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1.
Psychol Res Behav Manag ; 15: 1311-1323, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869280

ABSTRACT

Objective: To find out the association of physical activity, dietary habits and factors associated with depression among medical students of Sindh, Pakistan, during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Methods: An online cross-sectional study was conducted between June and August, 2020, on medical students from three medical institutions of Sindh, Pakistan. The study comprised three structured questionnaires related to demographic details, physical activity, dietary and sleep habits, COVID-19 pandemic-associated factors and patient health questionnaire, PHQ-9. A total of 864 students completed the questionnaires and participated in the study. The data was analysed on SPSS version 23. Results: Our study showed that 244 (28.2%) medical students had mild depression, 192 (22.2%) had moderate depression, 80 (9.3%) had moderately severe depression and 80 (9.3%) had severe depression during the COVID-19 pandemic. Out of 864 students, 268 (31%) had no depression. Socioeconomic status, body mass index (BMI), chronic disease/comorbidity, addiction and non-medical prescription drug use were found to be statistically significant predictors of depression among medical students. On multilogistic regression analysis, physical activity, social media/app use and sleeping habits during COVID-19 were associated with depression (p-value < 0.05). Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic adversely affected physical activity and sleeping habits in association with depression among medical students. Promoting healthy eating habits, adequate physical activity, and a healthy lifestyle, particularly among students during lockdowns, is a critical component of coping with mental stress and depression. The findings of this study will aid in future research and campaign design in preparation for future pandemics and lockdowns.

2.
Nutrients ; 14(10)2022 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862862

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We evaluated the changes in lifestyle during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown in a sample of children and adolescents in order to assess any increase in risk factors for the onset of cardiovascular diseases in later ages. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study involving 965 parents who completed an online survey about dietary habits and lifestyle during the first lockdown in Italy (from 9 March 2020 to 18 May 2020) and compared their findings with the period before the pandemic. The inclusion criteria were parents (or caregivers) with Italian residency and with children aged between 5 and 18 years. RESULTS: We identified 563 adolescents and 402 children. The mean age was 12.28 years (SD 3.754). The pandemic was associated with an increase in the consumption of high-calorie snack foods. The total amount of food in homes during lockdown compared with before the pandemic increased 50%. Relating to the parent-perceived child weight status, more parents reported obesity in their children after lockdown (+0.6% in the 5-11 age group and +0.2% in the 12-18 age group). We reported a reduction of physical activity, an increase of sedentary lifestyle and sleep habits changes. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with changes in the lifestyles of children and adolescents; this could cause an increase in the incidence of obesity and of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in adulthood.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Feeding Behavior , Humans , Life Style , Obesity/epidemiology , Pandemics
3.
Front Nutr ; 9: 849314, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834487

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has been consistently associated with unhealthy lifestyle behaviors and dietary practices. This study aimed to assess the dietary and lifestyle behaviors of adults after COVID-19 vaccine availability and their attitude toward the vaccine in selected Arab countries. Methods: A cross-sectional survey-based study was conducted between October 2021 and December 2021 using Google Forms (n = 2259). A multi-component questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic characteristics, attitudes toward the COVID-19 vaccine, and behavioral, dietary, and lifestyle responses after easing the restriction. Participants were given a score based on the sum of positive dietary and lifestyle changes. The generalized linear models were used to identify the association between positive dietary and lifestyle changes score and sociodemographic characteristics. Results: Weight gain during the pandemic was reported by 39.5% of the participants, 36.1% reported ever getting infected with the COVID-19 virus, and 85% received at least one dose of the vaccine. The key adverse reactions of the COVID-19 vaccine were fatigue, headache, and joint pain, and the main reason for vaccination was protection against infection. Most participants were concerned about the vaccine side effects (45.8%) and inadequate testing (50.7%). After easing of restriction, 54.3% of the participants reduced the frequency of disinfecting objects, and 58.3% joined social events. Most dietary and lifestyle behaviors remained unchanged after vaccine availability but there was an increase in the time spent behind the screen for work (50.1%) and entertainment (42.9%). The results of the multivariate regression analyses revealed that older participants (p = 0.001), those with higher education (p = 0.010), and those working from home (p = 0.040) were more likely to have higher positive dietary and lifestyle changes scores. Conclusion: Although most participants were concerned about vaccine safety, low vaccine hesitancy rates were observed among the study sample. The availability of the COVID-19 vaccines resulted in loosening some of the safety social measures among Arab adults but the negative impact of the pandemic on dietary and lifestyle behaviors remained unaltered.

4.
Curr Med Chem ; 2022 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834103

ABSTRACT

Inflammation is a physiological, beneficial and auto-limiting response of the host to alarming stimuli. Conversely, a chronic systemic low-grade inflammation (CSLGI), known as a long-time persisting condition, causes organs and host tissues' damage, representing a major risk for chronic diseases. Currently, a worldwide a high incidence of inflammatory chronic diseases is observed, often linked to the lifestyle-related changes occurred in the last decade's society. The mains lifestyle-related factors are a proinflammatory diet, psychological stress, tobacco smoking, alcohol abuse, physical inactivity, and finally indoor living and working with its related consequences such as indoor pollution, artificial light exposure and low vitamin D production. Recent scientific evidences found that gut microbiota (GM) has a main role in shaping the host's health, particularly as CSLGI mediator. As a matter of facts, based on the last discoveries regarding the remarkable GM activity, in this manuscript we focused on the elements of actual lifestyle that influence the composition and function of intestinal microbial community, in order to elicit the CSLGI and its correlated pathologies. In this scenario, we provide a broad review of the interplay between modern lifestyle, GM and CSLGI with a special focus on the COVID symptoms and emerging long-COVID syndrome.

5.
Nutrients ; 14(9)2022 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820348

ABSTRACT

Many studies have shown that the immune system requires adequate nutrition to work at an optimal level. Not only do optimized nutritional strategies support the immune system, but they also reduce chronic inflammation. Nutritional supplements that are recommended for patients with critical illnesses are thought to also be effective for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in the intensive care unit. Some studies have recommended fresh fruits and vegetables, soy, nuts, and antioxidants, such as omega-3 fatty acids, to improve immune system activity. Although nutritional status is considered to be an important prognostic factor for patients with COVID-19, there is to date no sufficient evidence that optimal nutritional therapies can be beneficial for these patients. Some have argued that the COVID-19 pandemic is a good opportunity to test the effectiveness of nutritional intervention for infectious diseases. Many researchers have suggested that testing the proposed nutritional approaches for infectious diseases in the context of a pandemic would be highly informative. The authors of other review papers concluded that it is important to have a diet based on fresh foods, such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, low-fat dairy products, and healthy fats (i.e., olive oil and fish oil), and to limit the intake of sugary drinks as well as high-calorie and high-salt foods. In this review, we discuss the clinical significance of functional food ingredients as complementary therapies potentially beneficial for the prevention or treatment of COVID-19. We believe that our review will be helpful to plan and deploy future studies to conclude these potentials against COVID-19, but also to new infectious diseases that may arise in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Diet , Diet, Fat-Restricted , Humans , Life Style , Nutritional Status , Pandemics/prevention & control , Vegetables
6.
Sport Sci Health ; : 1-11, 2022 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1813811

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Badminton is a racket sport, with fast and explosive movements and mental skills employed to anticipate the opponent's movements. The COVID-19 pandemic, led to social restriction in Brazil and sport event cancellations, subsequently, sports training was banned. Thus, the objective of this study was to compare the impact of long-period detraining due to COVID-19 social restriction (8 months and 1-year) on cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, nutritional behavior, and profile of mood states in badminton athletes and to verify if the athletes who returned to their regular training 4 months earlier than athletes who stopped their daily training routine during 1-year would improve these variables. Methods: Twenty-three young badminton athletes were analyzed: retrained group (14 athletes who stopped their daily training routine for 8 months due to the COVID-19 pandemic plus 4 months of retraining), and detrained group (9 athletes who stopped their daily training routine during 1 year of the COVID-19 pandemic but performed home-based training). We evaluated body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, nutritional behavior, and mood states profiles. Results: Retrained athletes showed lower body fat (- 24.1% vs. + 20.8%, p < 0.001) and higher fat-free mass (+ 6.0% vs. - 0.2%, p = 0.007) after 1 year compared with the detrained group. For cardiorespiratory fitness [retrained: baseline = 55.5 ± 5.3 (47.1, 63.9) and after 1 year = 58.1 ± 2.4 (54.2, 61.9), ES = 0.65 vs. detrained: baseline = 53.4 ± 6.7 (47.2, 59.5) and after 1 year = 53.1 ± 5.6 (48.0, 58.3), ES = - 0.03] and nutritional behavior, including sauces and spices [retrained: baseline = 8.9 ± 7.0 (4.5, 13.4), and after 1 year = 3.4 ± 2.9 (1.8, 5.5), ES = - 1.11 vs. detrained: baseline = 6.8 ± 6.7 (1.6, 11.9) and after 1 year = 6.3 ± 5.5 (2.1, 10.6), ES = - 0.08], the ESs were medium and large, respectively, for Retrained but trivial for detrained group. For depression, ES was trivial in the retrained [baseline = 2.7 ± 3.3 (0.7, 4.7) and after 1 year = 2.6 ± 2.9 (0.8, 4.4), ES = 0.03] and moderate for detrained [baseline = 1.0 ± 1.5 (- 0.1, 2.1) and after 1 year = 1.8 ± 2.7 (- 0.3, 3.8), ES = 0.50]. Conclusions: Young badminton athletes who returned to their regular daily training 4 months earlier than athletes who stopped their daily training routine during 1-year due to COVID-19 social restriction decreased fat mass and increased fat-free mass. There were no significant differences between groups for cardiorespiratory fitness, nutritional behavior, and profile of mood state response.

7.
Nepal J Epidemiol ; 12(1): 1139-1155, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1798959

ABSTRACT

Background: The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown measures to confine it has disrupted the routine of the public. The impact of such long-term confinements on the lifestyle and diet of students are not known and hence this study was designed to assess the impact of lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic on the lifestyle and diet of university students. Methods: An online cross-sectional survey among 622 university students across various educational institutes of east India using a pre-designed questionnaire about lifestyle-diet before and during the lockdown. Results were tabulated and statistical tests like Paired t-test, Wilcoxon Rank sign test, and Mc-Nemar tests were applied and overall significance was attributed to P<0.05. Results: During the lockdown a total of 2.4% (95% CI: 1.4-3.8%) decrease in prevalence of tobacco use, 8.7% (95% CI: 6.6-11%) decrease in physical activity and a 0.8 hour (95% CI: 0.6-0.9 hour) increase in the mean sleep duration was observed. There was a significant increase in use of fresh fruits consumption [Median(IQR)-before:2(1-5);during:3(1-5) days] and a decrease in meat-poultry[Median(IQR)-before: 2(0-3);during: 1(0-3)days] and junk food[Median(IQR)-before:1(0-2);during:0(0-2)days] consumption during the lockdown. Conclusion: A significant proportion of changes in lifestyle and frequency of consumption of certain food items in the dietary pattern during the lockdown.

8.
Journal of Public Health Research ; 10:12, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1792279

ABSTRACT

Background: Due to the global surge in COVID-19 cases, numerous countries have enforced lockdowns of varying stringency. Social isolation and stay-at-home orders have detrimental effects on one's lifestyle and dietary habits. This study aimed to assess the dietary patterns, food preferences, shopping behavior and weight gain during the lockdown among students in a private university in Malaysia. Design and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 426 students using convenience sampling method one-month after initiating the Conditional Movement Control Order (November 15-30, 2020), using a validated self-administered web-based survey. Chi-square test with post-hoc and planned comparison procedures were performed. Results: Of the 426 participants, more than half were females (55.9%). Over half of the surveyed students reported increased eating (51.2%), snacking (55.2%) and online food ordering (71.1%) during the lockdown. Meat products and sweet drinks (both >90%) were the most consumed food among individuals with higher BMI. 45.5% of the participants reported weight gain (mean 3.36, SD 1.61kg) one month after the lockdown. Female, youth (aged 19-24), working remotely, increased eating, snacking, cooking, and online food ordering were positively associated with weight gain. Conclusions: Findings suggested that unintended consequences of lockdown have negative impacts on dietary habits and food preferences among university students. Advocacy and public health measures for nutritional support amidst the pandemic are crucial, especially for at-risk groups such as overweight and obese individuals.

9.
Review of Economic Analysis ; 14(1):71-88, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1786387

ABSTRACT

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, many countries, including the U.S., adopted intervention policies aimed at averting the spread. However, these policies may have led to significant changes in public health behaviors. We use Google search queries to examine how state government actions are associated with people’s internet searches (internet browsing habits) related to health behaviors. We employ the differences-in-differences method to determine the link between disease outbreak, associated intervention policies, and changes in health behavior related searches. Our findings show that school closures, restaurant restrictions, and stay-at-home orders lead to a significant rise in searches for workout, physical activity, exercise, takeout, liquor, and wine. Moreover, people’s concerns regarding weight loss, diet, nutrition, restaurant, and fast food substantially decline following stay-at-home orders. Our event-study results indicate that changes in health behaviors began weeks before stay-at-home orders were implemented contemporaneously with emergency declarations and other partial closures. These findings suggest that people’s health behaviors are notably affected by state government’s intervention policies. © 2022 Samira Hasanzadeh, and Modjgan Alishahi.

10.
BMC Neurol ; 22(1): 128, 2022 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779615

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has forced lockdowns and declarations of states of emergency, resulting in marked changes to daily life such as dietary habits in many countries. Though serum omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids levels have been shown to be useful markers for recurrent vascular events or worse prognosis in cardiovascular diseases and ischemic stroke, the relationship between serum omega-3 PUFA levels and the occurrence of intracerebral hemorrhage has essentially been unknown. We explored the association of serum omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids with intracerebral hemorrhage during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Participants comprised patients admitted to Juntendo University Hospital (Tokyo, Japan) with intracerebral hemorrhage between January 1, 2016 and April 30, 2020. Clinical characteristics including serum omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels were compared between patients developing intracerebral hemorrhage during the period from January 1, 2016 to February 29, 2020, and the subsequent COVID-19 pandemic period (March 1 to April 30, 2020). Clinical characteristics independently related to intracerebral hemorrhage during the COVID-19 pandemic were analyzed by comparing these two cohorts of intracerebral hemorrhage patients in different periods. RESULTS: A total of 103 patients (age, 67.0 ± 13.9 years; 67 males) with intracerebral hemorrhage were enrolled. Intracerebral hemorrhage developed in 91 patients before and 12 patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. Monthly averages of intracerebral hemorrhage patients admitted to our hospital during and before the COVID-19 pandemic were 6 and 1.82, respectively. Serum eicosapentaenoic acid levels were significantly lower in intracerebral hemorrhage patients during the COVID-19 pandemic than before (31.87 ± 12.93 µg/ml vs. 63.74 ± 43.29 µg/ml, p = 0.007). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that, compared to before the COVID-19 pandemic, dyslipidemia (odds ratio 0.163, 95% confidence interval 0.031-0.852; p = 0.032) and eicosapentaenoic acid levels (odds ratio 0.947, 95% confidence interval 0.901-0.994; p = 0.029) were associated with intracerebral hemorrhage during the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: From our preliminary results, low eicosapentaenoic acid levels were linked with intracerebral hemorrhage during the COVID-19 pandemic. Low levels of eicosapentaenoic acid might be an endogenous surrogate marker for intracerebral hemorrhage during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Eicosapentaenoic Acid , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cerebral Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(3)2022 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649778

ABSTRACT

The way that COVID-19 has been handled since its inception in 2019 has had a significant impact on lifestyle-related behaviors, such as physical activities, diet, and sleep patterns. This study measures lifestyle-related behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown using a 22-item questionnaire. The responses were collected from March 2021 to September 2021. A total of four hundred and sixty-seven Jordanian participants were engaged in assessing the changes caused by the pandemic and their effect on BMI. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire were tested for 71 participants. Cronbach's alpha values for the questionnaire exceeded 0.7, demonstrating good reliability and internal consistency. The effect of each question regarding physical activity and dietary habits over the BMI difference was studied using ANOVA. The study shows that more than half of the participants reported snacking more between meals and increased their sitting and screen time, while 74% felt more stressed and anxious. BMI difference among the individuals throughout the lockdown was significantly associated with these variables. In contrast, 62% of the participants showed more awareness about their health by increasing the intake of immunity-boosting foods, and 56% of the participants showed an increase in the consumption of nutrition supplements. Females and married individuals tended to be healthier. Therefore, their BMI showed stability compared to others based on their gender and marital status. Exercise, sleep, and avoiding 'junk' food, which contributes to weight gain and COVID-19 vulnerability, are strongly recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet , Exercise , Feeding Behavior , Female , Humans , Life Style , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Weight Gain
12.
Medicines (Basel) ; 9(1)2022 Jan 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638509

ABSTRACT

The 'Blood-Type' diet advises individuals to eat according to their ABO blood group to improve their health and decrease the risk of chronic diseases. However, the food preferences of individuals with different blood groups have not been examined. The aim of our study was to investigate, in healthy regular blood donors (rBDs), the associations of smoke, alcohol, caffeine, vitamin and fat intake with their different blood groups and if ABO groups could be a potential predictor tool for disease prevention. A total of 329 volunteers were divided into four groups according to their ABO types: Group 1 (A) comprised 141 rBDs; Group 2 (B), 65 rBDs; Group 3 (O), 96 rBDs; and Group 4, 27 rBDs. Additionally, they were divided into two groups according to their rhesus types and their preferences for smoke, too. Dietary intake was assessed using 3-day food recall and the Food Processor computer program for nutrient analysis. Alcohol, caffeine, sugar and Vitamin D consumption were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the O group. The A group presented statistically significantly (p < 0.05) greater preferences for cholesterol intake and a higher trend for smoking (25%) habits compared with all the other groups, whereas Group B preferred more fatty foods. The blood group AB appeared to be the most controlled food intake group. Regarding the rhesus comparisons, alcohol; caffeine; and Vitamin C, D, E and K consumptions were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in rhesus-positive individuals than their rhesus-negative counterparts. For the non-smoker group, compared with the smokers, a higher consumption of Vitamin D and fibers was found. In conclusion, in the present study, statistically significant correlations of the ABO and rhesus system with some dietary parameters were found, indicating a consequent influence of these preferences on the progression of different diseases.

13.
Nutrients ; 14(2)2022 Jan 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625632

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic significantly impacted the healthcare system, including dentistry. However, it is not entirely clear whether affected patients' willingness for regular dental visits and preventive behaviors with regards oral hygiene and diet. This is essential to understanding the potential effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the acceleration of dental issues in the future. It was aimed at checking the level of dental visit avoidance, self-reported oral health needs, and dietary changes. This cross-sectional questionnaire study conducted in Poland (n = 2574; mean age 44.4 ± 15.6; female 56.3%) assessed nutritional habits and dental care changes during the COVID-19 pandemic. As demonstrated, nearly half of the responders (47.1%) avoided regular dental visits, while only 0.5% used online consultations. Fears related to potential cross-contamination in dental offices dropped from 25% to 11.4% and were associated with increased BMI and age (p < 0.05). Sweet snacking/drinking confirmed 19.1%/33.2% subjects. Self-reported oral health care needs (tooth stain, calculus, gingivitis, loss of fillings) were related to frequent snacking and poor oral hygiene (p < 0.05). The study highlights that pandemic periods are covered by eating and drinking changes combined with inadequate hygiene and dental care impose health complaints in the oral cavity. This can magnify both nutritional and interrelated oral health issues, highlighting the need to implement preventive and mitigation measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Diet/methods , Needs Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Oral Hygiene/methods , Quarantine , Self Report , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Poland , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
14.
Br J Nutr ; 127(1): 123-132, 2022 Jan 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603433

ABSTRACT

Only a few studies have investigated the association between psychological stress and the healthfulness of plant-based diets while accounting for variances in age groups and regions. In light of this, this study aimed to identify the food groups that contribute the most to the relationship between the healthfulness of plant-based diets and psychological stress in female students in Saudi Arabia. This cross-sectional study, which included 401 female college students aged 19-35 years, collected data on blood, anthropometric indices, the perceived stress scale-10 (PSS-10) and diet using the Saudi food frequency questionnaire. An overall plant-based diet index (PDI), healthy PDI, and an unhealthy PDI (uPDI) were defined. Multiple linear regression analyses were applied to examine the associations between PSS-10 and PDI and hPDI and uPDI. No associations between the PSS-10 score and the overall PDI or uPDI scores were found; however, a six-point higher hPDI score was associated with a 0·16-point lower PSS-10 score (95 % CI, -0·24, -0·08) after controlling for lifestyle factors. Moreover, adjustments for healthy food groups, including vegetables and fruits, attenuated the association between the hPDI and PSS-10. In conclusion, healthy plant-based diets are associated with lower psychological stress in young Saudi women. This finding highlights the importance, especially for female students, of following diets that are not only plant-based but are also healthy and rich in fruits and vegetables.


Subject(s)
Diet, Vegetarian , Diet , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet, Healthy , Female , Humans , Students , Vegetables
15.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-6, 2021 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598614

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This hospital-based study aimed to evaluate the nutritional status and dietary habits, the amount of nutrients provided to the patients in the hospital and to detect the predictors of severity among COVID-19 patients in Jordan. METHODS: A hospital-based study (N = 367; mean age 42.3 y; SD 15.4; 66.0% men) was conducted between March 17 and July 25, 2020, in Prince Hamza Hospital. Data about socio-demographic, anthropometric, dietary habits, and macro- and micronutrients intake were collected from the patients' medical files, and some missing data were collected by phone directly from the patients. RESULTS: The results of the linear regression showed that only age was significantly and positively (ß = 0.454; P = 0.001) associated with severity of the disease among the study patients. Approximately 57% of the COVID-19 patients consumed 3 meals daily, while 31-34% consumed 1 to 2 snacks daily. The majority (64%) of the patients drank more than 5 cups of water daily. Around 24% of the patients complained of eating problems, such as taste and/or smell loss, low appetite, and swallowing difficulty. The intakes of the vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, and C, as well as calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, selenium, and sodium, were within the recommended dietary allowances (RDA). CONCLUSION: The servings of the 5 food groups as well as most of the macro- and micronutrient requirements were within the recommended intakes and RDA.

16.
Trends Food Sci Technol ; 120: 25-35, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586424

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The distressing COVID-19 pandemic has had a substantial impact on public mental health, and the importance of food and nutrients in several aspects of mental health has been recognized. People in isolation or quarantine suffer from severe stress, anger, panic attack, and anxiety. SCOPE AND APPROACH: Although, people who have improved and progressed through medications or vaccines have reduced anxiety levels to some extent yet the efficacy of these measures, in the long run, remains a question. The review depicts that such negative emotional reactions were particularly higher in elderly individuals in the first wave than in other phases. The emotional and behavioral response to the COVID-19 pandemic is multifactorial. From different research studies, it has been found that stress scores were considerably higher for those engaging in unhealthy eating practices. This factor relies not only on external components but on personal and innate ones as well. In the present pandemic, the sustainable development of the food system would have been a major issue; this should be carefully restored to avoid a food crisis in the future. KEY FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS: Changes in mind-body interactions are triggered by psychosocial stresses such as interpersonal loss and social rejection. Physiological response (in terms of psychological stress) in COVID-19 affected patients varies due to individual physical health status. This review explores the relationship between nutrition and mental health as what we eat and think is interlinked with the gut-brain-axis. The role of dietary components along with the Mediterranean diet, DASH diet and use of psychobiotics in improving psychological distress in pandemic induced stress, anxiety and depression has also been discussed.

17.
EPMA J ; : 1-29, 2021 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588706

ABSTRACT

Homocysteine (Hcy) metabolism is crucial for regulating methionine availability, protein homeostasis, and DNA-methylation presenting, therefore, key pathways in post-genomic and epigenetic regulation mechanisms. Consequently, impaired Hcy metabolism leading to elevated concentrations of Hcy in the blood plasma (hyperhomocysteinemia) is linked to the overproduction of free radicals, induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial impairments, systemic inflammation and increased risks of eye disorders, coronary artery diseases, atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, thrombotic events, cancer development and progression, osteoporosis, neurodegenerative disorders, pregnancy complications, delayed healing processes, and poor COVID-19 outcomes, among others. This review focuses on the homocysteine metabolism impairments relevant for various pathological conditions. Innovative strategies in the framework of 3P medicine consider Hcy metabolic pathways as the specific target for in vitro diagnostics, predictive medical approaches, cost-effective preventive measures, and optimized treatments tailored to the individualized patient profiles in primary, secondary, and tertiary care.

18.
Cureus ; 13(11): e19796, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1579884

ABSTRACT

Background The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has created an unprecedented problem in people's lives around the world. Lockdown measures altered the routine lifestyle aspects of people including diet, exercise, sleep, stress, smoking, job status, recreation, and application of modern technologies. Understanding the lifestyle profile of individuals could help in designing effective interventions to minimize the risk factors of COVID-19-related health problems. Objectives The aim of this research is to investigate the lifestyle changes among adults living in Saudi Arabia (SA) during the COVID-19 pandemic.  Methods A cross-sectional survey study was done to investigate the lifestyle changes during the COVID-19 pandemic in Saudi Arabia from August to September 2020. A pre-designed questionnaire was used for data collection and distributed online through social media. The questionnaire included items about sleep patterns, dietary habits, physical activity, employment status, recreation activities, use of social media, and screen time before and during the pandemic. Results A total of 338 adults with a median age of 40 years participated in the study. During the pandemic, employment, smoking decreased significantly (53.3 vs. 55.6%, p<0.001 & 15.7% vs. 18.3%, p=0.049) with significant increases in daily intake of fruits or vegetables (47% to 60.2%, p<0.001), caffeinated beverages (seven or more times caffeine, 3% vs. 0.9%, p<0.001), and water (more than eight water cups daily, 18.4 vs. 11.9, p<0.001). Overweight group increased significantly from 28.5% to 32% (p=0.009). Sleeping more than nine hours increased significantly from 8.3% to 21.8% (p<0.001) with increasing sleeping aids from 11.6% to 15.7% (p<0.001). Both the screen and the social media times increased significantly for six or more hours daily (14.8% vs. 35.3% and 9.5% vs. 28.2% respectively, p=<0.001 for both). There were significant decreases in socialization (91.4% vs. 37.8%) and fast food (71.98% vs. 47.04%), and increases in physically inactivity (19% vs. 5.3%) and stress (90.8% vs. 85.2%) (p<0.001 for all). Most participants perceived stress during the pandemic (307, 90.8%). Conclusion There were remarkable behavioral changes in all aspects of the lifestyle of the participants living in SA during the COVID-19 pandemic with some positive effects on smoking and dietary habits. However, negative changes included unemployment, physical inactivity, sleep disturbances, social isolation, and excessive weight gain. There is a need to study the possible consequences of such changes on the future population health in SA.

19.
Nutr Res Pract ; 15(Suppl 1): S53-S69, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575203

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To determine the weight change trend among the adult Turkish population after 1 yr of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and factors associated with weight change. MATERIALS/METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted between 26 February and 6 March 2021 using an online questionnaire that included questions for sociodemographic variables, eating habits, stress level, and the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18. Those who weighed themselves 1-2 weeks before the pandemic was declared in Turkey and remembered their weight were invited to participate in the study. Trends in weight and body mass index (BMI) change were calculated. The variables associated with a 1% change in BMI were assessed using hierarchical regression analysis. RESULTS: The study was conducted with 1,630 adults (70.25% female) with a mean age of 32.09 (11.62) yrs. The trend of weight change was found to increase by an average of 1.15 ± 6.10 kg (female +0.72 ± 5.51, male +2.16 ± 7.22 kg) for the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. The rate of participants with a normal BMI (18.50-24.99 kg/m2) decreased to 51.91% from 55.75%. Consuming an "Increased amount of food compared to before the pandemic" was found to be the independent variable that had the strongest association with a 1% increase in BMI (ß = 0.23 P < 0.001). The average change in the BMI was higher in older individuals than in those who were younger. A high stress level was associated with a decrease in BMI (ß = -0.04 P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the factors associated with weight change after 1 yr of the pandemic in the Turkish population was reported for the first time. A high stress level and increased weight gain trend still occur in Turkey after 1 yr of the pandemic.

20.
Eskişehir Türk Dünyası Uygulama ve Araştırma Merkezi Halk Sağlığı Dergisi ; 5:169-177, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1573150

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic outbreak affects all populations. Eating habits and lifestyle changes during COVID-19 lockdown. Aim of this paper is to explore eating habits changes during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. A systematic review was conducted by using the PubMed database and Google scholar to find articles published from between March and July 2020. only English and Turkish published articles were included. Total nine article were analyzed. The effect of COVID-19 lockdown on dietary habits differed from community to community. The quarantine has positive and negative effects on eating habits such as returning to home meals and reducing fast food consumption while eating frequency was increased due to quarantine and stress.Alternate : COVID-19 pandemisinin baş göstermesi tüm popülasyonları etkiledi. COVID-19 karantinası sırasında yeme alışkanlıkları ve yaşam tarzları değişti. Bu yazının amacı, COVID-19 pandemisi karantinası sırasında yeme alışkınlıklarının değişimini araştırmaktır. 2020 yılının Mart ve Temmuz ayları arasında yayımlanan makaleleri bulmak için PubMed veri tabanı ve Google scholar kullanılarak sistematik bir derleme yapıldı. Sadece Íngilizce ve Türkçe yayımlanan makaleler dahil edildi. Toplamda 9 makale incelendi. COVID-19 karantinasının beslenme alışkanlıkları üzerindeki etkileri topluluktan topluluğa farklılık gösterdi. Karantinanın yeme alışkanlıkları üzerinde pozitif ve negatif etkileri oldu. Ev yemeklerine dönüş yapılıp hazır yemek tüketimi azaltılırken karantina ve strese bağlı olarak yeme sıklığı artırıldı.

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