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1.
International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction ; JOUR:103429, 83.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2105060

ABSTRACT

Women social workers' roles during COVID-19 have been under-researched. We contribute to filling this gap by examining patriarchal inequalities in the pay and status of women social workers in Wuhan, China to determine whether change occurred when they replaced men in first-tier responder or protector roles when the government replaced men in frontline social work with women social workers. We conducted a qualitative investigation into these practitioners' work during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown in Wuhan from 23 January to April 7, 2020 through 30 in-depth interviews of women social workers (11 working in Residents' Committees, 12 in NGOs from Wuhan and six other cities;and 7 in other local organizations). The findings highlight how women social workers' roles shifted during the pandemic from being second-tier responders to assuming the first-tier responder or ‘protector’ roles previously held by men while they continued their second-tier responders' and traditional caring roles. Despite this shift, the data show that women's demands for higher pay and status and involvement in decision-making structures remained unmet. Although women resisted unequal gender relations, doing men's roles as protectors loaded them with a ‘triple’ burden as protectors, second-tier responders and carers. The lack of gender equality for these women social workers highlights an urgency for policymakers and practitioners to promote gender equality by implementing women social workers' entitlements to pay parity, engagement in decision-making, and assumption of leadership roles, i.e., as men's equals.

2.
Soc Sci Med ; 315: 115523, 2022 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105995

ABSTRACT

Previous research on health effects of extreme weather has emphasized heat events even though cold-attributable mortality exceeds heat-attributable mortality worldwide. Little is known about the mental health effects of cold weather events, which often cascade to produce secondary impacts like power outages, leaving a knowledge gap in context of a changing climate. We address that gap by taking a novel "cascading disaster health inequities" approach to examine winter storm-associated post-traumatic stress (PTS) using survey data (n = 790) collected in eight Texas metro areas following Winter Storm Uri in 2021, which occurred against the backdrop of COVID-19. The incidence of storm-related PTS was 18%. Being Black (odds ratio [OR]: 6.6), Hispanic (OR: 3.5), or of another non-White race (OR: 4.2) was associated with greater odds of PTS compared to being White, which indicates substantial racial/ethnic inequities in mental health impacts (all p < 0.05). Having a disability also increased odds of PTS (OR: 4.4) (p < 0.05). Having piped water outages (OR: 1.9) and being highly impacted by COVID-19 (OR: 3.3) increased odds of PTS (both p < 0.05). When modelling how COVID-19 and outages cascaded, we compared householders to those with no outages and low COVID-19 impacts. PTS was more likely (p < 0.05) if householders had a water or power outage and high COVID-19 impacts (OR: 4.4) and if they had water and power outages and high COVID-19 impacts (OR: 7.7). Findings provide novel evidence of racial/ethnic inequities and cascading effects with regard to extreme cold events amid the COVID-19 pandemic.

3.
Non-conventional in English | WHOIRIS, Grey literature | ID: grc-754772
4.
Studies in Business and Economics ; 17(2):141-159, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2071044

ABSTRACT

Recessions and natural disasters continually slow down the economy. The scale of the effects depends on the origin of the crisis, the response capacity, among other factors. The objective of this article was to study the impact of the recession due to covid-19 on business creation. Using indicators of related and unrelated variety, the industrial diversity of 16 states of Mexico was measured. The main source of information was administrative data. The results show that a region with higher related industrial diversity has greater resilience and more firms. In times of crisis, these results could be used to assess the loss of businesses, given the type and scale of industrial variety.

5.
International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction ; 81, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2069095

ABSTRACT

With the publication of the Health Emergency and Disaster Risk Management (H-EDRM) Frame-work in 2019, the World Health Organization (WHO) emphasized the need for disaster prepared-ness in all sectors of the health system, including primary health care (PHC). PHC disaster pre-paredness plays a crucial role in guaranteeing continuity of care and responding to the health needs of vulnerable populations during disasters. While this is universally acknowledged as an important component of disaster management (DM), there is still a severe paucity of scholarship addressing how to practically ensure that a PHC system is prepared for disasters. The objective of this study is to propose a new framework that describes key characteristics for PHC disaster pre-paredness and lays the groundwork to deliver operational recommendations to assess and im-prove PHC disaster preparedness. A systematic literature review was performed and a total of 145 records were analyzed. Twenty-five characteristics that contribute to a well-prepared PHC system were identified and categorized according to the WHO Health System Building Blocks to form a new PHC disaster preparedness framework. The findings will contribute to the elaboration of a set of guidelines for PHC systems to follow in order to assess and then boost their disaster pre-paredness. This manuscript will hopefully help to raise awareness among international policy -makers and health practitioners on the importance to design interventions that integrate the PHC system into overall DM strategies, as well as to assess the preparedness of PHC systems in differ-ent political, developmental, and cultural contexts.

6.
Sustainability ; 14(19):12864, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2066471

ABSTRACT

The agricultural futures market plays an extremely important role in price discovery, hedging risks, integrating agricultural markets and promoting agricultural economic growth. China is the largest apple producer and consumer in the world. In 2017, Chinese apple futures were listed on the Zhengzhou Commodity Exchange (CZCE) as the first fruit futures contract globally. This paper aims to study the efficiency of the apple futures market by using the Wild Bootstrapping Variance Ratio model to estimate the price discovery function, the ARIMA-GARCH model to estimate the risk-hedging function, and the ARDL-ECM model to estimate the cointegration relationship of the futures and spot market. Experimental results firstly demonstrate that the apple futures market conforms to the weak-form efficiency, which indicates that it is efficient in price discovery. Secondly, the apple futures market is not of semi-strong efficiency because it generated abnormal profit margins amid China–US trade friction, climate disaster, and COVID-19;in terms of the degree of impact, the COVID-19 pandemic had the greatest impact, followed by the rainstorm disaster and trade friction. Thirdly, the results of this study indicate that the cointegration relationships exist between the futures market and the spot markets of the main producing areas. This paper is not only conducive to sustainable development of the global fresh or fruit futures market, but also has potential and practical importance for China in developing the agricultural futures market, strengthening market risk management and promoting market circulation.

7.
Sustainability ; 14(19):12716, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2066456

ABSTRACT

In broader terms, a Smart City improves the quality of life of its citizens through the effective use of innovative (digital) solutions. While innovative Smart City solutions keep growing, attention has been paid to resilience-making within Smart Cities, recognising that disasters are unavoidable. In light of the characteristics of a Smart City (smartness requirements) being inchoate and vague, different Smart Cities develop their own smartness criteria. Regardless of the Smart City type, smartness criteria need to adequately embed resilience. Integrating the resilience concept provides a strategic direction for Smart Cities and there is a significant positive relationship between the two concepts, Smart Cities, and urban resilience. Although Smart Cities are increasingly growing in popularity all around the world, there is a lack of research to guide a Smart City to define its smartness reflecting on disaster resilience. This paper intends to address this research gap by setting out a set of smartness criteria (with particular reference to urban (city) resilience) which should compulsorily feature in any type of Smart City that desires to be resilient. The study undertakes a systematic literature review to provide a new dimension, depth, and value to existing research discoveries. The findings are presented by structuring ten urban (city) resilience dimensions built upon six Smart City dimensions: smart economy, smart governance, smart people, smart mobility, smart living, and smart environment. Our findings make a niche contribution to knowledge by guiding Smart Cities that intend to build, enhance, and/or sustain resilience, to develop smartness criteria/smart characteristics reflecting on urban resilience. The research outcomes will be of large importance to Smart City policymakers, administrators, project managers, etc. to efficiently manage extreme events timely with optimal resource allocation and will be of specific interest to all the stakeholders (for instance, the innovators) in a Smart City ecosystem who may use the research outcomes as a decision-making tool.

9.
Sustainability ; 14(19):11830, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2066372
10.
Internet of Things ; : 287-322, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2059686

ABSTRACT

The utility of Internet of Things (IoT) and cloud computing has become indispensable in various industrial sectors. This chapter provides a brief insight into the application of IoT and cloud computing in education, entertainment, transportation, manufacturing, healthcare and agriculture. Besides, it also discusses the future opportunities for such emerging technologies in these sectors. Further, there have been massive developments in the field of cloud computing which has played a crucial role in ensuring a proper learning environment and resources. The entertainment industry has also seen changes similar to the ones in the education industry. The transportation and logistics industry was impacted heavily during the COVID-19 pandemic. With technologies breaking benchmarks time and again, technology will soon make a huge difference with respect to transportation. The need and ability to control various aspects of a manufacturing pipeline remotely and wirelessly has been a domain of interest for many researchers and scholars and the need is increasing day by day. The healthcare industry envisions transforming a hospital-centric approach into a complete healthcare experience at the comfort of your home using the latest technologies including IoT and cloud computing. This crisis due to the pandemic has forced farmers to look towards technology;therefore, IoT-based agricultural solutions have become popular all across the world. Finally, this chapter also discusses the future opportunities provided by these technologies in handling the day-to-day livelihood during such pandemic disasters. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

11.
The International Journal of Sustainability in Economic, Social and Cultural Context ; 18(1):85-100, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2056691

ABSTRACT

The issue of human nature has not been limited in discussing disaster management during these days. This research aims to examine how human nature has been applied to the field to mitigate the various impacts of disasters. Qualitative content analysis, including inference and thematic layers, is used as the main method in comparing the arbitrariness-based with the duality-based aspect of human nature in terms of international organizations, developed nations, and developing nations. The key finding is that these stakeholders need to shift from the arbitrariness-based to the duality-based aspect. Such transition may lead to embracing effective disaster management, multiple emergency plans, self- and public awareness, psychological support, behavior change, diversity, and education. As a multidisciplinary study, this research comprehensively analyzes the contents of human nature within disaster management.

12.
IEEE Transactions on Big Data ; : 1-15, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2052080

ABSTRACT

Tracking the evolution of clusters in social media streams is becoming increasingly important for many applications, such as early detection and monitoring of natural disasters or pandemics. In contrast to clustering on a static set of data, streaming data clustering does not have a global view of the complete data. The local (or partial) view in a high-speed stream makes clustering a challenging task. In this paper, we propose a novel density peak based algorithm, <monospace>TStream</monospace>, for tracking the evolution of clusters and outliers in social media streams, via the evolutionary actions of cluster adjustment, emergence, disappearance, split, and merge. <monospace>TStream</monospace> is based on a temporal decay model and text stream summarisation. The decay model captures the decreasing importance of textual documents over time. The stream summarisation compactly represents them with the help of cells (aka micro-clusters) in the memory. We also propose a novel efficient index called shared dependency tree (aka SD-Tree) based on the ideas of density peak and shared dependency. It maintains the dynamic dependency relationships in <monospace>TStream</monospace> and thereby improves the overall efficiency. We conduct extensive experiments on five real datasets. <monospace>TStream</monospace> outperforms the existing state-of-the-art solutions based on <monospace>MStream</monospace>, <monospace>MStreamF</monospace>, <monospace>EDMStream</monospace>, <monospace>OSGM</monospace>, and <monospace>EStream</monospace>, in terms of cluster mapping measure (CMM) by up to 17.8%, 18.6%, 6.9%, 16.4%, and 20.1%, respectively. It is also significantly more efficient than <monospace>MStream</monospace>, <monospace>MStreamF</monospace>, <monospace>OSGM</monospace>, and <monospace>EStream</monospace>, in terms of response time and throughput. IEEE

13.
Continuity & Resilience Review ; 4(3):267-279, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2051838

ABSTRACT

Purpose>The purpose of this study is to address the problem of a plethora of potential plans related to business continuity and disaster recovery.Design/methodology/approach>A review of the relevant academic articles, standards and guidelines related to business continuity and disaster recovery was conducted, and the discussed plans include critical information infrastructure plans, disaster recovery plans, information system contingency plans, business continuity plans and continuity of operations plans.Findings>The content of each plan is explained. A layered business continuity and disaster recovery model is proposed, which consolidates all plans in a coherent manner.Originality/value>Relationships, similarities and differences among each pair of plans are discussed, and the longitudinal validity and applicability of plans are presented.

14.
Transcultural Artificial Intelligence and Robotics in Health and Social Care ; : 245-276, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2048806

ABSTRACT

Prompted by the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic, this chapter draws evidence from research studies regarding the huge changes in the practices and methods for providing nursing, medical, and spiritual care in massively prohibitive working environments. Examples of AI and robotic devices used during the pandemic will be covered in the spirit of constructive reflection and contemplation. The reported unpreparedness for an effective, efficient, and humane response to such major health disasters and hazards will be discussed, and suggestions for the future will be given. The training needs reported by health and social care workers will be analyzed in the light of the technological challenges they are required to cope with. © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

15.
Human Organization ; 81(3):291-300, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2046548

ABSTRACT

By understanding pandemics and compounding disasters as disruptive sociopolitical processes rooted in histories and geographies of systemic inequality, we reflect on both novel and familiar manifestations of research practice, ethical decision making, and responsibility during the COVID-19 pandemic. We advocate for the importance of flexible, care-driven research methods that forefront local expertise and collaborations and relational ethics that are, oftentimes, at odds with neoliberal and institutional temporalities. Lastly, we reflect on how our own positionalities and experiences shape how we have navigated, reconceptualized, and challenged our own research practices in the context of a global pandemic.

16.
129th ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition: Excellence Through Diversity, ASEE 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2045957

ABSTRACT

The majority of the academic institutions across the globe transitioned education delivery to alternate methods, irrespective of specializations, in response to the pandemic. However, very little is explored regarding how architecture educators perceive the Online Learning Environment (OLE) transition impacts based on gender differences. The need for such a study emerges as the literature indicates that women are more impacted than males during natural disasters, which might include a pandemic. The unit of analysis for the study was architecture educators in India. India was purposely selected as it is one of the top three countries globally from the perspective of enrolled university students. The study explored the impacts of the OLE transition among architecture educators as per gender in India. An online survey method was used to allow adequate data collection during a pandemic. The developed online instrument was hosted on Qualtrics. The developed online instrument was pilot tested by education experts in India. The instrument was emailed to the deans of more than 450 architecture colleges in India for dissemination among the educators affiliated with the institutions. In addition, the research team used interpersonal channels such as Whatsapp for instrument distribution. Two follow-up emails were sent to increase the response rate. The survey instrument was disseminated in March and April 2021, one year after the pandemic had impacted globally, also the timeframe when the pandemic started to severely impact India. The study used 165 complete responses from architecture educators. Approximately 59% of the respondents identified themselves as females. Further, most of the respondents had a Master's degree as a terminal degree. The study identified perception differences of COVID-19 impact on architecture educators. The study found that female educators had less experience with OLE and were less aware of the resources available at the University and institute levels before the impact of COVID-19. At the same time, a higher number of male educators indicated a negative productivity impact than their female counterparts. Finally, agreement among genders could be observed in the areas of administration monitoring online teaching, factors impacting the productivity of the architecture educators, and concerns about working from home. © American Society for Engineering Education, 2022.

17.
The COVID-19 Response ; : 85-99, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2041403

ABSTRACT

As the frequency and severity of emergencies and disasters has increased over the last several decades, more attention has been focused on the challenges public health agencies and other organizations face when responding to multiple disasters at the same time. The COVID-19 pandemic was declared a public health emergency in January 2020. The declaration was most recently renewed by the U.S. Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services on January 14, 2022. During that time, public health emergencies have also been declared in response to earthquakes, wildfires, hurricanes, winter storms, and the opioid crisis. More broadly, major disaster declarations have been issued by the President of the United States at the request of Governors or Tribal Chief Executives for 100 other events since January 2020, including flooding, wildfires, hurricanes, and tornados. Public health response to these disasters can limit a public health department's ability to continue to provide essential public health services. Public health emergency or disaster response concurrent with the public health response to the COVID-19 pandemic has placed unsustainable burdens on public health agencies and their staff, particularly in areas like epidemiology, environmental health, and clinical services that are required for concurrent responses to the COVID-19 pandemic and other disasters or emergencies.

18.
Crit Care Clin ; 38(4): 809-826, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2041606

ABSTRACT

This multiauthored communication gives a state-of-the-art global perspective on the increasing adoption of tele-critical care. Exponentially increasing sophistication in the deployment of Computers, Information, and Communication Technology has ensured extending the reach of limited intensivists virtually and reaching the unreached. Natural disasters, COVID-19 pandemic, and wars have made tele-intensive care a reality. Concerns and regulatory issues are being sorted out, cross-border cost-effective tele-critical care is steadily increasing Components to set up a tele-intensive care unit, and overcoming barriers is discussed. Importance of developing best practice guidelines and retraining is emphasized.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Critical Care , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics
19.
Revista de Gestão Social e Ambiental ; 16(1):1-19, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2040620

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Discutir como as vulnerabilidades, principalmente no que tange as desigualdades sočiais, estäo atreladas aos desastres e como elas se potencializam diante da ocorrencia dos mesmos, agravando ainda mais a situaçâo de grupos e comunidades em condiçöes de fragilidade. Referencial Teórico: O desastre do rompimento da barragem da Vale foi analisado a partir da proposta de Gestäo de Riscos de Desastres (GRD) apresentada pelo Sendai Framework, que se baseia no fortalecimento de açöes e medidas de prevençâo de desastres, bem como no aumento a preparaçâo para respostas e recuperaçâo diante de desastres que possam vir a ocorrer. Metodologia/abordagem: O método utilizado foi o estudo de caso. Foram realizadas pesquisas documentais, observaçâo participante de grupos de WhatsApp e tres entrevistas com representantes do setor público e da sociedade civil, além de sete entrevistas com cidadäos de Brumadinho. A análise de conteúdo foi a estratégia para análise dos dados. Principais resultados: A experiencia do municipio de Brumadinho demonstra como a recuperaçâo de um desastre é difícil de ser realizada e torna ainda mais vulnerável e exposta ao risco a populaçâo atingida, potencializando fragilidades e desigualdades. Implicates da pesquisa: A situaçâo da cidade mineira evidencia a construçâo processual dos desastres e como o atual modelo de desenvolvimento económico e produtivo precisa ser repensado. As criticas a gestâo do desastre e a negligencia quanto a sua prevençâo podem servir para nortear decisőes do poder público no sentido de desenvolver açöes de prevençâo e reduçâo de danos. Originalidade/valor: Estudos empíricos que discutam a relaçâo entre desastres, vulnerabilidades e desigualdades sociais sâo fundamentais para se obter uma melhor compreensâo sobre complexidade que envolve a gestâo de desastres, e, principalmente, mostrar como as desigualdades sâo potencializadas a partir da ocorrencia de eventos dessa magnitude, agravando ainda mais a situaçâo de grupos e comunidades em condiçöes de fragilidade O artigo também contribui para a literatura da área na medida em que analisa os efeitos de superposiçâo de desastres - rompimento de barragem e pandemia - na populaçâo mais vulnerável.Alternate :Objective: To discuss how vulnerabilities, especially in terms of social inequalities, are linked to disasters and how they become more potent when disasters occur, further aggravating the situation of groups and communities in fragile conditions. Theoretical framework: The Vale dam failure disaster was analyzed from the Disaster Risk Management (DRM) proposal presented by the Sendai Framework, which is based on strengthening actions and measures to prevent disasters, as well as increasing preparedness for responses and recovery from disasters that may occur. Methodology/approach: The method used was the case study. Documentary research, participant observation of WhatsApp groups, and three interviews with representatives of the public sector and civil society were conducted, as well as seven interviews with citizens of Brumadinho. Content analysis was the strategy for data analysis. Main Results: The experience of the municipality of Brumadinho demonstrates how recovery from a disaster is difficult to accomplish and makes the affected population even more vulnerable and exposed to risk, potentiating fragilities and inequalities. Implications of the research: The situation of the city in Minas Gerais highlights the processual construction of disasters and how the current model of economic and productive development needs to be rethought. The criticism of disaster management and the negligence regarding its prevention can serve to guide decisions by the public authorities to develop prevention and damage reduction actions. Originality/value: Empirical studies that discuss the relationship between disasters, vulnerabilities and social inequalities are fundamental to obtain a better understanding of the complexity involved in disaster management, and es ecially to show how inequalities are enhanced by the occurrence of events of this magnitude, further aggravating the situation of groups and communities in fragile conditions.

20.
IOP Conference Series. Earth and Environmental Science ; 1082(1):012021, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2037344

ABSTRACT

Flood is acknowledged as the most common natural disaster in several parts of the globe. For Malaysia, flood is considered as the most frequent natural disaster, with the frequency of at least once a year. The risks of flood can be seen through property loss and damages, infrastructure casualties, and disruption to socio-economic activities. Adding to that, Malaysia also faced the flood during the pandemic when it hit several states, namely Pahang, Johor, and Kelantan, during the monsoon season in 2020 and 2021, amid the rising cases of Covid-19. The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has posed significant challenges for disaster response, calling for the “new norms” to be quickly established for better disaster risk reduction. Several mitigation strategies have been taken by the government to reduce the risks of floods in Malaysia. As office buildings possess important roles in delivering effective services to the public while maintaining their critical documents, this paper focuses on providing related literature on building resilience. Having an early understanding of the core elements of office building resilience in dual disaster challenges will provide the basis for further investigation in the later stage of data collection.

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