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1.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 20(1):864, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2200061

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To examine patients' and relatives' experiences with participation in an online kidney school (OKS) and its influence on their choice of treatment modality;furthermore, to report on healthcare professionals' (HCPs) first experiences with OKS. Methods: A mixed-methods design with parallel data collection involving two questionnaires for participants, including patients and relatives and a focus group discussion (FGD) with HCPs. Results: The OKS was feasible, and overall, patients and relatives were satisfied. Participation in the OKS increased the percentage of those who felt ready to make a decision regarding treatment. One over-arching theme (evolvement of the online kidney school over time) and three sub-themes (concerns and perceived barriers, facilitators, and benefits and future possibilities) emerged from the FGD. Conclusions: The OKS proved feasible, was well-accepted, and increased participants' abilities to choose a preferred treatment modality. HCPs displayed initial concerns regarding the quality of the OKS and worried about the practicality of conducting the OKS. They experienced a feeling of something being lost. However, over time, HCPs developed strategies to tackle initial concerns and discovered that patients were more capable of participating than they had anticipated.

2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(1), 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2200056

ABSTRACT

The increasing burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), particularly cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) poses a considerable threat to public health. Community-driven CVD risk screening, referral and follow-up of those at high CVDs risk is essential to supporting early identification, treatment and secondary prevention of cardiovascular events such as stroke and myocardial infarction. This protocol describes a multi-country study that aims to implement and evaluate a community health worker (CHW)-led CVD risk screening programme to enhance referral linkages within the local primary care systems in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), using a participatory implementation science approach. The study builds upon a prior community-driven multicentre study conducted by the Collaboration for Evidence-based Health Care and Public Health in Africa (CEBHA+). This is a participatory implementation research. The study will leverage on the CVD risk citizen science pilot studies conducted in the four selected CEBHA+ project countries (viz. Ethiopia, Rwanda, Malawi, and South Africa). Through planned engagements with communities and health system stakeholders, CHWs and lay health worker volunteers will be recruited and trained to screen and identify persons that are at high risk of CVD, provide referral services, and follow-up at designated community health clinics. In each country, we will use a multi-stage random sampling to select and then screen 1000 study participants aged 35-70 years from two communities (one rural and one urban). Screening will be done using a simple validated non-laboratory-based CVD risk assessment mobile application. The RE-AIM model will be used in evaluating the project implementation outcomes, including reach, fidelity, adoption and perceived effectiveness. Developing the capacities of CHWs and lay health worker volunteers in SSA to support population-based, non-invasive population-based CVD risk prevention has the potential to impact on early identification, treatment and secondary prevention of CVDs in often under-resourced communities. Using a participatory research approach to implementing mobile phone-based CHW-led CVD risk screening, referral and follow-up in SSA will provide the evidence needed to determine the effectiveness of CVD risk screening and the potential for scaling up in the wider region.

3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(1), 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2200054

ABSTRACT

Working from home (WfH) has public health implications including changes to physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB). We reviewed published and grey literature for interventions designed to support PA or reduce SB in WfH contexts. From 1355 published and grey literature documents since 2010, we screened 136 eligible documents and extracted ten intervention studies. Interventions designed specifically for WfH were limited and included structured exercise programs, infrastructure (e.g., sit-stand workstations), online behavioral and educational programs, health professional advice and peer support, activity trackers and reminder prompts. Evidence of interventions to improve PA and reduce SB in WfH contexts is emergent but lacking in variety and in utilization of local environments to promote good health. Evidence is needed on the adaptation of existing workplace interventions for home environments and exploration of opportunities to support PA through alternative interventions, such as urban planning and recreational strategies.

4.
Healthcare ; 11(1):30, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2199989

ABSTRACT

This study focuses on the cooperative attitude and intention of retail stores in Taiwan to cooperate with the government's related pandemic prevention measures. The study is based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The study includes factors such as perceived risk of infection, job stress, pandemic prevention IT (information technology) convenience, pandemic prevention attitude, and pandemic prevention intention. Pandemic prevention attitude is used as a mediating variable to establish the research framework. This study collected research data through a questionnaire survey. A total of 457 valid questionnaires were collected through an electronic questionnaire platform. The findings showed that perceived risk of infection and pandemic prevention IT convenience had a positive and significant effect on pandemic prevention attitude (β = 0.567;β = 0.422) and pandemic prevention intention (β = 0.424;β = 0.296). Job stress has a significant negative effect on attitude (β = −0.173). In addition, job stress influenced intention through attitudes. Finally, perceived risk, job stress, and IT convenience had high explanatory power (R2 = 0.706) on attitudes. Perceived risk, IT convenience, and attitude also had moderate explanatory power (R2 = 0.588) on prevention intention. The study also suggests practical recommendations to improve and cooperate with pandemic prevention intention.

5.
Biomolecules ; 12(12) (no pagination), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2199737

ABSTRACT

During the last few decades, the micronutrient zinc has proven to be an important metal ion for a well-functioning immune system, and thus also for a suitable immune defense. Nowadays, it is known that the main cause of zinc deficiency is malnutrition. In particular, vulnerable populations, such as the elderly in Western countries and children in developing countries, are often affected. However, sufficient zinc intake and homeostasis is essential for a healthy life, as it is known that zinc deficiency is associated with a multitude of immune disorders such as metabolic and chronic diseases, as well as infectious diseases such as respiratory infections, malaria, HIV, or tuberculosis. Moreover, the modulation of the proinflammatory immune response and oxidative stress is well described. The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of zinc have been known for a long time, but are not comprehensively researched and understood yet. Therefore, this review highlights the current molecular mechanisms underlying the development of a pro-/ and anti-inflammatory immune response as a result of zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation. Additionally, we emphasize the potential of zinc as a preventive and therapeutic agent, alone or in combination with other strategies, that could ameliorate infectious diseases. Copyright © 2022 by the authors.

6.
Front Public Health ; 10:1066299, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2199551

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has evolved beyond being a public health crisis as it has exerted worldwide severe economic impacts, triggering cascading failures in the global industrial network. Although certain powerful enterprises can remain its normal operation during this global shock, what's more likely to happen for the majority, especially those small- and medium-sized firms, is that they are experiencing temporary suspension out of epidemic control requirement, or even permanent closure due to chronic business losses. For those enterprises that sustain the pandemic and only suspend for a relatively short period, they could resume work and production when epidemic control and prevention conditions are satisfied and production and operation are adjusted correspondingly. In this paper, we develop a novel quantitative framework which is based on the classic susceptible-infectious-recovered (SIR) epidemiological model (i.e., the SIR model), containing a set of differential equations to capture such enterprises' reactions in response to COVID-19 over time. We fit our model from the resumption of work and production (RWP) data on industrial enterprises above the designated size (IEDS). By modeling the dynamics of enterprises' reactions, it is feasible to investigate the ratio of enterprises' state of operation at given time. Since enterprises are major economic entities and take responsibility for most output, this study could potentially help policy makers better understand the economic impact caused by the pandemic and could be heuristic for future prevention and resilience-building strategies against suchlike outbreaks of public health crises.

7.
Frontiers in Public Health ; 10:1058423, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2199543

ABSTRACT

The results from epidemiological studies suggest that environmental noise including aircraft, railway, road traffic, wind turbine, and leisure-related noise is a growing public health concern. According to the WHO, at least 100 million people in the European Union are affected by traffic noise levels above the WHO-recommended thresholds. Environmental noise can adversely affect physical and mental health, as well as wellbeing. Chronic low-level noise exposure typical for most environmental sources is associated with psychophysiological stress causing non-auditory or indirect noise effects leading ultimately to cardiovascular diseases. Among all environmental noise sources, aircraft noise is considered the most annoying, and its leading mechanism of action is autonomic system activation such as increases in heart rate and blood pressure. Previously, we observed that long-term exposure to aircraft noise was associated with increased diastolic blood pressure, arterial stiffness (as assessed by pulse wave velocity), and impaired left ventricular diastolic function. All mentioned above effects are early, subclinical, and potentially reversible changes which preceded late noise effects in the cardiovascular system, that is, established cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure. However, even a short-term reduction in aircraft noise exposure as observed during the COVID-19 lockdown may reverse these negative effects on arterial stiffness and blood pressure and may decrease the prevalence of insomnia. In this review, we aimed to critically discuss our obtained results considering recent studies on the influence of aircraft noise (and other traffic noises) on cardiovascular diseases in the context of the WHO Environmental Noise Guidelines for the European Region.

8.
Front Public Health ; 10:1048935, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2199525

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) related symptoms among healthcare workers (HWs) who were in the fighting against COVID-19 in Nanjing of China, and further to examine the association between working place and FGIDs-related symptoms among HWs during the period of COVID-19 epidemic. METHODS: An online anonymous survey was conducted among those HWs without history of FGIDs, who took part in the fighting against the COVID-19 epidemic between July and September of 2021 in Nanjing, China. All the 15 FGIDs-related symptoms included in the Rome IV diagnostic questionnaire for adults were investigated in this study. The outcome variable was the presence of FGIDs-related symptoms ("Yes" or "No"), while the independent measure was participants' working place ("in-ward" or "out-ward"). Logistics regression models were applied to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to assess the association of working place with FGIDs-related symptoms among those healthcare workers. RESULTS: Totally, 336 eligible participants completed the survey. The prevalence of FGIDs-related symptoms was 48.8% (95%CI = 43.4%, 54.3%) among overall participants, with 40.7% (95%CI = 33.14%, 48.71%) and 56.3% (95%CI = 48.59%, 63.73%) for in-ward and out-ward HWs, respectively. Compared to their in-ward counterparts, those out-ward HWs were at a 1.88-fold likelihood (95%CI = 1.22, 2.89) to experience FGIDs-related symptoms during the period of fighting against the COVID-19 epidemic. After adjustment for potential confounders, such a positive association attenuated but still remained significant. CONCLUSIONS: A high prevalence of FGIDs-related symptoms was observed among those HWs who were without history of FGIDs during the fighting against COVID-19, and out-ward HWs were at a significantly higher risk to experience FGIDs-related symptoms relative to their in-ward counterparts in regional China. It has important implications that particular attention shall be paid to functional gastrointestinal issues for healthcare workers, especially those who are at uncertain risks of infectious diseases, when they participate in response to public health emergencies in future.

9.
Frontiers in Public Health ; 10:1038138, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2199510

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The Initial Medication Adherence (IMA) intervention is a multidisciplinary and shared decision-making intervention to improve initial medication adherence addressed to patients in need of new treatments for cardiovascular diseases and diabetes in primary care (PC). This pilot study aims to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of the IMA intervention and the feasibility of a cluster-RCT to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the intervention.

10.
Frontiers in public health ; 10:1022810, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2199495

ABSTRACT

Background: The global community has been affected by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which emerged in December 2019. Since then, many studies have been conducted on cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and COVID-19. The aim of this study was to perform a bibliometric and visual analysis of the published relationship between CVDs and COVID-19. Method(s): 1,890 publications were retrieved from the Web of Science Core Collection database on January 5, 2022. Microsoft Office Excel and CiteSpace were then used to carry out scientometric analysis on the relevant literature according to seven aspects: document type, countries/regions, institutions, authors, journals, references, and keywords. Result(s): The research on CVDs and COVID-19 is currently in a period of rapid development, with China, USA, England, and Italy leading the field. There is active cooperation between most countries and institutions. Harvard Medical School stands out among the many institutions not only for the largest number of publications, but also for their high quality. Banerjee A, Solomon SD and Narula J are three representative authors in this field. Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine was the journal with the highest number of published studies, and The Lancet was the most cited journal. Two documents with a high degree of significance in this field were identified. Popular research topics in this field are specific diseases, such as acute coronary syndrome and heart failure;pathogenesis related to ACE2, insulin resistance and pericyte;the specific therapeutic drug chloroquine;and clinical characteristics, physical activity, and mental health. ACE2 and NF-kappaB will be the focus of future research. Conclusion(s): This study provides useful information for the research of CVDs and COVID-19, including potential collaborators, popular research topics, and a reference for more extensive and in-depth research in the future. Copyright © 2022 Wei, Xu, Wang, Jia, Shou, Zhang, Zhang, Li, Zhai and Hu.

11.
Frontiers in Public Health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2199465

ABSTRACT

Understanding the role of space in infectious diseases' dynamics in urban contexts is key to developing effective mitigation strategies. Urbanism, a discipline that both studies and acts upon the city, commonly uses drawings to analyze spatial patterns and their variables. This paper revisits drawings as analytical and integrative tools for interdisciplinary research. We introduce the use of drawings in two interdisciplinary projects conducted in the field of global public health: first, a study about the heterogeneous burden of tuberculosis and COVID-19 in Lima, Peru, and second, a study about urban malaria in Jimma, Ethiopia. In both cases, drawings such as maps, plans, and sections were used to analyze spatial factors present in the urban context at different scales: from the scale of the territory, the city, and the district, to the neighborhood and the household. We discuss the methodological approaches taken in both cases, considering the nature of the diseases being investigated as well as the natural and social context in which the studies took place. We contend that the use of drawings helps to reimagine space in public health research by adding a multidimensional perspective to spatial variables and contexts. The processes and products of drawing can help to (a) identify systemic relations within the spatial context, (b) facilitate integration of quantitative and qualitative data, and (c) guide the formulation of policy recommendations, informing public and urban health planning.

12.
Frontiers in Public Health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2199462

ABSTRACT

IntroductionThe United States is home to 10.5 million undocumented immigrants, of which 5 out of 10 are Mexican or Central American. Their immigration status is an obstacle to secure employment that provides labor benefits such as sick leave and health insurance. Living through the global pandemic in the U.S. had a negative impact on this vulnerable population's mental and physical health. They avoided seeking primary or hospital care fearful that they were undocumented and uninsured. The services provided by the Ventanillas de Salud (VDS) "Health Windows" mitigated this pandemic's negative impact and have become an important source to support and increase access to health services among the immigrant community. MethodsDe-identified data from a database system called the Continuous Information System and Health Reports of Mexicans in the United States (SICRESAL-MX) to perform this secondary analysis. The descriptive analysis describes socio-demographic, epidemiological, and situational characteristics of COVID-19. ResultsBetween January 2020 and July 2021, the VDS and UMS provided 11.5 million individual services to just over 4.3 million people. The main health conditions are overweight and obesity, high blood pressure and elevated cholesterol and glucose levels. Between March 2020 to July 2021 a total of 2,481,834 specific services related to COVID-19 were offered. DiscussionThe Mexican migrant community in the United States is in a vulnerable situation, largely due to its immigration status which limits their access to health and human services, including primary health care services. Many of them have suffered from chronic diseases since before the pandemic, generating difficulties in monitoring the ailments and exacerbating their conditions.

13.
Front Physiol ; 13:1045469, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2199128

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) infection is known for its severe clinical pathogenesis among individuals with pre-existing comorbidities. However, the molecular basis of this observation remains elusive. Thus, this study aimed to map key genes and pathway alterations in patients with COVID-19 and comorbidities using robust systems biology approaches. Methods: The publicly available genome-wide transcriptomic datasets from 120 COVID-19 patients, 281 patients suffering from different comorbidities (like cardiovascular diseases, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and obesity), and 252 patients with different infectious diseases of the lung (respiratory syncytial virus, influenza, and MERS) were studied using a range of systems biology approaches like differential gene expression, gene ontology (GO), pathway enrichment, functional similarity, mouse phenotypic analysis and drug target identification. Results: By cross-mapping the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) across different datasets, we mapped 274 shared genes to severe symptoms of COVID-19 patients or with comorbidities alone. GO terms and functional pathway analysis highlighted genes in dysregulated pathways of immune response, interleukin signaling, FCGR activation, regulation of cytokines, chemokines secretion, and leukocyte migration. Using network topology parameters, phenotype associations, and functional similarity analysis with ACE2 and TMPRSS2-two key receptors for this virus-we identified 17 genes with high connectivity (CXCL10, IDO1, LEPR, MME, PTAFR, PTGS2, MAOB, PDE4B, PLA2G2A, COL5A1, ICAM1, SERPINE1, ABCB1, IL1R1, ITGAL, NCAM1 and PRKD1) potentially contributing to the clinical severity of COVID-19 infection in patients with comorbidities. These genes are predicted to be tractable and/or with many existing approved inhibitors, modulators, and enzymes as drugs. Conclusion: By systemic implementation of computational methods, this study identified potential candidate genes and pathways likely to confer disease severity in COVID-19 patients with pre-existing comorbidities. Our findings pave the way to develop targeted repurposed therapies in COVID-19 patients.

14.
Front Immunol ; 13:1080786, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2198918

ABSTRACT

Heat shock proteins (Hsps), including Hsp90 and Hsp70, are intra- and extracellular molecules implicated in cellular homeostasis and immune processes and are induced by cell stress such as inflammation and infection. Autoimmune bullous disorders (AIBDs) and COVID-19 represent potentially life-threatening inflammatory and infectious diseases, respectively. A significant portion of AIBDs remain refractory to currently available immunosuppressive therapies, which may represent a risk factor for COVID-19, and suffer from treatment side-effects. Despite advances in vaccination, there is still a need to develop new therapeutic approaches targeting SARS-CoV-2, especially considering vaccine hesitancy, logistical distribution challenges, and breakthrough infections. In this mini review, we briefly summarize the role of targeting Hsp90/70 as a promising double-edged sword in the therapy of AIBDs and COVID-19.

15.
Front Immunol ; 13:1070379, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2198911

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with disorders affecting the peripheral and the central nervous system. A high number of patients develop post-COVID-19 syndrome with the persistence of a large spectrum of symptoms, including neurological, beyond 4 weeks after infection. Several potential mechanisms in the acute phase have been hypothesized, including damage of the blood-brain-barrier (BBB). We tested weather markers of BBB damage in association with markers of brain injury and systemic inflammation may help in identifying a blood signature for disease severity and neurological complications. METHODS: Blood biomarkers of BBB disruption (MMP-9, GFAP), neuronal damage (NFL) and systemic inflammation (PPIA, IL-10, TNFα) were measured in two COVID-19 patient cohorts with high disease severity (ICUCovid;n=79) and with neurological complications (NeuroCovid;n=78), and in two control groups free from COVID-19 history, healthy subjects (n=20) and patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS;n=51). Samples from COVID-19 patients were collected during the first and the second wave of COVID-19 pandemic in Lombardy, Italy. Evaluations were done at acute and chronic phases of the COVID-19 infection. RESULTS: Blood biomarkers of BBB disruption and neuronal damage are high in COVID-19 patients with levels similar to or higher than ALS. NeuroCovid patients display lower levels of the cytokine storm inducer PPIA but higher levels of MMP-9 than ICUCovid patients. There was evidence of different temporal dynamics in ICUCovid compared to NeuroCovid patients with PPIA and IL-10 showing the highest levels in ICUCovid patients at acute phase. On the contrary, MMP-9 was higher at acute phase in NeuroCovid patients, with a severity dependency in the long-term. We also found a clear severity dependency of NFL and GFAP levels, with deceased patients showing the highest levels. DISCUSSION: The overall picture points to an increased risk for neurological complications in association with high levels of biomarkers of BBB disruption. Our observations may provide hints for therapeutic approaches mitigating BBB disruption to reduce the neurological damage in the acute phase and potential dysfunction in the long-term.

16.
Frontiers in Immunology ; 13:1056036, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198897

ABSTRACT

Humans have been challenged by infectious diseases for all of their recorded history, and are continually being affected even today. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has enabled identification of, i) culture independent microbes, ii) emerging disease-causing pathogens, and iii) understanding of the genome architecture. This, in turn, has highlighted that pathogen/s are not a monolith, and thereby allowing for the differentiation of the wide-ranging disease symptoms, albeit infected by a primary pathogen. The conventional 'one disease - one pathogen' paradigm has been positively revisited by considering limited yet important evidence of the co-presence of multiple transcriptionally active microbes (TAMs), potential pathogens, in various infectious diseases, including the COVID-19 pandemic. The ubiquitous microbiota presence inside humans gives reason to hypothesize that the microbiome, especially TAMs, contributes to disease etiology. Herein, we discuss current evidence and inferences on the co-infecting microbes particularly in the diseases caused by the RNA viruses - Influenza, Dengue, and the SARS-CoV-2. We have highlighted that the specific alterations in the microbial taxonomic abundances (dysbiosis) is functionally connected to the exposure of primary infecting pathogen/s. The microbial presence is intertwined with the differential host immune response modulating differential disease trajectories. The microbiota-host interactions have been shown to modulate the host immune responses to Influenza and SARS-CoV-2 infection, wherein the active commensal microbes are involved in the generation of virus-specific CD4 and CD8 T-cells following the influenza virus infection. Furthermore, COVID-19 dysbiosis causes an increase in inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IL-1beta, which might be one of the important predisposing factors for severe infection. Through this article, we aim to provide a comprehensive view of functional microbiomes that can have a significant regulatory impact on predicting disease severity (mild, moderate and severe), as well as clinical outcome (survival and mortality). This can offer fresh perspectives on the novel microbial biomarkers for stratifying patients for severe disease symptoms, disease prevention and augmenting treatment regimens.

17.
Frontiers in Cellular & Infection Microbiology ; 12:1079926, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198726

ABSTRACT

Virus-Like Particles (VLPs) are nanostructures that share conformation and self-assembly properties with viruses, but lack a viral genome and therefore the infectious capacity. In this study, we produced VLPs by co-expression of VSV glycoprotein (VSV-G) and HIV structural proteins (Gag, Pol) that incorporated a strong sequence-optimized 5'ppp-RNA RIG-I agonist, termed M8. Treatment of target cells with VLPs-M8 generated an antiviral state that conferred resistance against multiple viruses. Interestingly, treatment with VLPs-M8 also elicited a therapeutic effect by inhibiting ongoing viral replication in previously infected cells. Finally, the expression of SARS-CoV-2 Spike glycoprotein on the VLP surface retargeted VLPs to ACE2 expressing cells, thus selectively blocking viral infection in permissive cells. These results highlight the potential of VLPs-M8 as a therapeutic and prophylactic vaccine platform. Overall, these observations indicate that the modification of VLP surface glycoproteins and the incorporation of nucleic acids or therapeutic drugs, will permit modulation of particle tropism, direct specific innate and adaptive immune responses in target tissues, and boost immunogenicity while minimizing off-target effects.

18.
Frontiers in Cellular & Infection Microbiology ; 12:1079297, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198725

ABSTRACT

Swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV) is an enveloped, positive single-stranded RNA virus belonging to Coronaviridae family, Orthocoronavirinae subfamily, Alphacoronavirus genus. As one of the main causes of swine diarrhea, SADS-CoV has brought huge losses to the pig industry. Although we have a basic understanding of SADS-CoV, the research on the pathogenicity and interactions between host and virus are still limited, especially the metabolic changes induced by SADS-CoV infection. Here, we utilized a combination of untargeted metabolomics and lipomics to analyze the metabolic alteration in SADS-CoV infected cells. Significant changes were observed in 1257 of 2225 metabolites identified in untargeted metabolomics, while the number of lipomics was 435 out of 868. Metabolic pathway enrichment analysis showed that amino acid metabolism, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and ferroptosis were disrupted during viral infection, suggesting that these metabolic pathways may partake in pathological processes related to SADS-CoV pathogenesis. Collectively, our findings gain insights into the cellular metabolic disorder during SADS-CoV infection, offer a valuable resource for further exploration of the relationship between virus and host metabolic activities, and provide potential targets for the development of antiviral drugs.

19.
Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology ; 12, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2198712

ABSTRACT

IntroductionPatients with myasthenia gravis (MG) are prone to the development of pneumonia due to the long-term immunotherapies they receive and a tendency for aspiration. Pneumonia remains a risk factor for MG worsening and is the most prevalent cause of mortality in MG patients. Classification of the pathogens involved and exploration of the risk factors for mechanical ventilation (MV) could aid in improving clinical outcomes. MethodsBetween January 2013 and October 2022, we performed an inpatient database review for MG patients with pneumonia concurrence in a tertiary research center specializing in neuromuscular disorders. The clinical and microbiological characteristics of 116 MG patients with pneumonia were retrospectively analyzed. ResultsIn our cohort, 90.32% (112/124) of organisms were bacteria and 42.86% (48/112) of pathogenic bacteria were carbapenem-resistant. A high abundance of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was detected using next-generation sequencing (NGS) in 12 patients, while cytomegalovirus (CMV) was detected in 8 patients. Non-fermentative Gram-negative bacilli were the most prevalent microorganisms, in which ampicillin, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SMZ-TMP), piperacillin, cefoperazone, ceftazidime, and cefepime may have an anti-infectious effect. Moreover, peripheral lymphocyte percentage [odds ratio (OR) 0.88, 95% CI 0.75-0.96, p = 0.02] and serum globulin (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.02-1.35, p = 0.03) were significantly associated with the risk of MV demand. DiscussionOur identification of the microbial etiology of pneumonia in MG patients may provide future perspectives on accurate antibiotic options and enable early interventions when risk factors are present.

20.
7th International Conference on Advanced Production and Industrial Engineering, ICAPIE 2022 ; 27:565-570, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2198468

ABSTRACT

The pandemic that started in 2019 in Wuhan caused a vast number of deaths worldwide due to the absence of effective therapy against SARS-CoV-2. The present study investigates the interaction of AMP with viral protein and host receptors. We screened plant-derived antimicrobial peptides (AMP) from the docking web server with the help of PDB ID. We selected five anti-microbial peptides based on their antiviral and physiological activities. The interaction of anti-microbial peptide and Mpro was analyzed using the HADDOCK web server. The results revealed that the minimum Z-score was obtained by the 6LU7-1N4N complex followed by 6LU7-1GPS docked complex. The docking results showed the interaction potency of AMP with 6LU7. The dynamic simulation study of 100ns was performed to check the stability of the docked complexes of AMP and 6LU7. From the stable and positive results of dynamics studies, we can conclude that these selected AMPs have immense potential to be used as therapeutic agents for the treatment of disease. © 2022 The authors and IOS Press.

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