Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 113
Filter
1.
Pathogenic Coronaviruses of Humans and Animals ; CHAP: 53-124,
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2083144

ABSTRACT

In 2002, a severe-to-fatal respiratory disease began in China and was named severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). The causative agent was soon found to be a coronavirus and was named SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Infection was traced to contact with live palm civet cats or raccoon dogs in live animal food markets (“wet markets”) and later, person-to-person. Visiting these markets or restaurants housing these animals before preparing them for customer consumption were among the risk factors for infection in addition to frequent use of taxis and comorbidities. After its initial appearance, SARS spread rapidly through parts of Asia and then to countries around the world before almost completely disappearing in 2003. It caused 8096 cases and 774 deaths. SARS-CoV is a betacoronavirus linage B. The single-stranded RNA genome of coronaviruses is the largest among RNA viruses. The size of the genome, the inaccuracy of replication in most coronaviruses, and homogenous and heterogenous genetic recombination contribute to the high frequency of mutation. The viral spike (S) protein binds to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 on the host cell before entry. Mutations in the S protein make a substantial contribution to viral transmission to additional host species and cell types in addition to viral virulence as the virus adapted to its new hosts. Interestingly, SARS-CoV isolates from the initial stages of the 2002–2003 epidemic were more virulent than those isolated later and are associated with a 29-nucleotide deletion in the S protein gene. Several insectivorous Chinese bats appear to serve as reservoir hosts for the ancestorial coronavirus. New forms of protection against infection were implemented in China and some other countries and include wearing face masks, thermal screening, and avoiding travel in taxis and public transportation. Their effectiveness in decreasing transmission and the rapid end of the epidemic is unknown.

2.
Pathogenic Coronaviruses of Humans and Animals ; CHAP: 341-415,
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2082392

ABSTRACT

Several human coronaviruses cause high mortality rates and are highly contagious, while others cause cold-like illnesses. These viruses are believed to enter human populations by zoonotic transmission from animal intermediate hosts from live animal markets in China [severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses (SARS-CoV) from palm civets/raccoon dogs and SARS-CoV-2 possibly from pangolins] or dromedary camels in the Arabian Peninsula (Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus). Some bats may act as reservoir hosts. While much focus on the possible reservoir and intermediate hosts for future zoonotic transmission focuses on bats or rodents, humans spend much more time with agricultural animals, including cattle, pigs, camelids, and horses, particularly pigs, which host six coronaviruses. One pig coronavirus is a deltacoronavirus, a genus that almost exclusively contains bird viruses. The species Betacoronavirus-1, represented by a bovine coronavirus, contains members that infect other animal hosts, as do the Alphacoronavirus-1 species. Humans spend large amounts of time in the company of their companion animals, such as cats and dogs. Some contact is intimate, including allowing these animals to sleep with their owners and lick their faces. In addition to possible zoonotic transmission, humans transmit coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2, to domestic and captive exotic cats, some of which are endangered. Human-to-cat transmission of SARS-CoV-2 has caused severe disease in juvenile domestic cats. People are also regularly in contact with animal fecal material. Some diseases caused by animal coronaviruses are typically mild, while others cause severe, life-threatening diseases. Both morbidity and mortality in agricultural animals have a great economic impact on developing and developed regions of the world. Due to close, prolonged contact between humans and agricultural and companion animals, it may be a matter of great importance to spend more time and resources studying the potential for coronaviruses of domestic animals to cause zoonotic transmission.

3.
Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering ; 83(12-B):No Pagination Specified, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-2073972

ABSTRACT

This research study will illuminate the experiences of individuals obtaining a dog during the COVID-19 pandemic. Everyone has their own unique life experiences and methods of building resilience. By collecting narrative data from individuals who obtained dogs during the pandemic, this researcher explored the phenomenon of these life experiences. The information obtained builds an understanding of how lives have been impacted by COVID-19 and how dogs have assisted during the pandemic. This study explored several variables that have influenced people's decisions to obtain a dog: social isolation, mental health concerns, timing, connection, family companionship, and many other identified reasons. This research was necessary to explore the life experiences of those who obtained a dog to assist in building an understanding of the impact of the human-animal bond during times of uncertainty.Keywords: dogs, COVID-19, phenomenology, qualitative, resilience. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

4.
Animals (Basel) ; 12(19)2022 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065670

ABSTRACT

Considering the effects that the COVID-19 pandemic had and still has on human psychological health, it is expected that it might also affect household dogs' and cats' welfare. The current study explores the behavioral changes in dogs and cats before (BL) and during the lockdown (DL), as reported by their owners in China. Besides demographic parameters, variables related to the daily management of dogs and cats were analyzed in relation to behavioral problems, stress-related behaviors, and anxiety-related behaviors before and during the lockdown. A total of 261 questionnaires were collected. In general, behavioral problems and stress-related behaviors in dogs (p < 0.001) and cats (p < 0.001) decreased DL compared to BL, while anxiety-related behaviors in cats did not show any differences between the two periods considered. On the other hand, anxiety-related behaviors were more frequent in dogs DL (36.3%) compared to BL (35%), which were associated with reduced frequency of play activities with the owners (p = 0.016) and altered sleeping habits (p < 0.01). During the lockdown, dogs' and cats' daily routines and management (feeding and sleeping habits, dogs' walks, dogs' and cats' play activities, litter box management, and cats' lifestyle) experienced changes, but they were not associated with any behavioral issues. On the other hand, the behavioral issues considered for dogs and cats were more frequent BL, which were influenced by the daily management of the pets. The current study showed how critical the attention the owners can provide to the pets could be, to improve their companion animals' welfare. Therefore, it is important to provide pet owners with behavioral management support both during particularly difficult periods such as a lockdown and during regular daily routines.

5.
The Thai Journal of Veterinary Medicine ; 52(3):537-541, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2056485

ABSTRACT

Dogs have a superior olfactory system;thus, they have been trained and used to detect various nonbiological and biological scents. In addition, many studies have recently reported dogs' ability to detect the odor of certain cancers or cancer cells. A previous study documented that a dog trained to detect a certain malignant cancer cell could also detect another, unfamiliar malignant cancer cell well, implying that these two cancer cells share a certain specific odor. Thus, given the hypothesis that malignant cancer cells of different origins may contain a common cancer-specific odor, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate odor detection ability for various cancer cells (prostate, lung and breast cancer) by dogs trained on prostate cancer cells. Two dogs were trained and participated in the tests. Sensitivity, specificity and the value of area under the curve (AUC) by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis were evaluated. According to the AUC value, the two dogs showed excellent and perfect detection abilities in detecting the odor of a trained prostate cancer cell (PC3), respectively. Both dogs also showed good detection ability for another, unfamiliar prostate cancer cell (LNCaP-LN3). When evaluating the detection ability for lung (A549) and breast (MCF-7) cancer cells, the two dogs showed excellent and good detection abilities, respectively. In conclusion, it is presumed that a certain common cancer-specific odor exists in cancerous cells when compared with normal cells. Scent-detection dogs have promising potential in training for cancer detection. Further study is needed to determine whether the detection ability of dogs trained to cancer cells affects the detection ability for real cancer.

6.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2022 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053048

ABSTRACT

Serosurveillance among animals, including pets, plays an important role in the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, because severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections in animal populations could result in the establishment of new virus reservoirs. Serological assays that offer the required sensitivity and specificity are essential. In this study, we evaluated the diagnostic performance of three different commercially available immunoassays for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in pets, namely two ELISA tests for the detection of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid [ID Screen SARS CoV-2 double antigen multispecies (Double antigen) and ID Screen® SARS-CoV-2-N IgG indirect ELISA (Indirect)] and one test for the detection of neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding-domain [surrogate virus neutralization test (sVNT)]. The obtained results were compared with those of conventional virus neutralization test (VNT), which was regarded as reference method. A total of 191 serum samples were analysed. Thirteen (6.8%) samples showed VNT-positive results. The overall sensitivity was higher for sVNT (100%) compared to nucleocapsid-based ELISA assays (23% for Double antigen and 60% for Indirect). The specificity was 100% for Indirect ELISA and sVNT, when a higher cut-off (>30%) was used compared to the one previously defined by the manufacturer (>20%), whereas the other test showed lower value (99%). The sVNT test showed the highest accuracy and agreement with VNT, with a perfect agreement when the higher cut-off was applied. The agreement between each nucleocapsid-based ELISA test and VNT was 96% for Indirect and 94% for Double antigen. Our findings showed that some commercially available serological tests may lead to a high rate of false-negative results, highlighting the importance of assays validation for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in domestic animals.

7.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2022 Sep 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053045

ABSTRACT

Several domestic and wild animal species are susceptible to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Reported (sero)prevalence in dogs and cats vary largely depending on the target population, test characteristics, geographical location and time period. This research assessed the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2-positive cats and dogs (PCR- and/or antibody positive) in two different populations. Dogs and cats living in a household with at least one confirmed COVID-19-positive person (household (HH) study; 156 dogs and 152 cats) and dogs and cats visiting a veterinary clinic (VC) (VC study; 183 dogs and 140 cats) were sampled and tested for presence of virus (PCR) and antibodies. Potential risk factors were evaluated and follow-up of PCR-positive animals was performed to determine the duration of virus shedding and to detect potential transmission between pets in the same HH. In the HH study, 18.8% (27 dogs, 31 cats) tested SARS-CoV-2 positive (PCR- and/or antibody positive), whereas in the VC study, SARS-CoV-2 prevalence was much lower (4.6%; six dogs, nine cats). SARS-CoV-2 prevalence amongst dogs and cats was significantly higher in the multi-person HHs with two or more COVID-19-positive persons compared with multi-person HHs with only one COVID-19-positive person. In both study populations, no associations could be identified between SARS-CoV-2 status of the animal and health status, age or sex. During follow-up of PCR-positive animals, no transmission to other pets in the HH was observed despite long-lasting virus shedding in cats (up to 35 days). SARS-CoV-2 infection in dogs and cats appeared to be clearly associated with reported COVID-19-positive status of the HH. Our study supports previous findings and suggests a very low risk of pet-to-human transmission within HHs, no severe clinical signs in pets and a negligible pet-to-pet transmission between HHs.

8.
Companion ; : 17-19, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2046845
9.
Slovensky Veterinarsky Casopis ; 45(2):75-76, 2020.
Article in Slovak | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2034130

ABSTRACT

This article highlights information on the beneficial and pathogenic microorganisms of the oral cavity of dogs, effects of grass consumption, and the breeding and care of dogs.

10.
Zhongguo Yufang Shouyi Xuebao / Chinese Journal of Preventive Veterinary Medicine ; 44(3):344-344, 2022.
Article in English, Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2034013

ABSTRACT

Wild animals may be closely related to the outbreak of infectious diseases in recent years. For example, it has been reported that there are closely related SARS-CoV and new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) in civet cats, raccoon dogs and pangolins. Therefore, it is of great significance to identify existing or potential pathogens in wild animals that may be in close contact with humans, in order to trace the origin of a specific epidemic and to carry out risk assessment of the most likely source of future epidemics.

11.
Prev Vet Med ; 208: 105755, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031629

ABSTRACT

It has long been known that coronaviruses cause various infectious diseases in animals. Although SARS-CoV-2 is genetically related to viruses isolated from Rhinolophus bats, the exact origin, mode of transmission, and how the human species has become the epidemiological reservoir of the virus have not yet been established with certainty. Although the main route of transmission is human-to-human, there are considerable numbers of reported cases of infection in animal species, predominantly among pet animals. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity in dogs and cats during the COVID-19 pandemic in Sumadija District, Serbia. We used serology to identify household contacts of pet animals with infected pet owners and the degree of association. The study presented in this paper is also the first study of this type in Serbia. The results of a retrospective serosurvey, which was conducted in dogs and cats with different exposure risk factors, were analyzed to find the possible modes of transmission between humans and animals. The relative frequency of SARS-CoV-2 infection in dogs was 1.45% bounded with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 0.0007-7.73%, while in cats, it was 5.56% (95% CI: 0.77-4.13%). The relative frequency of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pet owners was 11% (95% CI: 6.25-18.63%). In pets that were in close contact with COVID-19 positive owners, the seropositivity was found to be 9%. Out of a total of five stray dogs and cats tested, seropositivity was observed in two animals. Detected SARS-CoV-2 infection in pets shows that these animals are susceptible to infection and that the most common means of virus transmission to pets is through contact with diseased owners. However, the presence of infection in stray dogs and cats is not clear and needs further research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Chiroptera , Dog Diseases , Cats , Dogs , Animals , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics/veterinary , Retrospective Studies , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Serbia/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Pets
12.
Journal of Anatolian Environmental and Animal Sciences ; 7(2):145-155, 2022.
Article in Turkish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2026648

ABSTRACT

Many pandemic diseases have emerged in the history and millions of people affected from these diseases. Among the marked pandemics in history, the plague, known as the black death, was recorded to cause the death of 17-54% of the world population. Similar to previous pandemics, as the SARS CoV-2, which emerged in 2019 and belonged to the coronavirus family, caused an epidemic and turned into a pandemic infection, positive cases were detected in more than 483 million people, and more than 6.1 million people died. While this emerging epidemic is still continuing its effects, it has been determined that there are positive cases in pets such as dogs and cats, especially in mink (Neovison vison). Especially in Denmark, Netherlands and Finland, positive animals for COVID-19 were accepted. Unlike the pandemic until today, the COVID-19 has spread to broader geographies and affected many animal species. With the reports that the SARS-CoV-2 - was first transmitted from bats to humans, this viral agent has been accepted as zoonotic, but a complete transmission route has not been shown for its transmission from other animals to humans except bats. It is reported that there is no significant risk of transmission of the virus, which is transmitted primarily by the respiratory route, from both pets and edible foods to humans. Although there are many reports in terrestrial animals, studies on the presence of SARS-CoV-2 - in aquatic animals or aquatic environments and COVID-19 transmission in aquatic animals have doubts. Here we reviewed the viability of the SARS-CoV-2 - in the aquatic environment, transmission to the aquatic ecosystem and aquatic animals, and therefore the risks to humans through water or aquatic products.

13.
Journal of Criminal Justice Education ; 33(3):388-405, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2017295

ABSTRACT

Criminal justice classes often involve emotionally taxing content. Students who identify as trauma survivors are at risk of being retraumatized through such courses, which not only impedes their ability to complete the courses but may also cause deleterious health consequences. While studies have addressed sensitive and triggering content in college curricula, fewer have examined mitigation techniques. Based on observations and student feedback, this study reports on the efficacy of utilizing a trained therapy dog in criminal justice courses focused on interpersonal victimization. Data were obtained over a three year period (prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic) in higher level undergraduate criminal justice classes on child maltreatment, family violence, and victimology, during which the author’s registered therapy dog was strategically incorporated. Findings are discussed within the context of student mental health, bridging research on therapy dogs within primary and secondary education with innovative pedagogical approaches at the university level.

14.
Summa, Animali da Compagnia ; 39(6):19-25, 2022.
Article in Italian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1989439

ABSTRACT

Since the appearance of COVID-19 in humans, there have been numerous reports of dogs and cats being infected with SARSCoV- 2, with cats appearing to be particularly susceptible. The portal of entry of the virus into the body's cells is a membrane receptor called ACE2 (angiotensin converting enzyme 2) belonging to the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. The ACE2 receptor is expressed in airway epithelial cells, myocardium, venous and arterial endothelial cells, kidney, liver, oral cavity, intestine and also adipose tissue, explaining the diversity of clinical expression of the disease, with respiratory manifestations predominating. SARS-CoV-2 causes an imbalance in the renin-angiotensin- aldosterone system. In addition, the virus has a direct action combined with an immune reaction, that is sometimes intense, causing a cascade of lesions, mainly in the lungs but also in the heart. The clinical expression of SARS-CoV-2 infection remains rare in dogs and cats and mainly includes fever, depression, anorexia, digestive, respiratory or ocular disorders. As in humans, various cardiovascular clinical signs are less frequently seen. Several cases of myocarditis, correlated with a positive SARS-CoV-2 test (PCR or serology), have been identified in England and at least one in France. In the latter case, further investigation led to a strong suspicion of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy complicated by myocarditis. It is highly likely that obesity (with significant fat deposition in the pleural and pericardial spaces, tissues with high expression of the ACE2 receptor) may have favoured these complications. SARS-CoV-2 infection should therefore now be included in the differential diagnosis of agents causing myocarditis and pneumonia in both cats and dogs.

15.
Veterinary Ireland Journal ; 10(9):487-490, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1989213
16.
Vet Anaesth Analg ; 49(6): 580-588, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984186

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of the COVID-19 associated restrictions on the ability of owners in Michigan (MI), USA versus Ontario (ON) and British Columbia (BC), Canada, to obtain care for their chronically painful dogs. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. POPULATION: A total of 90 owners met the inclusion criteria for the study. METHODS: An anonymous electronic survey was distributed to owners at four veterinary integrative medicine (IM) clinics during July and August 2020. Two clinics in MI and one each in ON and BC were recruited. Owners were asked about availability of IM care preceding and during COVID-19 restrictions and their opinions of the impact of COVID-19 on their dog's health. The survey asked where owners sought care for their dogs, types of chronic conditions treated, therapeutic modalities used, and if owners had a medical background. Comparisons were made within and between groups. Thematic analysis, Fisher's exact test, chi-square analyses, McNemar's and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests for paired comparisons were performed (p < 0.05). RESULTS: During COVID-19 restrictions, access to IM care was better for dogs in ON and BC than in MI (p < 0.001). The negative effect of the pandemic restrictions to IM care on quality of life was perceived greater by owners in MI than those in ON and BC (p < 0.001). The owners' medical backgrounds had no effect on attempts to access care during this time (p = 0.76). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The results suggest that a widespread disease in humans had an adverse impact on animal welfare. Providers of veterinary care should use this experience to establish protocols to ensure continuity of care for chronically painful animals in the event of a similar situation in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dog Diseases , Veterinary Medicine , Animals , Dogs , Humans , British Columbia , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dog Diseases/therapy , Michigan , Ontario , Quality of Life , Surveys and Questionnaires , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Veterinary Medicine/statistics & numerical data , Social Control Policies/legislation & jurisprudence , Social Control Policies/statistics & numerical data , Pain/prevention & control , Pain/veterinary
17.
Chinese Journal of Virology ; 36(2):170-175, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1975403

ABSTRACT

2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is a new strain of coronavirus that has never been found in humans. SARS-CoV-2 is a beta coronavirus. whereas the coronaviruses infecting pet dogs and cats arise mainly from a-coronaviruses. Whether SARS-CoV-2 infects cats, dogs and other pets is an important public-health issue during this time. In the present study, respiratory-tract symptoms in 20 pet cats and 4 pet dogs (especially with obvious fever and cough symptoms) in Beijing, China, were detected by fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of SARS-CoV-2 and established diagnostic methods. Throat swabs were collected to detect the nucleic acids of SARS-CoV-2 using fluorescence quantitative PCR and to detect other pathogens. The nucleic acids of SARS-CoV-2 were not present in the 24 pets that we evaluated.

18.
Biomedica ; 42(Suppl. 2), 2022.
Article in Spanish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1957852

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The severe acute respiratory syndrome of the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is the causal agent of the health emergency due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Although humans are the main susceptible host, experimental studies and reported cases of natural infection have evidenced scenarios of SARS-CoV-2 reverse zoonosis in animals.

19.
Animals (Basel) ; 12(14)2022 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957207

ABSTRACT

Dental anxiety affects up to 21% of children and 80% of adults and is associated with lifelong dental avoidance. Animal assisted activity (AAA) is widely used to reduce anxiety and pain in medical settings and has promise in dentistry. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate caregiver and patient perceptions of canine AAA in orthodontics. A cross-sectional survey consisting of pre-tested and validated questions was conducted (n = 800) including orthodontic patients (n = 352 minors, n = 204 adults) and parents/caregivers (n = 244) attending university orthodontic clinics. In this study, AAA and dog therapy were not used or tested for dental anxiety management. More than a third of orthodontic patients (37%) had moderate or greater anxiety related to care. Participants believed that therapy animals would make dental experiences more enjoyable (75%) and reduce anxiety (82%). There was little to no concern expressed regarding cleanliness (83%), allergies (81%), and safety (89%) with a therapy animal in dental settings. Almost half of the participants would preferentially select an orthodontic office offering AAA. In light of the COVID-19 pandemic, we assessed whether perceptions of AAA changed before and after the shutdown of dental offices, with no significant differences. Across patients and caregivers, the responses support the use of AAA in orthodontic settings with minimal concerns.

20.
Behav Sci (Basel) ; 12(4)2022 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1953027

ABSTRACT

Emerging evidence suggests that pet dogs can offer features of a secure attachment which has been associated with healthy psychological development across the lifespan. Limited research has investigated the underpinning mechanisms that may contribute to the benefits and risks of child-dog attachment during childhood. This study aimed to test the potential mediating role of caregiver-observed positive and negative child-dog behaviours, on the relationship between child-reported child-dog attachment, and caregiver-reported child psychopathology and emotion regulation. Data from 117 caregiver reports and 77 child self-reports were collected through an online survey in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Parallel mediation analyses indicated that child-dog attachment had a significant indirect effect on conduct problems through negative child-dog behaviours only. Child-dog attachment had a significant indirect effect on emotional symptoms, peer problems, prosocial behaviour, emotion regulation, and emotional lability/negativity through both positive and negative child-dog behaviours. Although this study found modest effect sizes, the findings suggest that the types of interactions that children engage in with their pet dogs may be important mechanisms through which pet attachment contributes to psychological development throughout childhood, and therefore further attention is warranted. Positive and safe child-dog interactions can be facilitated through education and intervention, which may have implications for promoting positive developmental outcomes.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL