicator (SCI) were used. RESULTS: Overall, 574 participants were included from the 1st wave, 514 from the 2nd and 469 were followed during both. Anxiety and depression were significantly higher during the 2nd wave vs. the 1st (32.8% vs. 12.7%, p < 0.001 and 37.7% vs. 15.8%, p < 0.001). During the 2nd wave, HCPs scored significantly higher in DAR-5 (9.23 ± 3.82 vs. 7.3 ± 3.3, p < 0.001) and LS (5.88 ± 1.90 vs. 4.9 ± 1.9, p < 0.001) with worse sleep quality SCI (23.7 ± 6.6 vs. 25.4 ± 3.2, p < 0.001). This was more evident in primary care HCPs. Significant correlations were found between SCI and PHQ4, DAR5 and LS. CONCLUSION: There is a need to support HCPs' mental health and sleep, especially in those working in primary care.

19.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 10(8)2022 Jul 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957268

ABSTRACT

There was a change in the pattern of substance usage among people who use substances during the COVID-19 pandemic period. This study aims to determine the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the pattern of substance usage among people who use drugs (PWUD) receiving treatment at the University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) as well as levels of anxiety and depression together with coping mechanisms and the factors affecting the pattern of substance use during COVID-19 pandemic period. A cross-sectional study was applied. The questionnaire used was the Mini-European Web Survey on Drugs (EWSD): COVID-19, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and Brief COPE Scale. In total, 130 PWUD were recruited. Of the participants, 36.2% of PWUD had not used/stopped the usage of illicit drugs/alcohol, 26.2% increased their usage, 20% decreased, and 14.6% used the same amount of illicit substances/alcohol during the COVID-19 pandemic period/restrictions. In addition, 28.5% of PWUD had an increased intention to seek professional support for drug counseling/treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic period. The prevalence anxiety and depression symptoms in PWUD according to HADS was 33% and 41.5%, respectively, with depression (p = 0.05) and isolation status (adjusted OR = 2.63, p < 0.05) being associated with an increase in alcohol/illicit substance use during the COVID-19 pandemic. PWUD who had increased their intention to seek professional support had significantly higher odds (adjusted OR = 4.42, p < 0.01) of reducing their alcohol/illicit substance use during the COVID-19 pandemic period. There were increased odds of maintaining alcohol/illicit substance usage among PWUD who practiced dysfunctional coping (adjusted OR = 3.87, p < 0.025) during the COVID-19 pandemic period. In conclusion, depression, isolation status, dysfunctional coping, and intention to seek professional support affected the pattern of alcohol/illicit substance use during the COVID-19 pandemic period. Strategies, substance rehabilitation/counseling, and proper mental health screening and the associated risk factors must be emphasized to prevent a further epidemic of substance use during the pandemic.

20.
Brain Sci ; 12(8)2022 Jul 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957226

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Few studies have evaluated cognitive functioning and mental health in children and adolescents who contracted the SARS-CoV-2 infection. We investigated the prevalence and association of neuropsychological difficulties, psychological symptoms, and self-reported long-COVID complaints in a sample of adolescents. METHODS: Thirty-one adolescents infected by COVID-19 within 3-6 months prior to the assessment were included. Neuropsychological difficulties, psychological symptoms, and self-reported long-COVID complaints were evaluated using a checklist and a battery of multiple standardized measures, using a telehealth procedure. Symptoms during the infection were also detected. RESULTS: We included 31 adolescents (23 girls, 8 boys; mean age 14.1, SD = 2). We found borderline scores in 32.3% and 45.2% of our sample for phonemic and category fluency, respectively. A high percentage of participants showed symptoms of depression (80.6%) and anxiety (61.3%). Fifty-eight percent reported at least one long-COVID symptom. The most common symptoms were headache and attention problems (58%). Subjects presenting numbness/weakness, fatigue, brain fog, or attention problems had higher scores in depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress symptoms (p ≤ 0.05). CONCLUSION: This is a pilot study limited by the lack of control group. However, we found that cognitive, psychological, and physical symptoms were very common among adolescents recovered from COVID-19.

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