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1.
Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly ; 38(1):287, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1918984

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To identify association of underlying pre-morbidities with disease severity and mortality in hospitalized patients with Corona virus disease 2019. Methods: Total 884 COVID RT-PCR positive patients admitted to KRL Hospital Islamabad from April 2020 to August 2020 were included in this cross-sectional study. Pre-morbidities recorded were hypertension, diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart disease, chronic respiratory disease, chronic kidney disease, chronic liver disease, chronic neuro-psychiatric conditions (stroke and depression) and malignancy. Oxygen requirement, requirement of invasive ventilation, and outcome (recovered versus died) was documented. WHO categories for disease severity were used. Demographic profile and symptoms were also noted. SPSS 22 was used for data analysis. Pearson's Chi square test was used to see association between premorbidities and disease severity categories, oxygen requirement, invasive ventilation and outcome. Pearson's correlation was applied to analyze the correlation between individual pre-morbidities and disease severity categories. P-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The mean age was 40 ± 12.21 years with 98.5% being males. Majority patients (74.8%) were asymptomatic. Fever was the most common symptom. Diabetes mellitus and hypertension were the most commonly recorded co-morbidity. Significant correlation (p-value < 0.05) was found between the presence of underlying pre-morbidities and disease severity as well as oxygen requirement, requirement of invasive ventilation and mortality. Conclusion: Results are compatible with worldwide studies and underlying pre-morbidities are convincing risk factors for disease severity and mortality.

2.
Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly ; 37(5):1435, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1898293

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To identify association of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio with disease severity and mortality. Methods: Total 720 Corona Virus RT-PCR positive patients were included in this cross-sectional study. Patients were admitted to KRL Hospital Islamabad from April 2020 to August 2020. Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) was recorded on admission and then serially. NLR cut-off was 3.0. WHO categories for disease severity (asymptomatic, mild, moderate and severe) were used. Demographic profile, symptoms and co-morbidities were recorded. Results: The mean age of patients was 40 ± 12.4 years with 96% being males. Majority patients (76.5%) were asymptomatic. Amongst symptoms, fever was the most common symptom. Diabetes mellitus was most common recorded co-morbidity. The mean NLR 2.5 ± 2.78. Significant association was found between NLR and disease severity as well as mortality. Difference in mean NLR amongst disease severity categories was also significant Conclusion: Results are compatible with worldwide studies and NLR is a cheap and easily available marker of disease severity and mortality.

3.
Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly ; 37(7):1984, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1898292

ABSTRACT

Objective: To detect association of lymphopenia with disease severity and mortality. Methods: Total 874 COVID RT-PCR positive patients admitted to KRL Hospital Islamabad from April 2020 to August 2020 were included in this cross-sectional study. Lymphopenia was defined as <1100 cells/micro-L. WHO categories for disease severity were used. Demographic profile, absolute lymphocyte counts and comorbidities were recorded. Pearson's Chi Square test was used to see association between lymphopenia and disease severity as well as disease outcome. Regression analysis was used to see whether lymphopenia would predict disease severity. Comparison of means of absolute lymphocyte count in different disease categories was done by ANOVA. Tukey's test range was then used to find the means different from each other. P-value ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant Results: The mean age of patients was 40 ± 12.3 years. Majority patients (73.9%) were asymptomatic. Lymphopenia was present in 6.9% of total patients. Significant association was found between lymphopenia and disease severity as well as lymphopenia and mortality (< 0.001). Lymphopenia was found to be a predictor of disease severity using regression analysis (< 0.001). Comparison of mean absolute lymphocyte count was significant among disease severity categories (< 0.001). On post-hoc analysis, difference in absolute lymphocyte count was significant moving from asymptomatic to mild and then moderate disease category. However no significant difference was seen in absolute lymphocyte count between moderate and severe categories. Conclusion: Results are compatible with worldwide studies and lymphopenia is valid as a marker of disease severity and mortality.

4.
Pak J Med Sci ; 37(7): 1984-1988, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1404098

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To detect association of lymphopenia with disease severity and mortality. METHODS: Total 874 COVID RT-PCR positive patients admitted to KRL Hospital Islamabad from April 2020 to August 2020 were included in this cross-sectional study. Lymphopenia was defined as <1100 cells/micro-L. WHO categories for disease severity were used. Demographic profile, absolute lymphocyte counts and co-morbidities were recorded. Pearson's Chi Square test was used to see association between lymphopenia and disease severity as well as disease outcome. Regression analysis was used to see whether lymphopenia would predict disease severity. Comparison of means of absolute lymphocyte count in different disease categories was done by ANOVA. Tukey's test range was then used to find the means different from each other. P-value ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 40 ± 12.3 years. Majority patients (73.9%) were asymptomatic. Lymphopenia was present in 6.9% of total patients. Significant association was found between lymphopenia and disease severity as well as lymphopenia and mortality (< 0.001). Lymphopenia was found to be a predictor of disease severity using regression analysis (< 0.001). Comparison of mean absolute lymphocyte count was significant among disease severity categories (< 0.001). On post-hoc analysis, difference in absolute lymphocyte count was significant moving from asymptomatic to mild and then moderate disease category. However no significant difference was seen in absolute lymphocyte count between moderate and severe categories. CONCLUSION: Results are compatible with worldwide studies and lymphopenia is valid as a marker of disease severity and mortality.

5.
Pak J Med Sci ; 37(5): 1435-1439, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1326008

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To identify association of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio with disease severity and mortality. METHODS: Total 720 Corona Virus RT-PCR positive patients were included in this cross-sectional study. Patients were admitted to KRL Hospital Islamabad from April 2020 to August 2020. Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) was recorded on admission and then serially. NLR cut-off was 3.0. WHO categories for disease severity (asymptomatic, mild, moderate and severe) were used. Demographic profile, symptoms and co-morbidities were recorded. RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 40 ± 12.4 years with 96% being males. Majority patients (76.5%) were asymptomatic. Amongst symptoms, fever was the most common symptom. Diabetes mellitus was most common recorded co-morbidity. The mean NLR 2.5 ± 2.78. Significant association was found between NLR and disease severity as well as mortality. Difference in mean NLR amongst disease severity categories was also significant. CONCLUSION: Results are compatible with worldwide studies and NLR is a cheap and easily available marker of disease severity and mortality.

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