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Drug Delivery System ; 37(5):421-428, 2022.
Article in Japanese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2272412


Recently, importance of vaccines for treatment and prevention of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases has been re-recognized. A replication-incompetent adenovirusAdvector DDS vaccine expressing virus antigen proteins is one of the most advanced platforms as a novel vaccine because an Ad vector vaccine can be rapidly applicable to pandemic. In this review, we describe the basic properties of an Ad vector for vaccine, in addition to the summary of the development of an Ad vector vaccine for emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, including Coronavirus disease 2019COVID-19, worldwide.Copyright © 2022, Japan Society of Drug Delivery System. All rights reserved.

The Lancet Infectious Diseases ; 23(4):385-386, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2275476
Canadian Journal of Infection Control ; 36(1):30-38, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2239457


Background: Knowing the prevalence of true asymptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases is critical for designing mitigation measures against the pandemic. We aimed to synthesize all available research on asymptomatic cases and transmission rates. Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase, Cochrane COVID-19 trials, and Europe PMC for primary studies on asymptomatic prevalence in which (1) the sample frame includes at-risk populations, and;(2) follow-up was sufficient to identify pre-symptomatic cases. Meta-analysis used fixed-effects and random-effects models. We assessed risk of bias by combination of questions adapted from risk of bias tools for prevalence and diagnostic accuracy studies. Results: We screened 2,454 articles and included 13 low risk-of-bias studies from seven countries that tested 21,708 at-risk people, of which 663 were positive and 111 asymptomatic. Diagnosis in all studies was confirmed using a real-time reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction test. The asymptomatic proportion ranged from 4% to 41%. Meta-analysis (fixed effects) found that the proportion of asymptomatic cases was 17% (95% CI 14% to 20%) overall and higher in aged care (20%;95% CI 14% to 27%) than in non-aged care (16%;95% CI 13% to 20%). The relative risk (RR) of asymptomatic transmission was 42% lower than that for symptomatic transmission (combined RR 0.58;95% CI 0.34 to 0.99, p = 0.047). Conclusions: Our one-in-six estimate of the prevalence of asymptomatic COVID-19 cases and asymptomatic transmission rates is lower than those of many highly publicized studies but still sufficient to warrant policy attention. Further robust epidemiological evidence is urgently needed, including in subpopulations such as children, to better understand how asymptomatic cases contribute to the pandemic.

Emerging Infectious Diseases ; 29(2):462-463, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2239354
Croatian Medical Journal ; 62(3):300-302, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1736744
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(1): e24132, 2021 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172956


BACKGROUND: Currently, the identification of infectious disease re-emergence is performed without describing specific quantitative criteria that can be used to identify re-emergence events consistently. This practice may lead to ineffective mitigation. In addition, identification of factors contributing to local disease re-emergence and assessment of global disease re-emergence require access to data about disease incidence and a large number of factors at the local level for the entire world. This paper presents Re-emerging Disease Alert (RED Alert), a web-based tool designed to help public health officials detect and understand infectious disease re-emergence. OBJECTIVE: Our objective is to bring together a variety of disease-related data and analytics needed to help public health analysts answer the following 3 primary questions for detecting and understanding disease re-emergence: Is there a potential disease re-emergence at the local (country) level? What are the potential contributing factors for this re-emergence? Is there a potential for global re-emergence? METHODS: We collected and cleaned disease-related data (eg, case counts, vaccination rates, and indicators related to disease transmission) from several data sources including the World Health Organization (WHO), Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), World Bank, and Gideon. We combined these data with machine learning and visual analytics into a tool called RED Alert to detect re-emergence for the following 4 diseases: measles, cholera, dengue, and yellow fever. We evaluated the performance of the machine learning models for re-emergence detection and reviewed the output of the tool through a number of case studies. RESULTS: Our supervised learning models were able to identify 82%-90% of the local re-emergence events, although with 18%-31% (except 46% for dengue) false positives. This is consistent with our goal of identifying all possible re-emergences while allowing some false positives. The review of the web-based tool through case studies showed that local re-emergence detection was possible and that the tool provided actionable information about potential factors contributing to the local disease re-emergence and trends in global disease re-emergence. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first tool that focuses specifically on disease re-emergence and addresses the important challenges mentioned above.

Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Internet , Public Health Surveillance/methods , Humans , Reproducibility of Results