Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 445
Filter
1.
2022 European Control Conference, ECC 2022 ; : 240-246, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2026284

ABSTRACT

Since early 2020, the world has been dealing with a raging pandemic outbreak: COVID-19. A year later, vaccines have become accessible, but in limited quantities, so that governments needed to devise a strategy to decide which part of the population to prioritize when assigning the available doses, and how to manage the interval between doses for multi-dose vaccines. In this paper, we present an optimization framework to address the dynamic double-dose vaccine allocation problem whereby the available vaccine doses must be administered to different age-groups to minimize specific societal objectives. In particular, we first identify an age-dependent Susceptible-Exposed-Infected-Recovered (SEIR) epidemic model including an extension capturing partially and fully vaccinated people, whereby we account for age-dependent immunity and infectiousness levels together with disease severity. Second, we leverage our model to frame the dynamic age-dependent vaccine allocation problem for different societal objectives, such as the minimization of infections or fatalities, and solve it with nonlinear programming techniques. Finally, we carry out a numerical case study with real-world data from The Netherlands. Our results show how different societal objectives can significantly alter the optimal vaccine allocation strategy. For instance, we find that minimizing the overall number of infections results in delaying second doses, whilst to minimize fatalities it is important to fully vaccinate the elderly first. © 2022 EUCA.

2.
Frontiers in Immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2022745

ABSTRACT

Influenza vaccines remain the most effective tools to prevent flu and its complications. Trivalent or quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccines primarily elicit antibodies towards haemagglutinin and neuraminidase. These vaccines fail to induce high protective efficacy, in particular in older adults and immunocompromised individuals and require annual updates to keep up with evolving influenza strains (antigenic drift). Vaccine efficacy declines when there is a mismatch between its content and circulating strains. Current correlates of protection are merely based on serological parameters determined by haemagglutination inhibition or single radial haemolysis assays. However, there is ample evidence showing that these serological correlates of protection can both over- or underestimate the protective efficacy of influenza vaccines. Next-generation universal influenza vaccines that induce cross-reactive cellular immune responses (CD4+ and/or CD8+ T-cell responses) against conserved epitopes may overcome some of the shortcomings of the current inactivated vaccines by eliciting broader protection that lasts for several influenza seasons and potentially enhances pandemic preparedness. Assessment of cellular immune responses in clinical trials that evaluate the immunogenicity of these new generation vaccines is thus of utmost importance. Moreover, studies are needed to examine whether these cross-reactive cellular immune responses can be considered as new or complementary correlates of protection in the evaluation of traditional and next-generation influenza vaccines. An overview of the assays that can be applied to measure cell-mediated immune responses to influenza with their strengths and weaknesses is provided here. Copyright © 2022 Janssens, Joye, Waerlop, Clement, Leroux-Roels and Leroux-Roels.

3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2017769

ABSTRACT

The relationship between SARS-CoV-2 dose, infection, and COVID-19 outcomes remains poorly understood. This review summarizes the existing literature regarding this issue, identifies gaps in current knowledge, and suggests opportunities for future research. In humans, host characteristics including age, sex, comorbidities, smoking, and pregnancy are associated with severe COVID-19. Similarly in animals, host factors are strong determinants of disease severity although most animal infection models manifest clinically with mild to moderate respiratory disease. The influence of variants of concern as it relates to minimal infectious dose, consequence of overall pathogenicity, and disease outcome in dose-response remain unknown. Epidemiologic data suggest a dose-response relationship for infection contrasting with limited and inconsistent surrogate-based evidence between dose and disease severity. Recommendations include the design of future infection studies in animal models to investigate inoculating dose on outcomes and the use of better proxies for dose in human epidemiology studies.

4.
Am J Clin Pathol ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2017713

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: A possible association between blood group systems (ABO and Rh) and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity has recently been investigated by various studies with conflicting results. However, due to variations in the prevalence of the ABO and Rh blood groups in different populations, their association with COVID-19 might be varied as well. Therefore, we conducted this study on Libyan participants to further investigate this association and make population-based data available to the worldwide scientific community. METHODS: In this case-control study, ABO and Rh blood groups in 419 confirmed COVID-19 cases in Zawia, Libya, and 271 healthy controls were compared using descriptive statistics and chi 2 tests. RESULTS: Blood group A was significantly more prevalent in patients with severe COVID-19 (64/125;51.2%) than in patients with nonsevere COVID-19 (108/294, 36.7%) (P < .034), whereas the O blood group prevalence was higher in nonsevere COVID-19 cases (131/294, 44.5%) compared with severe cases (43/125, 34.4%) (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The results showed a significant association between blood group A and the severity of COVID-19, whereas patients with blood group O showed a low risk of developing severe COVID-19 infection. No significant association was found between Rh and susceptibility/severity of the disease.

5.
21st International Conference on Image Analysis and Processing , ICIAP 2022 ; 13374 LNCS:496-507, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2013963

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 worldwide pandemic, CT scan emerged as one of the most precise tool for identification and diagnosis of affected patients. With the increase of available medical imaging, Artificial Intelligence powered methods arisen to aid the detection and classification of COVID-19 cases. In this work, we propose a methodology to automatically inspect CT scan slices assessing the related disease severity. We competed in the ICIAP2021 COVID-19 infection percentage estimation competition, and our method scored in the top-5 at both the Validation phase ranking, with MAE = 4.912%, and Testing phase ranking, with MAE = 5.020%. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

6.
Medicine Today ; 22(4):43-46, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2011566

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is known to result in gastrointestinal symptoms and liver damage. Consideration needs to be given to COVID-19 as a potential cause of new-onset gastrointestinal symptoms. Awareness of special issues affecting patients with chronic gastrointestinal and liver diseases in a pandemic is important. © 2021 Medicine Today Pty Ltd. All rights reserved.

7.
Mediterranean Journal of Rheumatology ; 33(2):268-270, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2010602

ABSTRACT

Anti-MDA5 antibodies characterise a distinct phenotype of dermatomyositis in adults as well as children, with ethnic disparity in clinical presentation and severity. They often present as a diagnostic conundrum with rash, ulceration, and polyarthritis, but minimal muscle disease. Mechanic's hands are typically associated with anti-synthetase syndrome, but their presence in anti-MDA5 antibody positive patients, although reported, is not well known. We present the case of a boy in whom mechanic's hand heralded a relapse of juvenile dermatomyositis which was suspected based on remotely assessed patient-reported outcome measures on teleconsultation. This report suggests that mechanic's hands should also prompt testing for myositis antibodies including anti-MDA5 in Indian children with JDM. Diligent awareness of the condition, and timely use of patient reported outcome measures of muscle power and skin assessment may guide management while delivering remote care in challenging situations such as a global pandemic.

8.
NeuroQuantology ; 20(6):9488-9497, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2010508

ABSTRACT

Artificial intelligence (AI) is the emerging field to diagnose and analyze chronic illnesses like Cerebellar Ataxia (CA), Spinocerebellar Ataxia (SCA), and Parkinson's disease. AI technologies such as machine learning and deep learning assist many doctors, diagnosis departments, and medical personnel in identifying and analyzing neurological disorders. Nowadays, AI used in most of the health care applications. Our research paper proffers an innovative approach to classify neurological disorders with various Machine learning algorithms. Existing research works experimented with machine learning algorithms like Support Vector machine and KNN, the performance of these algorithm is good, when the data is less and binary classified. In the proposed work, we have applied SVM, KNN, Decision tree and AdaBoost algorithms on the CA Data set. The performance of proposed methods exhibit improved accuracy when compared with the existing works. The results of the proposed work are tabulated for comparative analysis. We found that the AdaBoost algorithm shows the better classification result for Cerebellar Ataxia disease severity.

9.
Frontiers in Psychiatry ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009911
10.
Frontiers in Immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009868

ABSTRACT

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-bound particles released by cells in various (patho)physiological conditions. EVs can transfer effector molecules and elicit potent responses in recipient cells, making them attractive therapeutic agents and drug delivery platforms. In contrast to their tremendous potential, only a few EV-based therapies and drug delivery have been approved for clinical use, which is largely attributed to limited therapeutic loading technologies and efficiency. As EV cargo has major influence on their functionality, understanding and translating the biology underlying the packaging and transferring of biomolecule cargos (e.g. miRNAs, pathogen antigens, small molecule drugs) into EVs is key in harnessing their therapeutic potential. In this review, through recent insights into EVs’ content packaging, we discuss different mechanisms utilized by EVs during cargo packaging, and how one might therapeutically exploit this process. Apart from the well-characterized EVs like exosomes and microvesicles, we also cover the less-studied and other EV subtypes like apoptotic bodies, large oncosomes, bacterial outer membrane vesicles, and migrasomes to highlight therapeutically-diverse opportunities of EV armoury.

11.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology ; 80(11):1107-1109, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2007792
12.
Genomics ; 114(5):110466, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2004618

ABSTRACT

The global COVID-19 pandemic continues due to emerging Severe Acute Respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of concern (VOC). Here, we performed comprehensive analysis of in-house sequenced SARS-CoV-2 genome mutations dynamics in the patients infected with the VOCs - Delta and Omicron, within Recovered and Mortality patients. Statistical analysis highlighted significant mutations - T4685A, N4992N, and G5063S in RdRp;T19R in NTD spike;K444N and N532H in RBD spike, associated with Delta mortality. Mutations, T19I in NTD spike, Q493R and N440K in the RBD spike were significantly associated with Omicron mortality. We performed molecular docking for possible effect of significant mutations on the binding of Remdesivir. We found that Remdesivir showed less binding efficacy with the mutant Spike protein of both Delta and Omicron mortality compared to recovered patients. This indicates that mortality associated mutations could have a modulatory effect on drug binding which could be associated with disease outcome.

13.
New Zealand Journal of Medical Laboratory Science ; 76(2):52-53, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2003459
14.
Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine ; 26(8):949-955, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1997966

ABSTRACT

Background: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by dysregulated inflammation resulting in hypoxemia and respiratory failure and causes both morbidity and mortality. Objectives: To describe the clinical profile, outcome, and predictors of mortality in ARDS in children admitted to the Pediatric intensive care unit. Materials and methods: This is a single-center retrospective study conducted at a tertiary referral hospital in a 12-bed PICU involving children (1 month to 18 years) with ARDS as defined by Pediatric Acute Lung Injury Consensus Conference (PALICC) guidelines, over a period of 5 years (2016–2020). Demographic, clinical, and laboratory details at onset and during PICU stay were collected. Predictors of mortality were compared between survivors and non-survivors. Results: We identified 89 patients with ARDS. The median age at presentation was 76 months (12–124 months). The most common precipitating factor was pneumonia (66%). The majority of children (35.9%) had moderate ARDS. Overall mortality was 33% with more than half belonging to severe ARDS group (58%). On Kaplan–Meier survival curve analysis, the mean time to death was shorter in the severe ARDS group as compared to other groups. Multiorgan dysfunction was present in 46 (51.6%) of the cases. Non-survivors had higher mean pediatric logistic organ dysfunction (PELOD2) on day 1. PRISM III at admission, worsening trends of ventilator and oxygenation parameters (OI, P/F, MAP, and PEEP) independently predicted mortality after multivariate analysis. Conclusion: High PRISM score predicts poor outcome, and worsening trends of ventilator and oxygenation parameters (OI, P/F, MAP, and PEEP) are associated with mortality.

15.
American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports ; 27, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1995948

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This article reports the case of a 21-year-old woman with both hypertensive retinopathy and Purtscher-like retinopathy in association with C3 glomerulopathy. Observations: The patient was referred for bilateral painless vision loss with posterior pole cotton wool spots, optic disc edema, and confluent retinal whitening suggesting a mixed picture of hypertensive retinopathy, with initial blood pressure 236/152, and Purtscher-like retinopathy. She was subsequently diagnosed with C3 glomerulopathy which likely caused her severe hypertension and which likely occurred alongside Purtscher-like retinopathy due to a shared pathogenesis of complement dysregulation. Follow up examination and imaging revealed gradual improvement in visual acuity, almost complete resolution of fundus exam abnormalities, improvement in macular nonperfusion, resolution of disc leakage and choroidal leakage, resolution of macular edema, and residual outer retinal hyperreflective foci in both eyes. Conclusion and importance: This case represents the first report of both Purtscher-like retinopathy and hypertensive retinopathy occurring in association with C3 glomerulopathy. It supports investigation of anti-complement therapy as a potential treatment for Purtscher-like retinopathy.

16.
Bali Medical Journal ; 11(2):609-613, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1994632

ABSTRACT

Background: Acute appendicitis is the most common cause of abdominal surgery. The delay of diagnosis and surgery increases the risk of perforated appendicitis, which is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The COVID-19 pandemic has an impact on the delays in the diagnosis (time-to-diagnosis) and therapy (time-to-intervention). In this study, we aimed to analyze the profiles and characteristics of acute appendicitis patients in COVID-19 pandemic and non-pandemic periods in Indonesia. Methods: We collected samples from all patients with acute appendicitis who visited the emergency department from November 10, 2018 – February 10, 2020 (non-COVID-19 pandemic) and March 11, 2020 – August 11, 2021 (COVID-19 pandemic). The data are secondary data taken from medical records. We collected the patient’s demographic data (e.g., age and sex), operation description, length of stay, and duration of the operation. Results: We recruited a total of 121 patients, consisting of 56 patients during the non-pandemic period and 65 patients during the pandemic. Based on the severity, patients with grade 1 were the most common during the non-pandemic period, while patients with grade 4 were the most common during the pandemic. There was a significant difference between the severity of acute appendicitis during the non-pandemic and the pandemic (P < 0.0001). During non-pandemic periods, the majority of patients were hospitalized for 3-4 days, while during the pandemic, the majority of patients required hospitalization of up to 5-6 days. Conclusion: There was a substantial difference in the severity of acute appendicitis patients during the COVID-19 pandemic and non-pandemic periods. © 2022, Sanglah General Hospital. All rights reserved.

17.
Advances in Predictive, Preventive and Personalised Medicine ; 12:xiii-xvi, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1989216

ABSTRACT

Introducing Information Technology (IT) tools in today’s and future medicine is being increasingly considered all over the world, especially in developed countries. Indeed, these countries are suffering the most from population aging and chronic diseases. This induces original challenges not only for healthcare but also for wellbeing. In this sense, Predictive, Preventive and Personalised Medicine (3PM) has been identified since more than a decade as a research avenue having huge potential for developed societies. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020.

18.
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research ; 15(8):41-45, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1988819

ABSTRACT

Objectives: There is evidence of morbidity and mortality in children due to COVID-19 infection. “Vaccine Hesitant Parents (VHPs)” may act as barriers to vaccination of children and their knowledge, attitude, beliefs, and perceptions come into play. Health-care providers are cited as the most important source for vaccine information by VHPs, and provider recommendation for vaccination is crucial for improving vaccine uptake. Hence, we aim to study among Indian health-care professionals having children <18 years of age, the prevalence of parental hesitancy for pediatric COVID-19 vaccine and to assess their knowledge, attitude, beliefs, and perceptions about pediatric COVID-19 vaccine. Methods: An observational, cross-sectional study was conducted across India through a web-based questionnaire amongst health-care professionals having children less than 18 years of age by Snowball sampling technique. Descriptive statistics were used to study the demographic profile, the prevalence of vaccine hesitancy, and individual factors. Correlations between the datasets were obtained using regression analysis and significance level using the Chi-square test. Results: The prevalence of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy for children in Indian health-care professionals is 3.3%. The most important source of information was the internet and social media. The majority of the participants knew about the vaccine and its side effects (p=0.00) and believed in the usefulness of the vaccine in preventing infection (p=0.008) and in reducing severity (p=0.009). All these factors lead to better vaccine acceptance. Conclusion: These data show that vaccine acceptance has improved over time and thus HCWs can aid in reducing vaccine hesitancy.

19.
Iranian Journal of Pediatrics ; 32(3), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1988359

ABSTRACT

Introduction: According to the World Health Organization, the incidence of severe acute hepatitis of unknown origin in children is increasing worldwide. However, there are no known causes and treatments to deal with this disease. This study presents three children with severe acute hepatitis of unknown origin in a hospital medical center in Iran. Case Presentation: Two 12-year-old children and a six-year-old child were admitted to the hospital with jaundice. Laboratory tests showed markedly elevated liver enzymes and total and direct bilirubin in these patients. However, hepatitis B surface antigen (HB-sAg), hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies (Ab), hepatitis A virus (HAV) IgM, HEV IgM, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) IgM, anti-microsomal Ab, anti-liver kidney (LKM Ab), anti-smooth muscle antibodies (ASMA), anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA), and total IgG were all negative. After excluding the probable infectious causes of acute hepatitis and per the progressive course of fulminant hepatic failure, intravenous methylprednisolone was started for two of three cases during hospitalization. These children were discharged from the hospital in good general condition, and the liver function tests gradually decreased and approximated to near normal during the follow-up visits. Conclusions: General practitioners and pediatricians are advised to examine the underlying causes and consider severe acute hepatitis of unknown origin when visiting children under 16 years with severe jaundice and very high transaminases.

20.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 929689, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987474

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection currently remains one of the biggest global challenges that can lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome (CARDS) in severe cases. In line with this, prior pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is a risk factor for long-term respiratory impairment. Post-TB lung dysfunction often goes unrecognized, despite its relatively high prevalence and its association with reduced quality of life. In this study, we used a metabolomics analysis to identify potential biomarkers that aid in the prognosis of COVID-19 morbidity and mortality in post-TB infected patients. This analysis involved blood samples from 155 SARS-CoV-2 infected adults, of which 23 had a previous diagnosis of TB (post-TB), while 132 did not have a prior or current TB infection. Our analysis indicated that the vast majority (~92%) of post-TB individuals showed severe SARS-CoV-2 infection, required intensive oxygen support with a significantly high mortality rate (52.2%). Amongst individuals with severe COVID-19 symptoms, we report a significant decline in the levels of amino acids, notably the branched chains amino acids (BCAAs), more so in the post-TB cohort (FDR <= 0.05) in comparison to mild and asymptomatic cases. Indeed, we identified betaine and BCAAs as potential prognostic metabolic biomarkers of severity and mortality, respectively, in COVID-19 patients who have been exposed to TB. Moreover, we identified serum alanine as an important metabolite at the interface of severity and mortality. Hence, our data associated COVID-19 mortality and morbidity with a long-term metabolically driven consequence of TB infection. In summary, our study provides evidence for a higher mortality rate among COVID-19 infection patients who have history of prior TB infection diagnosis, which mandates validation in larger population cohorts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tuberculosis , Adult , Alanine , Humans , Morbidity , Prognosis , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculosis/complications , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/epidemiology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL