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1.
Photochem Photobiol ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2038178

ABSTRACT

Germicidal ultraviolet (UV) devices have been widely used for pathogen disinfection in water, air, and on food and surfaces. Emerging UV technologies, like the krypton chloride (KrCl*) excimer emitting at 222 nm, are rapidly gaining popularity due to their minimal adverse health effects compared to conventional UV lamps emitting at 254 nm, opening opportunities for UV disinfection in occupied public spaces. In this study, inactivation of seven bacteria and five viruses, including waterborne, foodborne, and respiratory pathogens, was determined in a thin-film aqueous solution using a filtered KrCl* excimer emitting primarily at 222 nm. Our results show that the KrCl* excimer can effectively inactivate all tested bacteria and viruses, with most microorganisms achieving more than 4-log (99.99%) reduction with a UV dose of 10 mJ/cm(2) . Compared to conventional UV lamps, KrCl* excimer exhibited better disinfection performance for viruses but was less effective for bacteria. The relationships between UV sensitivities at 222 nm and 254 nm for bacteria and viruses were evaluated using regression analysis, resulting in factors that could be used to estimate the KrCl* excimer disinfection performance from well-documented UV kinetics using conventional 254 nm UV lamps. This study provides fundamental information for pathogen disinfection when employing KrCl* excimers.

2.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2036951

ABSTRACT

Ultrasound technology has revolutionized point-of-care diagnostics, decision-making, and the guidance of interventional procedures in Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine. Recent literature has highlighted important infection control considerations when performing transesophageal or transthoracic echocardiography, point-of-care ultrasound, and ultrasound-guided procedures. This narrative review focuses on operator precautions and disinfection methods and summarizes key recommendations from the international Echocardiography and Radiology Societies.

3.
Chinese Journal of Nosocomiology ; 32(12):1894-1899, 2022.
Article in English, Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-2034134

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Due to the lack of effective monitoring of microbial spectrum of medical waste collection, transport, storage and transfer path, as well as the evaluation of disinfection effects in medical institutions, this study aimed to explore the microenvironment, prevention and control difficulties and management opinions of medical waste disposal path through the microbial analysis of the medical waste disposal path in model departments. METHODS According to the standard process, the environmental samples at different time periods before and after the disinfection of the medical waste disposal path in the model department were collected and analyzed. The drug resistance and molecular typing traceability of important pathogens were analyzed. And the dynamic effect of the whole path application of the disinfection scheme for medical waste disposal in the model department were evaluated. Efficient frequency and application effect of disinfection of and hygiene of relevant places and gloves were evaluated through environmental monitoring before and after disinfection. RESULTS Most of the isolated strains were environmental microorganisms, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium were also isolated, and a multidrug-resistant A. baumannii strain was identified. Through typing and tracing the source, the multiple strains of A. Baumannii were found to be of different genetic origins and the two strains were from the same clonal line. Using original detection technology, no contamination of Salmonella and Shigella was found in the path. The new coronavirus and norovirus were not detected. However, the environmental pollution of rotavirus was obvious. CONCLUSION The risk of random transmission of rotavirus cannot completely solved by existing hand-sterilized regents. Timely or even frequent replacement of gloves is a simple solution in the workflow. The sterilized medical waste transfer vehicles are likely to become the pollution source of rotavirus after passing through a certain medical waste path. The medical waste disposal personnel should replace the rotating vehicle in time before entering other wards. In addition, due to the weak professional ability of cleaners, simple and easy process guidelines is the most effective solution at present.

4.
Boletin de Malariologia y Salud Ambiental ; 61(Edicion Especial II 2021):53-60, 2021.
Article in Spanish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2033822

ABSTRACT

At the beginning of the pandemic, an excessive purchase of some products was observed, but this has not been evaluated if it is related to mental health. Therefore, the objective was to determine the factors associated with the purchase of basic necessities in the Peruvian population at the beginning of the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. An analytical cross-sectional study was carried out, based on a secondary data analysis. Information from 3379 Peruvians from all regions was used, they were asked about the purchases they made, crossing these with the results of the "KNOW-P-COVID-19", "F-COVID-19" and "MED-COVID-19" scales;obtaining descriptive and analytical results. The most purchased products were disinfectant (43.9%), followed by soap (43.6%) and alcohol (40.8%). In the multivariate analysis, the purchase of disinfectants (p=0.009), soap (p < 0.001) and alcohol (p=0.002) was found to be associated with sex;the purchase of personal protective equipment (p=0.027), antibacterial gel (p=0.010) and face masks (p=0.015) was associated with age;to the fatalism score the purchase of food (p=0.005), personal protective equipment (p < 0.001), soap (p=0.014), alcohol (p=0.043) and face masks (p < 0.001);to the score of fears and concern conveyed by the media the purchase of personal protective equipment (p=0.007), soap (p < 0.001) and face masks (p=0.005) and to the score of knowledge of the disease the purchase of soap (p < 0.001), antibacterial gel (p=0.011) and toilet paper (p=0.009). Significant associations were found with the purchase of supplies (p < 0.011).

5.
Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 18:16, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2032338

ABSTRACT

Objective: Some infectious diseases spread very fast, viruses such as COVID-19, once infected, do great harm to human body. In order to control the spread of infectious diseases, it is necessary to collect microbial samples of infectious diseases for research, understand the nature of infectious diseases and take reasonable measures to prevent them. However, in some places where infectious diseases with great transmission power have occurred, such as hospitals, sending personnel to collect microbial samples is in danger of being infected. In order to reduce this risk, UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) can be used to collect microbial samples of infectious diseases. Low altitude UAV has the advantages of low cost, high flexibility and easy rapid deployment. Methods: Using wireless communication technology to control the UAV cluster network is a common method of UAV wireless remote control. With its flexible flight characteristics and good channel characteristics, UAV can stay in the air for a long time, and can also be used as an air base station to provide various communication services. If an infectious disease occurs in an area, then use the aviation UAV to enter the highly dangerous infectious disease area. The UAV is equipped with corresponding sensors to identify the specific situation of the disease, and then use special tools to collect microbial samples of infectious diseases, Including exudates, secretions, tissues, various disease body fluids, etc., for researchers to analyze the nature of infectious disease samples. Results: Various infectious diseases with high infectivity, such as COVID-19, are easy to spread. For this highly infectious virus, even if people use appropriate equipment and preventive measures, they may still be infected. The collection of microbial samples of infectious diseases by aviation UAV can prevent the staff from directly contacting with the virus of infectious diseases. This way improves the safety of the staff, which is a very effective way to prevent infectious diseases. Conclusion: Taking advantage of the flexibility of aerial UAV, some microbial samples with highly infectious diseases are collected, which is not only suitable for areas with infectious diseases, but also suitable for hospital wards and other places. Infectious diseases always have certain transmission routes and conditions, infectious diseases can be transmitted in many ways. The same infectious disease can be transmitted in many different ways. Respiratory infectious diseases, such as COVID-19, are mainly transmitted through the respiratory tract. Pathogens exist in the air or form aerosols, forming an air transmission characteristic. Once inhaled into the body, healthy people may be infected. However, as long as we master the mode of transmission of diseases and pay due attention to prevention, we can eliminate the occurrence of infectious diseases. In some areas with poor sanitary conditions and poor hygiene habits, there are more cases of infectious diseases. Therefore, for the prevention of various infectious diseases, especially COVID-19 viruses, we must strengthen personal disinfection, strictly isolate the source of infection, and make reasonable arrangements in management measures to reduce the occurrence of infectious cases.

6.
Annals of Medicine and Surgery ; 81, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2031100

ABSTRACT

Urethral catheterization (UC) is a common procedure done in the Emergency Department of a hospital. The main indications for a UC are relieving acute urinary retention and bladder outlet obstruction. This cross-sectional audit was carried out between July 2019 to February 2020, in the Emergency Department (ED). All male patients aged 18 years and above, in whom UC was performed, were included in the audit. A total of 81 male patients were surveyed. Although, sterilized technique was maintained by using sterile gloves and pyodine but hand hygiene (sterilization or hand wash) was not performed before the procedure 80% of times. CDC hand hygiene guidelines were distributed to promote hand hygiene. What do we already know about this topic ? The Lippincott guidelines are considered gold standard which includes hand hygiene as an important element of urinary catheterization UC. The CDC Center of Disease Control CDC promotes the use of mandatory gloves and generous hand sanitizing before procedures. How does your research contribute to the field For continuous improvement and patient focused practice, we must audit the technique of nursing staff, doctors and health care assistants who are involved in insertion and ordering of catheters to provide quality health care and avoid unnecessary catheterization [1]. The aim of this study was to audit the appropriateness of usage of urinary catheters by the healthcare staff and, their technique of insertion and indications for urinary catheterization. What are your research's implications towards theory, practice, or policy? Hand hygiene is an important element of patient care. If done properly it can prevent several hospital-acquired infections. Heathcare facilities must audit their staff on regular basis and provide refreshers and promote the use of proper hand hygiene before urinary catheterization.

7.
PLoS One ; 17(9), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2029769

ABSTRACT

Medical textiles are subject to particularly harsh disinfection procedures in healthcare settings where exposure risks are high. This work demonstrates a fabric treatment consisting of a reactive silver ink and low surface energy PDMS polymer that provides for superhydrophobicity and antiviral properties against enveloped herpes simplex virus stocks even after extended ultrasonic bleach washing. The antiviral properties of reactive silver ink has not been previously reported or compared with silver nanoparticles. The fabric treatment exhibits high static contact angles and low contact angle hysteresis with water, even after 300 minutes of ultrasonic bleach washing. Similarly, after this bleach washing treatment, the fabric treatment shows reductions of infectious virus quantities by about 2 logs compared to controls for enveloped viruses. The use of silver ink provides for better antiviral efficacy and durability compared to silver nanoparticles due to the use of reactive ionic silver, which demonstrates more conformal coverage of fabric microfibers and better adhesion. This study provides insights for improving the wash durability of antiviral silver fabric treatments and demonstrates a bleach wash durable, repellent antiviral treatment for reusable, functional personal protective equipment applications.

8.
Environ Toxicol Chem ; 2022 Jul 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2027344

ABSTRACT

Increased disinfection efforts in various parts of China, including Hong Kong, to prevent the spread of the novel coronavirus may lead to elevated concentrations of disinfectants in domestic sewage and surface runoff in Hong Kong, generating large quantities of toxic disinfection by-products (DBPs). This study investigated the presence and distribution of four trihalomethanes (THMs), six haloacetic acids (HAAs) and eight nitrosamines (NAMs) in rivers and seawater in Hong Kong. The concentrations of THMs (mean concentration: 1.6 µg/L [seawater], 3.0 µg/L [river water]), HAAs (mean concentration: 1.4 µg/L [seawater], 1.9 µg/L [river water]) and NAMs (mean concentration: 4.4 ng/L [seawater], 5.6 ng/L [river water]) did not significantly differ between river water and seawater. The total DBP content in river water in Hong Kong was similar to that in Wuhan and Beijing, and the total THM concentration in seawater was significantly higher than that before the COVID-19 pandemic. Among the regulated DBPs, none of the surface water samples exceeded the maximum index values for THM4 (80 µg/L), HAA5 (60 µg/L) and nitrosodimethylamine (100 ng/L) in drinking water. Among the DBPs detected, bromoform in rivers and seawater poses the highest risk to aquatic organisms, which warrants attention and mitigation efforts. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.© 2022 SETAC.

9.
30th Interdisciplinary Information Management Talks: Digitalization of Society, Business and Management in a Pandemic, IDIMT 2022 ; : 161-169, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2026641

ABSTRACT

During a global pandemic, mitigating the impact of the disease and coordinating efforts to manage not only the medical but also the logistical and administrative aspects of such an all-encompassing phenomenon are of paramount importance. An extremely important but less publicised issue in this context is laboratory management and safety in analytical laboratories. In times of high capacity utilisation, as is the case during a pandemic or endemic outbreak of disease, other routine processes have to be abbreviated or are cancelled altogether due to lack of planning owing to the rapid emergence of the outbreak. In order to achieve high level of cleanliness in laboratories of all shapes and sizes and with different requirements, a universal solution seems unimaginable. Our experiments show a promising, automated approach of disinfection of various spaces. Within a short timeframe of 1 h – 3 h it is possible to disinfect any desired room to achieve a laboratory grade hygiene status. This was proven by employing biological indicators validated for this procedure. The tested technology reduced the indicator germs by a concentration of the mathematical log 6 reduction. Achieving this high level of cleanliness is possible by assigning a single person to the task for the set-up at the scene. Steering and monitoring of the process can be done remotely. While the machine used in our experiments is not a completely new concept, our experiments in a real-life setting such as laboratories and clinics alike, show that the applied hydrogen peroxide vapour distributed by a specialized fogger, disinfects even hard to reach spots within closed-off spaces. This program can be performed while automated (PCR) machines are running and highly trained personnel can apply their expertise elsewhere. Moreover, while the program is running real-time data is available and the process can be remotely monitored and steered digitally. It is of major concern to ensure maintainability of infrastructure e.g. COVID labs, ambulances, laboratories or veterinary practitioners to ensure treatment of directly and indirectly related health issues within a crisis. We concentrated on evaluating the usability of the disinfection technology presented in real-life settings. © 2022 IDIMT. All rights reserved.

10.
Journal of International Oral Health ; 14(4):409-415, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2024749

ABSTRACT

Aim: To evaluate the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown on orthodontic patients’ apprehension and inflow and to investigate the treatment-related problems encountered during the pandemic. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Saudi Arabia, and patients with active orthodontic treatment were reached via an online questionnaire. A total of 260 orthodontic patients agreed to participate in the study. The sample size calculation was performed using the Raosoft sample size calculator based on the estimation of 75% of the population need orthodontic treatment. The questionnaire included three sections: demographic data, patient fear, and troubles encountered during the lockdown. A link was sent to the participants via different social media platforms and applications. The chi-square goodness-of-fit test was used to assess differences between the variables. Pearson correlation, binomial logistic regression, and multiple logistic regression tests were used to assess the extent of the relationship between patient apprehension and safety measures of COVID-19, as well as between patient orthodontic-related problems. Results: About half of the participants (52.3%) were not afraid of COVID-19 or panicked;however, 54% of them felt depressed during the lockdown. More than 80% were not afraid of visiting the orthodontists or thinking of changing their orthodontists for safety measures and did not want to postpone their treatment. The participants felt that excellent disinfection was the most important measure of infection control followed by wearing masks, face shields, and protective clothing. Conclusion: COVID-19 and the lockdown have a noticeable impact on the patients’ apprehension and dejection. A very high percentage of patients in this study showed no hesitation to visit their orthodontists, and they did not want to stop their treatment during the pandemic. The most common treatment-related problem reported was cheek injury, followed by bracket breakage.

11.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 19(17):10562, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023688

ABSTRACT

In dental clinics, the infections may be acquired through contaminated devices, air, and water. Aerosolized water may contain bacteria, grown into the biofilm of dental unit waterlines (DUWLs). We evaluated a disinfection method based on water osmosis and chlorination with chlorine dioxide (O-CD), applied to DUWL of five dental clinics. Municipal water was chlorinated with O-CD device before feeding all DUWLs. Samplings were performed on water/air samples in order to research total microbial counts at 22–37 °C, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Legionella spp., and chlorine values. Water was collected from the taps, spittoons, and air/water syringes. Air was sampled before, during, and after 15 min of aerosolizing procedure. Legionella and P. aeruginosa resulted as absent in all water samples, which presented total microbial counts almost always at 0 CFU/mL. Mean values of total chlorine ranged from 0.18–0.23 mg/L. Air samples resulted as free from Legionella spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Total microbial counts decreased from the pre-aerosolizing (mean 2.1 × 102 CFU/m3) to the post-aerosolizing samples (mean 1.5 × 10 CFU/m3), while chlorine values increased from 0 to 0.06 mg/L. O-CD resulted as effective against the biofilm formation in DUWLs. The presence of residual activity of chlorine dioxide also allowed the bacteria reduction from air, at least at one meter from the aerosolizing source.

12.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 19(16):10446, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023678

ABSTRACT

Air purifiers should pay much attention to hospital-associated infections, but the role of a single air purifier is limited. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the combined application of the nonequilibrium positive and negative oxygen ion purifier (PNOI) and the high-efficiency particulate air filter (HEPA) on a complex, polluted environment. Two of the better performing purifiers were selected before the study. The efficacy of their use alone and in combination for purification of cigarette particulate matter (PM), Staphylococcus albicans, and influenza virus were then evaluated under a simulated contaminated ward. PNAI and HEPA alone are deficient. However, when they were combined, they achieved 98.44%, 99.75%, and 100% 30 min purification rates for cigarette PM, S. albus, and influenza virus, respectively. The purification of pollution of various particle sizes and positions was optimized and reduced differentials, and a subset of airborne influenza viruses is inactivated. Furthermore, they were superior to ultraviolet disinfection for microbial purification in air. This work demonstrates the strong purification capability of the combined application of these two air purifiers for complex air pollution, which provides a new idea for infection control in medical institutions.

13.
Catalysts ; 12(8):856, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023199

ABSTRACT

Legionella pneumophila (L. pneumophila) is the causative agent of Legionnaires’ disease and Pontiac fever, collectively known as legionellosis. L. pneumophila infection occurs through inhalation of contaminated aerosols from water systems in workplaces and institutions. The development of disinfectants that can eliminate L. pneumophila in such water systems without evacuating people is needed to prevent the spread of L. pneumophila. Photocatalysts are attractive disinfectants that do not harm human health. In particular, the TiO2 photocatalyst kills L. pneumophila under various conditions, but its mode of action is unknown. Here, we confirmed the high performance of TiO2 photocatalyst containing PtO2 via the degradation of methylene blue (half-value period: 19.2 min) and bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli (half-value period: 15.1 min) in water. Using transmission electron microscopy, we demonstrate that the disinfection of L. pneumophila (half-value period: 6.7 min) by TiO2 photocatalyst in water is accompanied by remarkable cellular membrane and internal damage to L. pneumophila. Assays with limulus amebocyte lysate and silver staining showed the release of endotoxin from L. pneumophila due to membrane damage and photocatalytic degradation of this endotoxin. This is the first study to demonstrate the disinfection mechanisms of TiO2 photocatalyst, namely, via morphological changes and membrane damage of L. pneumophila. Our results suggest that TiO2 photocatalyst might be effective in controlling the spread of L. pneumophila.

14.
Antibiotics ; 11(8):1015, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023074

ABSTRACT

Background: Despite the global efforts to antagonize carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) spreading, it remains an emerging threat with a related mortality exceeding 40% among critically ill patients. The purpose of this review is to provide evidence concerning the best infection prevention and control (IPC) strategies to fight CRAB spreading in endemic hospitals. Methods: The study was a critical review of the literature aiming to evaluate all available studies reporting IPC measures to control CRAB in ICU and outside ICU in both epidemic and endemic settings in the past 10 years. Results: Among the 12 included studies, the majority consisted of research reports of outbreaks mostly occurred in ICUs. The reported mortality reached 50%. Wide variability was observed related to the frequency of application of recommended CRAB IPC measures among the studies: environmental disinfection (100%);contact precautions (83%);cohorting staff and patients (75%);genotyping (66%);daily chlorhexidine baths (58%);active rectal screening (50%);closing or stopping admissions to the ward (33%). Conclusions: Despite effective control of CRAB spreading during the outbreaks, the IPC measures reported were heterogeneous and highly dependent on the different setting as well as on the structural characteristics of the wards. Reinforced ‘search and destroy’ strategies both on the environment and on the patient, proved to be the most effective measures for permanently eliminating CRAB spreading.

15.
Frontiers in Microbiology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2022791

ABSTRACT

Persistent infection and prolonged shedding of human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1) in children have been reported, and the role of HBoV1 as a sole causative pathogen in acute respiratory infection (ARI) is yet to be established. While the reported prevalence of HBoV infection varies due to different detection methods and sampling criteria, determining the viral and bacterial etiology of HBoV infection using multiplex real-time PCR is yet to be reported. Herein, we aimed to further explore the pathogenicity of HBoV in patients with ARI by screening the viral and bacterial infections in children with ARI in Qingdao and comparing the epidemiological, clinical characteristics, and etiological results. Human bocavirus was identified in 28.1% of the samples, and further sequencing analysis of the detected HBoV confirmed 96.4% as HBoV1. The rate of HBoV as a single viral infection was 75%, and the rate of coinfection with bacteria was 66.1%, suggesting the need for continued monitoring of HBoV in children with ARIs. Clinical characterization suggested that HBoV infection may affect the function of organs, such as the liver, kidney, and heart, and the blood acid–base balance. Additionally, it is essential to promote awareness about the importance of disinfection and sterilization of the hospital environment and standardizing operations. The interactions between HBoV and other pathogens remain to be investigated in further detail in the future. Copyright © 2022 Wang, Guan, Liu, Zhang, Sun, Liu, Shi, Su, Liang, Hao, Wang and Liu.

16.
mSphere ; : e0030322, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2019746

ABSTRACT

In response to the demand for N95 respirators by health care workers during the COVID-19 pandemic, we evaluated decontamination of N95 respirators using an aerosolized hydrogen peroxide (aHP) system. This system is designed to dispense a consistent atomized spray of aerosolized, 7% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) solution over a treatment cycle. Multiple N95 respirator models were subjected to 10 or more cycles of respirator decontamination, with a select number periodically assessed for qualitative and quantitative fit testing. In parallel, we assessed the ability of aHP treatment to inactivate multiple viruses absorbed onto respirators, including phi6 bacteriophage, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). For pathogens transmitted via respiratory droplets and aerosols, it is critical to address respirator safety for reuse. This study provided experimental validation of an aHP treatment process that decontaminates the respirators while maintaining N95 function. External National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health (NIOSH) certification verified respirator structural integrity and filtration efficiency after 10 rounds of aHP treatment. Virus inactivation by aHP was comparable to the decontamination of commercial spore-based biological indicators. These data demonstrate that the aHP process is effective, with successful fit-testing of respirators after multiple aHP cycles, effective decontamination of multiple virus species, including SARS-CoV-2, successful decontamination of bacterial spores, and filtration efficiency maintained at or greater than 95%. While this study did not include extended or clinical use of N95 respirators between aHP cycles, these data provide proof of concept for aHP decontamination of N95 respirators before reuse in a crisis-capacity scenario. IMPORTANCE The COVID-19 pandemic led to unprecedented pressure on health care and research facilities to provide personal protective equipment. The respiratory nature of the SARS-CoV2 pathogen makes respirator facepieces a critical protective measure to limit inhalation of this virus. While respirator facepieces were designed for single use and disposal, the pandemic increased overall demand for N95 respirators, and corresponding manufacturing and supply chain limitations necessitated the safe reuse of respirators when necessary. In this study, we repurposed an aerosolized hydrogen peroxide (aHP) system that is regularly utilized to decontaminate materials in a biosafety level 3 (BSL3) facility, to develop a method for decontamination of N95 respirators. Results from viral inactivation, biological indicators, respirator fit testing, and filtration efficiency testing all indicated that the process was effective at rendering N95 respirators safe for reuse. This proof-of-concept study establishes baseline data for future testing of aHP in crisis-capacity respirator-reuse scenarios.

17.
2022 International Conference on Advancement in Electrical and Electronic Engineering, ICAEEE 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2018772

ABSTRACT

In this work, a cost-effective disinfection system for Coronavirus Disease of 2019 (COVID-19) is proposed to be used inside public transport. The disinfection system is twofold, firstly containing a tower unit where UV-C (Ultraviolet type-C) lamps are positioned in parallel, in such a way that, 360-degree space is covered, and secondly a power unit that incorporates robotics and electrical parts. The UVC unit is a separate and movable tower that can be placed anywhere inside a vehicle horizontally or vertically. UV lamps in the tower have a 254 nm wavelength with a total power of 180 Watt. The system can provide a dose of it 16.9 mj/cm2 within 26.83 seconds if the distance of the targeted surface inside a vehicle from the UVC light source is 1.5 meters. Various distances from the UV source to the targeted surface inside the vehicle are chosen and calculated the required corresponding times to achieve the required dose to inactivate all viral concentrations. The developed disinfection system not only minimizes the growth of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by performing robotic features ensuring human detection auto turn off but also utilizes minimum labor work which is vital in the current Covid-19 pandemic. © 2022 IEEE.

18.
2021 From Innovation To Impact, FITI 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2018766

ABSTRACT

This paper presents a design and implementation of an IoT-based Green Disinfection Chamber to fight against the COVID-19 virus. The primary function of this disinfection chamber is to sanitize the clothes worn by the person who uses this chamber from head to toe in a matter of seconds. In addition, it can read the body temperature of the person using the MLX90614 contactless temperature sensor. Here a 4x3 keypad has been provided to type the NIC number of the person who uses this chamber. The valuable data such as the user's body temperature, date and time he or she used this chamber, and identification details are being saved automatically in a remote cloud server with the help of a Wi-Fi-based ESP8266 (NodeMCU) module. On the chemical storage side, an ultrasonic sensor has been used at the bottom of the chemical tank lid to determine the chemical level and to generate an alarm refill signal if necessary. The rationale and novelty of this innovation are that it does not require any additional person to assist in doing that task separately, reducing the risk of health workers and doctors. Another unique feature is that the entire process is powered by solar energy to minimize environmental pollution and avoid main grid connection being used in any remote location. For this reason, the word "Green"has been used for this project. This innovation uses the latest technology to create a more cost-effective design with eco-friendly and energy-saving features to protect people, which would be ideal for developing countries to cope with pandemic situations, especially in the Sri Lankan context today. © 2021 IEEE.

19.
Journal of Environmental Engineering ; 148(11), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2016999

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization (WHO) and US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommend cleaning soiled surfaces with soap and water, followed by use of approved disinfectant. However, data are lacking on the potential efficacy of soapy water alone as a disinfectant for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is relevant to low-resource settings where soapy water is prevalent for handwashing. To our knowledge, no appropriate biosafety level 1 (BSL-1) surrogate has been identified and confirmed for use in studies with soapy water and the highly infectious SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, our objectives were to determine the efficacy of soapy water alone as a disinfectant against SARS-CoV-2 and if commonly used BSL-1 bacteriophage surrogates could serve as a surrogate model for testing soapy water as a disinfectant. Overall, results indicate that SARS-CoV-2 can be reduced >4 log10 in suspension but only 0.50 log10 on a nonporous surface with 10 min of exposure to 0.5% soapy water. This difference is potentially attributed to less area of exposure on surfaces than in suspension. Phi6 (a verified SARS-CoV-2 surrogate for other disinfectants) was not appropriate for SARS-CoV-2 disinfection with soapy water. Further research is needed to determine an appropriate surrogate for SARS-CoV-2 disinfection with soapy water as disinfection of MS2 was similar to SARS-CoV-2 on surfaces only. Our work highlights the importance of confirming surrogates for each disinfectant used. Based on our results, we do not recommend a change to the current WHO and CDC surface disinfection protocols that recommend using soapy water to preclean a surface before applying disinfectant.

20.
Scientific Reports ; 12(1):14545, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2016826

ABSTRACT

There is an urgent need for evidence-based engineering controls to reduce transmission of SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19. Although ultraviolet (UV) light is known to inactivate coronaviruses, conventional UV lamps contain toxic mercury and emit wavelengths (254 nm) that are more hazardous to humans than krypton chlorine excimer lamps emitting 222 nm (UV222). Here we used culture and molecular assays to provide the first dose response for SARS-CoV-2 solution exposed to UV222. Culture assays (plaque infectivity to Vero host) demonstrated more than 99.99% disinfection of SARS-CoV-2 after a UV222 dose of 8 mJ/cm2 (pseudo-first order rate constant = 0.64 cm2/mJ). Immediately after UV222 treatment, RT-qPCR assays targeting the nucleocapsid (N) gene demonstrated ~ 10% contribution of N gene damage to disinfection kinetics, and an ELISA assay targeting the N protein demonstrated no contribution of N protein damage to disinfection kinetics. Molecular results suggest other gene and protein damage contributed more to disinfection. After 3 days incubation with host cells, RT-qPCR and ELISA kinetics of UV222 treated SARS-CoV-2 were similar to culture kinetics, suggesting validity of using molecular assays to measure UV disinfection without culture. These data provide quantitative disinfection kinetics which can inform implementation of UV222 for preventing transmission of COVID-19.

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