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1.
Gastroenterology ; 162(7):S-1246-S-1247, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967427

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Exacerbation of pre-existing autoimmune disease and de novo vaccine-related autoimmunity after SARS-CoV-2 vaccine has been reported. These observations could lead to vaccine hesitancy among autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) patients. We aimed to assess hesitancy as well as prevalence of flare and disease onset after vaccination in an online AIH cohort. Methods: Electronic invitation to complete a vaccine-specific questionnaire was posted weekly to the Autoimmune Hepatitis Association (www.aihep.org) social media communities (membership: 4700) over 3-weeks. Individuals 18 years or older with AIH diagnosis made by a physician were eligible. Vaccine hesitancy was defined as not receiving SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. AIH flare was defined as abnormal liver tests, when previously normal for 1 year, requiring escalation of immunosuppression within 2 months of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. Continuous variables were summarized as means and standard deviations and pvalues were obtained using the Student's T-test. P-values for discrete variables were obtained from the Chi-Square test. The study was approved by local institutional review board. Results: A total of 643 individuals, 91.9% female, 91.8% white, mean age of 54 years and disease duration of 7 years, completed the questionnaire. A majority (599, 93.2%) had received at least 1 dose of vaccine including Pfizer-BioNTech (50.2%), Moderna (35.2%), AstraZeneca (11.1%), and Johnson & Johnson (3.5%). Hesitant patients were less likely female (79.5% vs 92.8%), younger (48 vs 55 years) and had higher prevalence of COVID- 19 infection (27.3% vs 10.2%) compared to vaccinated (p < 0.005 for all). Among those eligible, 95.3% received a second dose and 53.7% a third dose. Five patients did not receive a second vaccine dose because of prior adverse reactions or liver test elevations. A third dose was not administered to 263 patients because it was too early (57%), patient choice (21%), adverse side effects (9%), initial vaccine was Johnson & Johnson (7%), or abnormal liver tests (6%). Among those with normal liver tests prior to vaccination, 5% (15/288) reported increased tests after first or second dose. Liver test elevations were more likely in non-white (67% vs 95%, p = 0.001) and Hispanic/Latino patients (27% vs 4%, p = 0.001) compared to those without elevations. Only 2 patients had disease flare after first dose, whereas no AIH flares were reported after second. New diagnosis of AIH was reported 2 months beyond vaccination in 7% of vaccinated patients (42/599): 16 after first dose and 26 after second dose. Conclusion: SARS-CoV-2 vaccine hesitancy among AIH patients was minimal compared to the national average. Reports of liver test elevation and disease flare were rare after vaccination. New AIH diagnosis near vaccine was reported, yet new diagnosis was also observed in vaccine hesitant patients. (Table Presented)

2.
Gastroenterology ; 162(7):S-601, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967350

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The International Organization for the Study of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) has recommended vaccination of all patients with IBD as soon as they are able to receive the vaccine, regardless of immune-modifying therapies or disease activity. Nevertheless, some articles have shown a large percentage of individuals who are unwilling to receive the COVID-19 vaccine with fear of potential adverse events. Moreover, IBD patients were excluded from safety and efficacy phase III vaccine trials, as well as those treated with immunosuppressive therapies. Thus, we performed a monocentric real-life survey to assess the adverse events of COVID-19 vaccination among patients with IBD under biologic therapy. Methods: All adult individuals with IBD undergoing biological treatment and followed at Centro Hospitalar Universitário de São João were included. Each patient answered a telephone questionnaire conducted by a gastroenterologist. Results: A total of 301 patients agreed to participate in the study, the majority females (53.2%), with a median age of 42 years old (IQR 32-54). IBD diagnosis included Crohn's disease (76.7%) and ulcerative colitis (23.3%). The proportions of patients receiving tumor necrosis factor inhibitors, ustekinumab and vedolizumab were 75.4%, 13.0% and 11.6%, respectively. This cohort included 239 vaccinated patients (59.0% Pfizer-BioNTech, 20.5% Moderna, 14.2% Janssen and 6.3% AstraZeneca), 173 (57.5%) of whom had complete vaccination. Of the remaining individuals, only 12 did not intend to be vaccinated. The main reasons were: fear of potential adverse events (50.0%), lack of confidence in the vaccine development process (25.0%) and little information about vaccination in IBD patients (16.6%). Among vaccinated patients, the overall adverse events frequency was 56.8% after dose 1 (D1) and 74.1% after dose 2 (D2). The most common symptoms were localized injection-site reactions and fatigue. The vast majority of adverse events were mild and lasted only a few days. Only 4 (1.7%) patients had IBD exacerbation after the vaccine. No serious adverse events were reported and any patient was hospitalized. The percentage of adverse events was higher among patients younger than 50 years (77.6% vs 62.5% after D1, p=0.011;83.0% vs 58.8% after D2, p=0.002). No significant differences were seen based on sex, vaccine type, biologic drug or disease type. Compared to the general population, a lower percentage of IBD patients suffered from local or systemic reactions during the first week after vaccination (Figure 1). Conclusion: We found a high acceptance rate and a good safety profile of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in IBD patients treated with biologics drugs. Indeed, adverse events were common but overall mild and transitory. These data support the prioritization and rapid vaccination of these individuals. (Figure Presented) Figure 1 – Adverse reactions occurring within seven days after vaccination in IBD patients compared with the general population.

3.
Gastroenterology ; 162(7):S-487, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967318

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected more than 249 million people worldwide as of November 2021. Patients with chronic immune-mediated inflammatory diseases are at risk of viral infections either related to their underlying immune dysfunction or the immunosuppressive therapy, but little is known about the impact of COVID19 on outcomes and management of pancreatobiliary IgG4 related disease (IgG4 RD) patients. Methods: This was a multicenter retrospective cohort study aiming to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on the clinical outcomes and management of pancreatobiliary IgG4 RD patients in different geographic areas with COVID-19 outbreak. Pancreatobiliary IgG4 RD patients aged 18 years or older from 7 referral centers in Hong Kong, Japan, Thailand, Singapore, the United States and Italy were included. Case definition of IgG4 RD: elevated serum IgG4 serology with typical features of pancreatobiliary involvement on imaging, EUS, ERCP and/ or typical histopathologic features of IgG4 RD. Medical records were reviewed for IgG4 RD status (organ involvement, disease activity, treatment status), COVID-19 infection and outcome. Outcome measures were incidence and severity of COVID-19 in pancreatobiliary IgG4 RD patients, medical treatment for the IgG4 disease during COVID-19 and incidence of postponement or discontinuation of indicated medical treatment for IgG4 RD during COVID-19. Results: 101 pancreatobiliary IgG4 RD patients (mean age 66.4 +/- 12.1 years, male 74.3%) from 7 referral centers were included from January 2020 to November 2020. Major comorbidities of patients: none in 21.8%, diabetes in 45.5%, hypertension in 49.5%, ischemic heart disease in 8.9%, chronic liver disease in 8.9%, chronic kidney disease in 9.9% and cancer in 5.0% of patients. IgG4 RD organ involvement: pancreas only in 36.6%, pancreas and bile duct in 16.8%, bile duct only in 14.9%, pancreatobiliary and other organs in 26.7% of patients. The mean serum IgG4 serology level was 4.72+/-7.31 g/L. In 2020, 27.7% of patients had active IgG4 disease while 72.3% of patients were in remission. In 2020, 65.3% of patients received treatment (steroid in 48.5%, thiopurines in 22.7%, steroid and thiopurines in 25.8%, rituximab in 1.5%), while 30.7% of patients were not on treatment. 2 patients (2.0%) had COVID-19 infection, with 1 patient requiring ICU admission. All infected patients recovered from COVID-19 without flare up of IgG4 RD. In 2020, 6.9% of patients had postponement or discontinuation of indicated medical treatment for IgG4 RD during COVID-19 outbreak due to concern of COVID-19 infection while on immunosuppressive therapy. Conclusion: In this study, low incidence of COVID-19 infection and low rates of postponement or discontinuation of indicated medical treatment were observed in pancreatobiliary IgG4 RD patients during COVID-19 outbreak in 2020. (Table Presented)

4.
Gastroenterology ; 162(7):S-292, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967289

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic impacted the life of people worldwide. We used a cross-sectional survey to evaluate the effects of pandemic on inflammatory bowel disease patients registered with Johns Hopkins. We assessed the methods used to minimize the risk of infection, coping mechanisms, changes in disease activity and management in the first 6 months of pandemic. Of the 405 patients who completed the questionnaire, 240 (58.8%) had Crohn's disease, 132 (32.6%) ulcerative colitis and 35 (8.6%) unclassified IBD.The median (IQR) age was 49 (28, 71). Two hundred seventy-three (67.4%) received biologics including patients on hospital-based (4.2%) infusions, outpatient-based infusions (26.7%) and home infusion (22.2%). Majority had other comorbidities, either heart (142/35.1%) or lung disease (19/ 4.7%), diabetes (22/5.4%), hypertension (77/19%), or obesity (13/3.2%). Most patients were at low risk for infection as they lived in a non-metropolitan area (291 patients, 71.8%), did not report close contact with a confirmed COVID-19 individual (373, 92.1%), did not travel to an area with high rates of COVID-19 (381, 94.1%) and did not use public transportation (379, 93.6%). All but 2 were taking protective measures such as use of N-95 mask (90, 22.2%), commercially (271, 66.9%) or homemade mask (208, 51.4%), sanitizer (363, 89.6%) or gloves (96, 23.7%). Additionally, patients used dietary/herbal supplements (55, 13.6%), dietary modifications (98, 24.2%) to support immunity (35, 8.6%), prevent an IBD flare (28, 6.9%), or minimize medications (48, 11.9%). The most common supplement used was Vitamin C (28, 50.9%), and D (42, 76.4%). Most (344, 84.7%) had no adjustments to their medications during pandemic, 31 (7.7%) discontinued their medication and 31 (7.7%) had to add a medication. Pandemic had, reportedly, no effect to the lives of 44 (20.9%) patients but 28 (13.3%) felt depressed, 70 (33.2%) anxious, 9 (4.3%) lost their income and 60 (28.4%) had other non-specified effects. The most common stress reduction techniques used were exercise (261, 64.4%), yoga (76, 18.8%), art therapy (23, 5.7%), music therapy (40, 9.9%), journaling (28, 6.9%), and guided Imagery (18, 4.4%). Fifty-eight (14.3%) used stress reduction medications. Eight (2%) reported SARS-CoV-2 infection. Median (IQR) age was 39 years (22,50)(Table 1). The majority had CD (6, 75%) and the infection was treated at home (6, 75%). One required admission to ICU. Infection led to worsening of the disease in 2 (25%). One (12.5%) discontinued IBD treatment. Our data suggest that most IBD patients followed low risk activities and were adherent to personal protective equipment and used stress reduction techniques and dietary supplements to cope with pandemic and avoid flares. Infection rates were low and the majority did not require admission to the hospital. In the majority infection did not cause an IBD exacerbation. (Table Presented)

5.
Open Respiratory Archives ; 4(3), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1966975
6.
Journal of the Academy of Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry ; 63:S8-S9, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1966659

ABSTRACT

Background: Psychiatric symptoms, particularly depression, are common in Huntington’s Disease (HD) patients. Catatonia is relatively rare in this population, and there is no current standardized treatment for catatonic HD patients (Merida-Puga et al., 2011). ECT is not generally used for treatment of psychiatric disorders in HD patients;however, there is evidence that it should be considered for some catatonic HD patients (Mowafi and Millard, 2021). Here, we present the case of a HD patient with catatonia rapidly responsive to ECT and conduct a literature review, adding further evidence of its efficacy in this population. Case: Mr. S is a 60-year-old male with a history of HD, MDD, and anxiety who presented to the ED with suicidal ideation and a plan to overdose due to his disease progression, significant anxiety, and paranoia surrounding the COVID-19 pandemic. He was previously admitted to another psychiatric hospital without clinical benefit. His psychotropic regimen at admission included buspirone, citalopram, deutetrabenazine, paliperidone, propranolol, and tiagabine. Four days into his admission, he was nonresponsive on interview. Given concern for catatonia (Bush-Francis Rating Scale, BFRS, 24), a successful lorazepam challenge was administered. Paliperidone was held and lorazepam was scheduled. In the subsequent days, multiple medication changes were made, including discontinuation of deutetrabenazine given concern for depression exacerbation. ECT was started due to continuation of catatonia symptoms despite scheduled lorazepam (BFRS fluctuating from 1 to 23). Following his first two treatments, he resumed oral intake, and his BFRS reduced to 0. By ECT #3, he was speaking fluently with improvement in his mood and suicidal ideation. Following an initial series of eight ECT, treatments were tapered with maintained improvement. Discussion: Our patient had complete resolution of his catatonia and remission of depression with a short course of ECT, experiencing profound improvement even two treatments into the course. Prior case reports indicated the need for longer ECT courses before resolution with the minimum being five treatments and the maximum being 42 (Mowafi and Millard, 2021). However, our patient has had sustained improvement in mood and catatonia symptoms allowing for minimization of polypharmacy. Implications: Given the neuropsychiatric burden in HD patients, it is important for C-L psychiatrists to be aware of ECT's efficacy for both depression and catatonia in this population. References: 1. Merida-Puga, J., Ramirez-Bermudez, J., Aguilar-Venegas, L. C., Fricchione, G. L., & Espinola-Nadurille, M. (2011). Westphal variant Huntington disease and refractory catatonia: a case report. Cognitive and behavioral neurology: official journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology, 24(4), 204–208. 2. Mowafi, W., & Millard, J. (2021). Electroconvulsive therapy for severe depression, psychosis and chorea in a patient with Huntington's disease: case report and review of the literature. BJPsych bulletin, 45(2), 97–104.

7.
Nevrologiya, Neiropsikhiatriya, Psikhosomatika ; 14(3):4-11, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1957600

ABSTRACT

Currently, patients who attribute their complaints and disorders to the past COVID-19 are turning to a neurologist for a consultation. One should consider dangerous complications of COVID-19 such as stroke, including cerebral venous thrombosis, autoimmune encephalitis and myelitis, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, Guillain-Barre' syndrome. Disorders of consciousness, disorders of smell and taste, headache and dizziness are significantly more often present in the acute period of COVID-19. Long-term persistence of complaints and disorders after COVID-19 is regarded as post-COVID syndrome (PCS). Neurological complaints and disorders in a patient who has had COVID-19 are often caused by the development or exacerbation of a comorbid disease, including primary headache, musculoskeletal pain in the neck and back, various vestibular disorders, Alzheimer's disease, anxiety and depressive disorders. Unfortunately, in real clinical practice, these diseases are often not diagnosed, patients are observed with a diagnosis of PCS, and it is not taken into account that the basis for diagnosing PCS is the exclusion of other diseases that can explain complaints and disorders in a patient who has suffered from COVID-19.

8.
Sexually Transmitted Infections ; 98:A9, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1956897

ABSTRACT

Introduction MSM are disproportionately affected by health inequalities which may be exacerbated by COVID-19 and pandemic- related restrictions. We examine uptake of the COVID- 19 vaccine in MSM and assess factors associated with vaccination status. Methods An online cross-sectional survey of MSM recruited via social media and dating applications for 3 weeks in November/December 2021. Questions included those on vaccine offer and uptake (1 dose/2 doses/2 doses+booster). Logistic regression assessed factors associated with reporting full vaccination status (≥2 doses) by sociodemographic characteristics, HIV status, self-reported COVID history, and mental health indicators. Results Of 1,039 participants, 98.2% (n=1,020) reported everhaving been offered a COVID vaccine, of which 98.0% (1,000/1,020) reported ≥1 dose and 96.5% (985/1020) full vaccination status. In multivariate models, full vaccination status was associated with: age (aOR:1.04, 95%CI:1.01-1.06 per increasing year), gender (aOR: 0.26, 95%CI:0.09-0.72, gender minority vs cis male), degree-level education (aOR: 2.11,95% CI:1.12-3.98), employment since lockdown (aOR: 2.07,95% CI:1.08-3.94), single relationship status (aOR: 0.50,95% CI:0.25-1.00), self-reported COVID-19 history (aOR: 0.47, 95%CI:0.25-0.88), HPV vaccination history (aOR: 3.32, 95% CI:1.43-7.75), and self-reported low life-worth (aOR: 0.29, 95%CI:0.15-0.54). Conclusion This large community survey suggests COVID-19 vaccine uptake and coverage is high in MSM and exceeds general population vaccination estimates. However, inequalities appear to exist in some groups, including younger age-groups, gender minorities, and those with poorer mental health less likely to report full vaccination. Efforts are needed to limit COVID-related exacerbation of health inequalities in these groups who already experience a greater burden of poor health relative to other MSM.

9.
British Journal of Dermatology ; 186(6):e254-e255, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1956709

ABSTRACT

We present the case of a 68-year-old woman who presented with a blistering skin eruption 5 days after the administration of the first dose of Pfizer-BioNTech mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. Examination revealed tense bullae in a localized distribution confined to the dorsal aspect of her hands, forearms and ears only. This was preceded by severe pruritus. She had no mucosal involvement and was otherwise systemically well. She had a background of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and hypercholesterolaemia with no previous history of COVID-19. Skin biopsy revealed a subepidermal bulla containing numerous eosinophils in keeping with bullous pemphigoid (BP). The diagnosis was confirmed with a positive direct immunofluorescence (IF) which showed linear IgG and C3 deposition at the basement membrane zone. Indirect IF was positive for anti-BP180 and anti-BP230. The patient was treated with oral prednisolone and doxycycline to good effect She proceeded to have the second dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine while on treatment and did not experience a flare of BP. However, a week later, she developed erythematous annular plaques with milia over the dorsi of her hands. Skin biopsy revealed multiple milia within the papillary dermis in keeping with milia en plaque. To to our knowledge, this is the first case of a patient developing BP with subsequent milia en plaque following the Pfizer-BioNTech mRNA COVID-19 vaccine (Damiani G, Pacifico A, Pelloni F, Iorizzo M. The first dose of COVID-19 vaccine may trigger pemphigus and bullous pemphigoid flares: is the second dose therefore contraindicated? J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2021;35: e645-7). She has since been weaned off systemic treatment for BP;however, she continues to require ongoing input for the management of milia en plaque.

10.
British Journal of Dermatology ; 186(6):e256-e257, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1956697

ABSTRACT

Pemphigoid gestationis is a rare autoimmune blistering disorder which typically presents in the second and third trimester of pregnancy. We present an interesting case of a localized flare of the condition following COVID-19 vaccination. A 33- year-old woman presented 2 weeks post partum with an acute onset bullous rash. This had started at week 35 of gestation, one day prior to the onset of labour. A pruritic rash developed on her right arm before becoming widespread, with urticated erythematous plaques and tense bullae. There was no mucous membrane involvement and the infant was unaffected. Skin biopsy showed a prominent perivascular infiltrate with numerous eosinophils, suggestive of pemphigoid gestationis. Uncharacteristically, direct immunofluorescence was negative. Her symptoms improved with 30 mg oral prednisolone and topical clobetasol propionate ointment. She received the first dose of the Pfizer SARS-CoV-2 vaccine 5 weeks after the onset of the rash and within days developed a flare of her rash around the inoculation site. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a flare of pemphigoid gestationis following COVID-19 vaccination. There are case reports of other autoimmune bullous disorders (bullous pemphigoid and pemphigus vulgaris) flaring and occurring de novo following mRNA COVID-19 vaccinations. COVID -19 vaccination has been rapidly rolled out and side-effects in patients with rare conditions are only becoming apparent as these patients are exposed to the vaccine. Knowledge of this side effect will enable us to anticipate it, counsel and treat our patients more effectively, and could help maintain vaccine uptake in this vulnerable patient group. (Figure Presented) .

11.
British Journal of Dermatology ; 186(6):e250, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1956695

ABSTRACT

While our knowledge about the short-term side-effects of COVID-19 vaccination in adults has rapidly evolved, data about the long-term systemic side-effects and potential new onset autoimmune disorders has been limited. Here we present a case series of patients with new onset autoimmune skin conditions between 10 days and 4 weeks post mRNA COVID-19 vaccination and discuss the underlying pathophysiological changes contributing to these side-effects. Exclusions included any patients who have previously tested positive for COVID-19 or had COVID-19 symptoms. Our cases include new onset discoid lupus, localized cutaneous lupus, dermatomyositis, linear IgA bullous disease, pemphigus vulgaris, bullous pemphigoid, lichen planus pemphigoides, erosive lichen planus, psoriasis and vitiligo. In addition, we are reporting significant flare-up of pre-existing autoimmune skin conditions after a long period of remission. These include three cases of psoriasis, two cases of systemic lupus, one pemphigus vulgaris koebnerizing within a previous shingles site, and a case of pyoderma gangrenosum flare. The BNT162b2 vaccine is a potent activator of the T- and B-cell pathways. The production of interleukin (IL)-17 and IL- 21 seems to play an important role in vaccine-induced immunological protection, which is also linked to germinal centre activation linked to autoimmune disorders. This report improves our knowledge regarding some rarer potential sideeffects associated with these new vaccines and highlights the importance of further studies.

12.
British Journal of Dermatology ; 186(6):e249, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1956694

ABSTRACT

Numerous cutaneous reactions have been reported secondary to COVID-19 vaccinations. The most commonly reported include local site reactions, delayed large local reactions, urticaria and morbilliform eruptions. Here we report a case of de novo subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE) after COVID-19 immunization. A 56-year-old woman presented with a 3-month history of a rash. The onset was 1 week following the first dose of the AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine. She reported lesions characterized by erythema, pruritus and a burning sensation. She also described mouth dryness. Examination revealed scaly annular erythematous plaques on the chest, arms, legs and scalp. Blood results were positive for anti-Ro antibodies and strongly positive for anti-nuclear antibodies (1: 2560 titre). Anti-Smith, anti-centromere and double- stranded DNA antibodies were negative. Skin biopsy revealed the histological appearance of an interface of dermatitis. Direct immunofluorescence was negative. These clinical and histopathological findings are consistent with a diagnosis of SCLE. The patient was treated with hydroxychloroquine, a weaning course of prednisolone, topical steroids and topical tacrolimus. Her hydroxychloroquine dose was 200 mg twice daily for the first 3 months and then increased to 400 mg twice daily. This resulted in an improvement of her presentation although she has yet to achieve complete remission. It has been suggested that enhanced interferon responses with COVID-19 vaccination and interactions of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein with cytoplasmic RNA-binding proteins could contribute to disease flares in lupus. There are two other recent reports of SCLE developing or being exacerbated by COVID-19 vaccination. More research is required to determine how COVID-19 vaccinations affect patients with autoimmune skin diseases.

13.
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacy ; 23(4):258-262, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1955706

ABSTRACT

Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis are rare serious disorders that affect the skin and mucous membranes. These reactions are most commonly caused by drugs and, rarely, infections. While discontinuing the offending drug and supportive care are primordial, there are no consensus treatment guidelines on the optimal use of systemic immunomodulatory agents. Here, we report a case of a 57-year-old woman, who had recently recovered from COVID-19 infection, with Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis overlap most likely triggered by dorzolamide eye drops. The patient was successfully treated with a single subcutaneous dose of etanercept combined with oral cyclosporine, corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulins. The progression of skin lesions ceased after administration of etanercept. In addition, a significant clinical improvement was observed a few days after treatment with immunoglobulins, without complications or important side effects.

14.
Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents ; 36(2):139-150, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1955702

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection can cause long-standing damage to the immune system characterized by increased inflammatory cytokine activation. Maintaining periodontal health may reduce host susceptibility to COVID-19 and prevent COVID-19 aggravation in infected patients. There is sufficient evidence in the literature to warrant an association between the presence of PDs and the development and course of respiratory illnesses. Optimum oral health, maintaining good systemic health, and elimination of smoking habits may be beneficial for the prevention and management of COVID-19 infections. Future studies on the periodontal status of patients with COVID-19, including from mild to severe forms, could allow the opportune identification of people at risk of severe illness and generate relevant recommendations. The connection, if any, between the oral microbiome and COVID-19 complications is urgently required to establish the importance of oral hygiene and pre-existing oral disease in the severity and mortality risk of COVID-19.

15.
Neuromodulation ; 25(4):S68, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1937046

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a debilitating condition characterized by disproportionate pain to the inciting event, changes in sensation, autonomic abnormalities, and motor dysfunction, as defined by the Budapest criteria. It is difficult to treat, often requiring trials of multiple medications or more invasive measures such as a spinal cord stimulator (SCS) to manage symptoms. The onset of symptoms typically follows tissue damage and may be exacerbated by further injury or systemic stressors. One such stressor appears to be COVID-19 infection, which has already been implicated in cases of neuropathic pain. We present a case of a 60-year-old woman with CRPS type I status post SCS placement with a flare-up attributable to COVID-19 infection. Methods: We describe the following patient's case in pertinent detail. The patient's written consent was obtained prior to the undertaking of this report. Results: A 60-year-old woman presented with a right-sided rotator cuff tear with subsequent repair in 2018 which incited pain and related symptoms. CRPS was diagnosed when her symptoms progressed to right thumb numbness as well as right hand color changes, numbness, and weakness. An SCS was placed in August 2019 which provided pain relief, but the patient presented with exacerbation of symptoms in December 2020, coinciding with COVID-19 infection. She experienced migration of symptoms into the right shoulder which has been significantly interfering with work and sleep. She continued to report pain, swelling, stiffness, dry skin, and temperature changes in her right hand. Conclusion: COVID-19 has been found to present with a widely variable clinical presentation with equally varied sequelae, termed Post-Acute Sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC). Human coronaviruses are known to possess neuroinvasive capabilities, typically manifesting as anosmia in the case of COVID-19 but may also present as neuropathic pain. If not attributable to direct viral invasion, the pathophysiologic underpinnings may be related to proinflammatory cytokines and pain-generating neuropeptides. Our case suggests that COVID-19 infection may play a role in exacerbating symptoms of CRPS. Disclosure: Gabrielle Fernandez, BA: None, Ganiru Anunike, BA: None, Nitin Goyal, MD: None

16.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1927766

ABSTRACT

Systemic capillary leak syndrome (SCLS or Clarkson's disease) is a rare condition characterized by episodes of vascular hyperpermeability. The extravasation of plasma to the interstitial space results in hemoconcentration, hypoalbuminemia, hypovolemia and compartment syndrome of the extremities. The disease can be idiopathic or secondary to causes including viral infections or chemotherapeutic toxicity. We present a fatal case of idiopathic SCLS which rapidly deteriorated to multiple organ failure despite initial improvement with methylene blue. A 57-year-old male presented for worsening back pain over one month. He described a flulike illness 2 weeks prior. Testing for respiratory viruses including SARS-CoV-2 was negative. He received intravenous crystalloid fluids acutely developed respiratory distress and hypotension requiring emergent intubation and initiation of norepinephrine infusion. CT angiography of the chest demonstrated pulmonary edema. Early during his hospitalization urine output ceased and body weight increased by 10 kg, developing tense anasarca. Hematocrit concentrated from 42.7 to 54.4%. Serum albumin dropped from 4.6 to 2.5 g/dL. C1 esterase inhibitor level and IgM were normal. Ferritin was elevated at 2515 ng/ml. He received cefepime and vancomycin, though infectious workup returned unremarkable. Continuous renal replacement therapy and stress dose steroids were initiated. Vasopressor requirement worsened until he was on three vasopressors at one point. Given the constellation of hemoconcentration, hypoalbuminemia, and shock a diagnosis was made of idiopathic SCLS. Treatment was started with methylene blue, montelukast, and the β-adrenergic agonist terbutaline. Blood pressure improved and patient came off pressors and lactate improved from 13 to 4. However, he later developed rising creatine kinase continued to climb to >40,000 U/L. He developed rhabdomyolysis with concern for compartment syndrome of the extremities due to third spacing of fluids. Orthopedic surgery was consulted;but did not believe a fasciotomy was indicated due to rapid decline. Lactic acidosis rose to 18 mmol/L. His family decided to transition to comfort measures. He passed with family at bedside on Day 4 of hospitalization. There are fewer than 500 cases of SCLS reported since initial discovery in 1960. Given the overlap in presentation with common causes of plasma leakage such as sepsis, it is likely that many cases are unrecognized. Patients are often mismanaged;development of severe hypovolemia despite fluids and compartment syndrome is overlooked. This case builds on our evolving recognition of this disease, and the potential for the use of methylene blue to help acute exacerbations of the disease.

17.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1927759

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Before the covid pandemic we provided community respiratory nursing support for patients with chronic lung diseases especially COPD, pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) and a home oxygen service supporting/assessing patients needing oxygen in the community. The pandemic has led to refocussing our services and staff, helping to keep patients out of hospital. Group pulmonary rehabilitation classes were no longer possible. Methods: We have refocussed our service to provide covid-safe services with PPE and early staff immunisation. Some staff were seconded to a rapid response unit for those acutely ill. Others carried out a care homes initiative to review all patients with respiratory disease in care homes. The oxygen team picked up patients discharged post covid from hospital requiring oxygen at home. We identified high risk patients for regular telephone contact. Results: Referrals after admission for non-covid respiratory infections fell as patients stayed at home and reduced contacts. 1.1-1.4 2020v 2021: 236 v 79;GP referrals also fell 1.1-1.4 2020-2021;87 v 35. Both have increased post lockdown. Referrals for PR fell. Total 1.1-1.4. 2020 v 2021, 373 v 107, GP referrals 226 v 54. Post lockdown 1.7.21-1.10.21 there has been an increase, total 139:GP 81. Group PR is starting up again. Oxygen referrals after covid admissions up to 1.10.20 were only 8 from the first wave of disease, but 119 from 15.10.20-10.5.21, and 18 from 9.8.21-1.11.21 (11 ambulatory alone): all patients discharged after covid requiring oxygen at home are contacted by telephone and visited at home. We identified 380 patients who were rated as high risk, either having <3 admissions in 12 months, recent oxygen required at home or PCO2 <7.5Kpa. These were contacted weekly as they sheltered at home. Our staff reviewed 163 patients in nursing homes, 116 with respiratory disease, 31/116 already known to the service. 75% of patients needed a new reliever inhaler or spacer. 58% did not have a rescue pack of antibiotics and steroids, 85% required a salbutamol inhaler. Conclusion: Identification of “high risk patients allowed us to provide telephone support to keep them safe at home. Reviewing all residents in care homes identified unmet needs for therapy and support. Prompt review of patients requiring oxygen after admission for covid helps them once discharged. Admissions for non covid exacerbations fell as patients remained at home with limited contacts, but on re-entering the outside world, admissions for COPD have risen again.

18.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1927719

ABSTRACT

We present a case with significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenges;a 57 year old female with history of bi-ventricular failure status post Left Ventricular Assisted Device (LVAD) in 2020 and Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) who presented with Shortness of breath and refractory hypoxemia, Computerized tomography(CT) showed dense ground glass opacity and superimposed traction bronchiectasis which was not present in a prior CT. The management included high FiO2 therapy High flow nasal cannula (HFNC), initial heart failure measures with diuresis and antibiotics treatment were attempted, the clinical and radiological diagnosis of acute exacerbation (AE) of connective tissue disease associated interstitial lung disease (CTD-ILD) with progressive fibrosing phenotype was made, The decision of therapeutic pulse corticosteroids with Rituximab was based on the degree of severity of acute exacerbation, following treatment, the course of the disease was reversed with complete oxygen weaning with impressive clinical and radiological response. The case is considered puzzling from multiple aspects, first the complex comorbidities, LVAD placement made heart failure the main differential diagnosis (DD), the absence of interstitial infiltrate in the old CT made the initial diagnosis of AE of ILD less likely, other DD as Covid-19 pneumonia, pulmonary embolism, bacterial pneumonia were worked up. Another major dilemma was the optimal management of the life threatening hypoxemia in the setting of new CT findings. Connective tissue disease associated ILD is a diffuse parenchymal lung disease characterized by both inflammation and fibrosis. The progressive fibrosing phenotype carries poor prognosis, even worse is the prognosis of AE that characterized by marked deterioration and alveolar abnormalities with high mortality. There is extremely limited data of optimal treatment of AE and lack of blinded randomized controlled trials. Management is mainly supportive care, oxygen therapy is considered the cornerstone, otherwise no formal therapeutic strategy. The potential reported therapies included corticosteroids, immunosuppressant, anticoagulants, antibodies targeted therapy with no conclusive evidence. Although corticosteroids were described based on anecdotal evidence but recently published case series described novel combination of treating AE with combination of pulse steroid, Rituximab and plasma exchange resulting in promising outcome. In our case we followed the regimen of pulse steroids in combination with Rituximab which lead to satisfactory results in short interval. The rational of steroids use for its potent anti-inflammatory properties and since AE is linked to autoimmune antibody-driven inflammation, treatment with Rituximab causes Bcell depletion, the impressive clinical outcome of our patient signals a promising therapeutic potentials in treating fatal AE. (Figure Presented).

19.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1927711

ABSTRACT

Rationale: It has been suggested that individuals with ZZ alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) might suffer from more severe and prolonged pulmonary exacerbations compared to their MM counterparts due to the loss of immunomodulatory AAT protein. During the COVID-19 pandemic it was advised that individuals with ZZ AATD should, where practicable, cocoon to avoid contracting COVID-19. Methods: A survey of ZZ AATD individuals attending the Irish National Centre for Expertise for AATD was conducted 1 year into the COVID-19 pandemic. It evaluated the effects of cocooning on patient-reported exacerbation frequency during the 1-year COVID-19 period versus the 2 years prior to COVID-19. 184 individuals were contacted by phone, mail, or email. Results: 114 (62%) individuals successfully completed the survey. 73 (64%) cocooned during the pandemic, with men (39) and women (34) almost equally likely to cocoon. Those who cocooned tended to have a lower baseline FEV1 (% predicted). Women who cocooned had a mean FEV1 of 73.5% compared to a mean of 97.5% for women who did not cocoon. Men who cocooned had a mean FEV1 of 52.8% compared to a mean of 78.9% for men who did not cocoon. Men benefited from lower rates of exacerbation due to cocooning. They suffered an average of 0.92 exacerbations during the cocooning period versus 1.56 exacerbations per year prior to the pandemic (P = 0.0298). Women, regardless of cocooning status and non-cocooning men also demonstrated a trend towards fewer exacerbations but these were not statistically significant. In terms of hospitalisations, there were no differences observed between men or women based on cocooning status. This was likely due to the low rate of hospital admissions during the 3-year period. 14 (12%) of 114 respondents contracted COVID-19, 7 (50%) of whom were hospitalised. There was a single fatality from COVID-19. Conclusion: Further work needs to be done to establish the effects of risk reduction behaviours such as cocooning on exacerbation frequency and which groups may benefit most from this strategy. Our survey suggests that men with more advanced respiratory disease were most likely to benefit from a cocooning strategy and this may be applicable to non-COVID threats in the future.

20.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1927706

ABSTRACT

Rationale We have previously reported blocking the IL-25 receptor (IL-17RB) prevented viral increased allergic airways inflammation and this was associated with reduced lung viral load. To investigate IL-25 regulation of airway anti-viral immunity we hypothesised that IL-25 directly inhibits airway epithelial cell (AEC) type I/III interferon expression and antibody blockade of IL-25 in vivo boosts lung interferon expression and reduces lung viral load in parallel with reduced type 2 airway inflammation. Methods In vitro Immunofluorescence was used to visualise epithelial IL-25 and IL- 17RB proteins in endobronchial biopsies from patients with asthma and healthy subjects and in AEC differentiated at ALI. AEC from n = 14 donors with asthma were differentiated at the air-liquid interface (ALI) and infected with RV-A1, MOI=0.1. A subset of AECs was treated with anti-IL-25 mAb (LNR125) before infecting with RV-A1 or human coronavirus 229E. Differentiated AEC from healthy donors were treated with recombinant IL-25 protein and infected with RV-A1. Nanostring immune transcriptomic data expressed as digital mRNA counts for exact copy number or was expressed as log2 fold change ratio against -log10 Bejamini-Yekutieli-corrected p-values. In vivo 6- 8-week-old, BALB/c mice sensitised and intranasally challenged daily for 3 days with ovalbumin to induced allergic airways disease. A single subcutaneous injection of 250 μg LNR125 was administered during ovalbumin challenge. Mice were then infected i.n. with RV-A1, 6 hours after final allergen challenge. On day 1 and day 7 post-infection, BAL were collected, lung lobe tissue was collected for viral RNA and cytokine expression. Results IL-25 and IL-17RB were constitutively expressed at the apical surface of airway epithelium in biopsies and AEC cultures. RV infection increased IL-25 expression by AEC from asthmatic donors. LNR125 treatment reduced IL-25 mRNA and significantly increased RV induced IFN-β a and IFN-λ protein expression and this was confirmed by Nanostring transcriptomic analyses which also identified down-regulated type-2 immune genes CCL26 (eotaxin 3) and IL1RL1(IL-33 receptor). LN125 treatment also increased IFN-λ expression by 229E-infected differentiated AECs. IL-25 treatment increased viral load associated with 50% reduced expression of IFN-β and CXCL10 and 75% reduced IFN-λ. Allergen challenged, RV-infected mice treated with LNR125 had significantly increased BAL IFN-β protein and 60% reduction in lung viral load associated with reduced IL-25, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 BAL proteins compared to controls. Conclusion IL-25-induced inflammation combined with suppression of AEC anti-viral immunity identify IL-25 as a central mediator of viral asthma exacerbations and therefore a target for mAb-based treatment.

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