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1.
Agroscope Transfer 2021. (406):11 pp. ; 2021.
Article in German | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1912706

ABSTRACT

On behalf of the Federal Office for Agriculture (FOAG), Agroscope monitors the production and distribution of food for livestock and pets. The main purpose of its activity is to prevent harmful substances and undesirable products from being fed to animals and reaching consumers' plates through foodstuffs of animal origin. Controls also help to protect owners of animals against fraud and to preserve animal health and the environment. Official Food Control enforcement activities for animals have also been disrupted by the coronavirus pandemic and inspections had to be completely suspended. However, it was possible to resume them after a short period, although in a limited way, by applying the necessary hygiene and precautionary measures. In order to protect the inspectors and employees of the companies inspected, controls have been suspended for fifteen days in March, and then were resumed until the end of the year, but by being announced and by favouring the taking of samples. In this way it was possible to minimize contact with people and counter the spread of the virus by respecting the prescribed protection measures. The integration carried out at the end of 2019 of all the data relating to inspections, companies and products in a new laboratory information management system (LIMS) proved to be successful, although many optimizations and improvements had to be made. Due to increased data security and integration into a interdisciplinary system, production companies of animal feed thus benefited from more shipments, inspection report improved and there were more user-friendly presentation of test results in the product control report. Inspection reports were all able to be sent quickly and those of the checks of products were able to be sent following the analyses and necessary repetitions, thus guaranteeing a return of information in a timely manner. As in previous years, we also observed an increase of more than the average of new registrations/approvals companies in the animal feed sector. While 2019 can be considered a calm year in terms of feed safety, Salmonella was detected in eight animal feeds in 2020, representing 4 separate cases. In one sample, an overrun of the maximum value of coccidiostats according to appendix 10 of OLALA was detected. In 4 other samples, the authorizations issued for the addition of coccidiostats according to animal species had expired. GMOs were detected in two food samples for production animals, one of which was authorized but was not been declared. The second case concerns the contamination of undesirable seeds without germination power in linseed. In addition, GMOs exceeding the tolerance threshold have been detected in three bird feed mixtures and in another ambrosia seed mixture. These products were withdrawn from the market immediately. A total of 1,217 feed samples for livestock and for pets were analysed. 814 were compliant or had minor reporting errors. With a compliance rate of 66.9%, there was a slight improvement compared to the previous year (approx. 65%). With regard to nonconformities, it can be seen that minor non-conformities have decreased compared to last year (5.8%, previous year 12.4%). On the other hand, major non-conformities increased, from 2.6% in 2019 to 4.7% in 2020. Average non-compliances remained at the same level as the previous year, at around 23%.

2.
Malaysian Journal of Veterinary Research ; 12(2):11-16, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1904870

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. COVID-19 is contagious and fatal to humans. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, significant concerns on food safety and security are rising due to potential interspecies transmission. As such, surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 on imported meat and animal parts is carried out and reported in this study to safeguard food safety and security. Overall, none of the 225 samples from various livestock (buffaloes, cattle, goat and pig) imported from seven countries were tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 with quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) from July 2020 to November 2021. This study finding serves as a baseline data for SARS-CoV-2 in imported meat and animal parts. Notably, this study accentuated the importance of active surveillance to prevent zoonosis and to safeguard food safety and security.

3.
Journal of Food Distribution Research ; 53(1):5-6, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1904813

ABSTRACT

The American Rescue Funds Program seeks improvements to infrastructure, capacity, and diversification in meat and poultry processing, with clear prioritization of increased competition via small- and medium-sized processing facilities. The need to euthanize animals at a time when retailers were rationing meat sales was one of several examples of market failures during the COVID-19 pandemic, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture estimated the disruptions to agricultural meat, poultry, and egg production at $15 billion based on CFAP and CFAP2 payments. Marani et al. (2021) estimate the probability of a repeat event at 1% to 2% per year, justifying the use of these public funds to add surplus capacity and infrastructure to mitigate disruptions in case of recurrence. Economics of scale are modest beyond slaughter of more than 125 head per hour in beef plants and 2,000 head per day in pork plants (Duewer and Nelson, 1991;Ollinger, MacDonald, and Madison, 2005). Dozens of such "medium-sized" U.S. pork and beef processing plants have survived since 2000, typically relying upon niche market connections. Given historic processing plant construction costs for medium-sized plants (Aherin, 333333 2021) and an assumed 20% USDA grant to incentivize construction, a $100 million expenditure on each of the beef and pork plants creates an opportunity to add as much as 5% additional capacity for each species, easing current capacity as the industries prepare for local and export growth. Whether producer-ownership of capacity can generate stability and additional benefits in the supply chains is of key interest. Models of producer ownership-including cooperatives and carefully structured LLCs-allow livestock producers to capture processing margins and remove some of the price uncertainty around live animal prices to the plant and producer. It follows, too, that producer-ownership can therefore reduce the ability of existing larger plants to poach supply from medium-sized plants during the crucial startup phase and ensure that plants run at optimum capacity. A significant portion of the additional capacity added to the pork industry in the last 15 years exhibited some form of producer ownership. Anecdotally, the pork and beef sectors may be moving away from commodity production and into systems that maintain animal identity from farm to consumer. Producers have an opportunity to capitalize on this shift by collectively investing in medium-sized plants with the ability to preserve identity and be more responsive to evolving consumer preferences. An overarching concern is of the need to maintain capacity into the future and the potential of existing packers to acquire this subsidized capacity should medium sized processing fail.

4.
Epidemiologie et Sante Animale ; 78:1-131, 2020.
Article in French | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1904311

ABSTRACT

This special issue contains 14 papers from the AEEMA Meeting focusing on the theme entitled "What changes for the management of animals' health crises". Topics of papers include: the management of animals' health crises and introduction to the meeting;evolution of societies perception and social acceptability of sanitary control measures;evolution of the health governance: to adapt the French health system to the new challenge;new challenges for risk management of animal health;evolution of preparedness for the management of animal disease crisis;feedback from the fipronil crisis;towards bovine tuberculosis eradication in Republic of Ireland, including European badgers' vaccination (a review);management of foot-and-mouth disease in Mauritius and Rodrigues: a vaccine strategy for eradication;health and biodiversity during anthropocene;Covid-19 and wild animals;Covid-19 and companion animals;Covid-19 and farmed animals;Covid-19 and laboratory animals;and Preventing SARS-CoV-2 transmission from animals to human beings.

5.
Conservation Letters ; 15(3), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1901637

ABSTRACT

One Health is a cross‐sectoral and transdisciplinary approach that emphasizes the fundamental ways in which the health of humans, domestic and wild animals, fungi, plants, microbes, and natural and built ecosystems are interdependent. One Health approaches recognize the links between human health and a range of environmental concerns including biodiversity, climate, freshwater, food, harmful chemicals, and healthy oceans. Yet the conservation community and its broad interest in biodiversity and the natural world has been notably lacking in discussions about One Health. Partly as a result, both policy and practice have been narrowly focused on one or a few links between human and other healths, such as the human and wildlife health nexus. We provide a set of principles and components that will balance existing discussions by including the natural world and biodiversity and provide a framework for more active involvement by the conservation community. Incorporating these principles and components will enable One Health practice to guide inclusive, multidisciplinary, and cross‐sectoral efforts that consider the shared costs and benefits of human, animal, plant, and ecosystem health and help readjust humanity's pursuit of a green, just, and equitable sustainability pathway.

6.
Environmental Research Letters ; 17(6):063009, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1890810

ABSTRACT

Pandemics have occurred with increasing frequency over the past century as global travel enables rapid cross-continental transmission of viral zoonoses such as coronaviruses and influenzas. Yet the prevalence of global pandemics is also attributable to an increase in the number of these infectious diseases originating in wildlife or domesticated animals in Asia that jump to human hosts. Through a review of scholarly literature, this article argues that three interrelated land use phenomena—biodiversity loss, urbanization, agricultural expansion and intensification—in southern China and Southeast Asia have enabled past viral zoonotic ‘spillover’ events from animals to humans and make future pandemics more likely. Furthermore, much recent scholarly literature on zoonotic disease adopts the One Health framework, which highlights interdependency between viruses, animals, ecosystems, and human health. As such, we review and critique the salience of the One Health framework for research on zoonotic disease in Asia. We suggest that to better understand land use changes enabling zoonotic disease emergence, future health-environment research could incorporate qualitative, cross-scalar political-economic and political ecological dynamics within which human-wildlife relations are embedded.

7.
Cultivos Tropicales ; 42(4), 2021.
Article in English, Spanish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1887748

ABSTRACT

An update of the karstic morphogenesis in San Jose de las Lajas polje is carried out, with the objective of making a quantitative evaluation of the of karstic-erosive process advance. It is from a baseline of more than three decades in reference localities, in accordance with the conditions of use and management to which soils have been subjected. It demonstrates the effects of intensive anthropogenesis on the Red Ferrallitic soils, as a result of a multifactorial process, conditioned not only by the intrinsic properties of the soil cover and conditions of use, but also dependent on the geological-geomorphological conditions. The application of the Integrating System of Qualitative and Quantitative Methods allowed characterizing the complex influence of the relief in the evolution of the main morphometric parameters of the dolines with losses between 12.33-15.95 t ha-1 year-1. It converted into length units show reductions in the A+B horizons between 0.98-1.20 mm year-1, which exceed the permissible threshold values in terms of erosion proposed by the USLE and the rates of formation of soils derived from limestone rocks in Cuba. It has a marked tendency to increase, which confirm the need for protection and improvement so that their "immunity" to erosion ceases to be a myth and becomes a priority issue for Food Security in the post Covid-19 development programs in Cuba. These soils represent the maximum potential to satisfy the country's current demand for agricultural and livestock productions.

8.
Saglik Bilimlerinde Ileri Arastirmalar Dergisi / Journal of Advanced Research in Health Sciences ; 4(1 Suppl):S63-S73, 2021.
Article in Turkish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1876449

ABSTRACT

Objective: This research is the first study carried out to reveal the effects of Covid-19, which went down in history as the pandemic of our century, on veterinary ethics in our country. Material and Methods: The dimensions of the pandemic were revealed by examining the limited number of domestic and foreign resources on the subject. These studies were evaluated ethically in accordance with the purpose of our research.

9.
Staff Paper Series - Department of Applied Economics, University of Minnesota|2021. (P21-02):viii + 85 pp. ; 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1876358

ABSTRACT

The average net farm income for the 108 farms included in the 2020 annual report of the Southwest Minnesota Farm Business Management Association was $322,402, up more than 100% from the preceding year. Much of this increased profitability resulted from improved crop prices in the third and fourth quarters of 2020 as well as improved profitability for livestock producers. Government payments related to the impacts of the COVID pandemic were also a big factor. Profits for association members were at their highest levels since 2012. Crop producers saw higher earnings based on above average yields, higher harvest season prices, and increased government payments. Livestock markets were severely impacted by the pandemic especially in the second quarter of the year. Earnings for all types of livestock operations were up primarily because of COVID related government payments. Without those payments, many livestock producers would have suffered severe losses.

10.
Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society ; 133:195-196, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1871049

ABSTRACT

Small scale producers often visit non-science-based websites in search of general and specific information about horticulture and livestock, disease and pest pressure and cultural conditions required to grow crops. During the COVID-19 pandemic, alternative educational outreach was required to continue supporting the needs of agricultural producers. Several Sustainable Agriculture and Food Systems Extension Agents teamed up and utilized Facebook Live or posted videos on their county Facebook page to reach wide range of urban and rural small-farm producers on an array of agricultural topics. Using this platform gives exposure to science-based information on social media platforms where many producers are already active. An added benefit to using Facebook Live and videos is that community gardeners and home gardeners can access the same information, which provides them with tools for increased success in growing food for home consumption. From zero downloads in March 2020, the downloads grew to more than 6000 views by August 2020. As of August 2020, 21% (n = 1207) of the viewers engaged in comments and 12% (n = 146) the viewers who commented requested additional information. Many growers have expressed their appreciation for the information in this alternative teaching style.

11.
Bulletin of Agrarian Science ; 1:175-181, 2022.
Article in Russian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1865672

ABSTRACT

The problem of viral pneumoenteritis of young farm animals is relevant for agriculture of the Republic of Belarus. Today, the most effective method of preventing viral pneumoenteritis of calves is vaccination of pregnant cows. In case of mixed infections, the most effective means of preventing such diseases are polyvalent vaccines. But biological preparations should have not only high preventive effectiveness, but also not affect the quality of the final product. The author of the article studied the effect of a polyvalent inactivated culture vaccine against infectious rhinotracheitis, viral diarrhea, parainfluenza-3, respiratory syncytial, rotavirus and coronavirus infection of cattle left-pointing-double-angle BolsheVak right-pointing-double-angle on the state of metabolism of pregnant cows. For this purpose, 3 groups of pregnant cows of the Belarusian black-and-white Holstein breed were formed in the conditions of the Agricultural Republican subsidiary of the Ulishitsy Agro enterprise of the Gorodok district on the principle of pairs of analogues with10 animals in each group for 1.5-2 months before calving. The cows of the first experimental group were immunized with the vaccine against viral pneumoenteritis "Bolshevak" with the adjuvant ISA-15 intramuscularly into the croup area in compliance with the rules of asepsis and antiseptics in the volume of 5.0 cm3. Cows of the second experimental group were immunized with the vaccine against viral pneumoenteritis "Bolshevak" with the adjuvant ISA-25 - in the volume of 3.0 cm3. The cows of the control group were injected with isotonic sodium chloride solution according to a similar scheme. The animals were immunized twice with an interval of 21 days. The sampling was carried out before the start of the studies, on the 14th, 21st days after the first vaccination and on the 45th day after the revaccination. The clinical condition of the animals was monitored for 70 days. As a result of the research, it was found that the studied vaccine against viral pneumoenteritis does not have a negative effect on the general condition of the animal, does not cause allergic reactions, abortions, does not inhibit the synthesis of the studied biochemical parameters of the serum.

12.
Enterprise Development & Microfinance ; 33(1):12-27, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1841299

ABSTRACT

Livestock and grain market systems in Somalia's South West State, while vital to food security and household income, are affected by recurrent shocks, including insecurity, climate shocks, pests and livestock disease, desert locusts, and the COVID-19 pandemic. The fact that markets continue to function indicates a substantial degree of resilience. Findings from a mixed-method assessment across eight domains of system resilience indicate that the grain market system is more resilient than the livestock market system in three key domains: business strategy, diversity, and connectivity. Results show that grain businesses recover more quickly and are more likely to take action to achieve recovery than livestock businesses. When confronted by thin markets, practitioners have tended to respond by strengthening existing market actors, with the goal of filling critical gaps in the market. However, our findings provide new types of information to address systemic issues and strengthen market system resilience.

13.
Veterinar ; 59(1):14-23, 2021.
Article in Croatian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1837993

ABSTRACT

The first cases of human disease from COVID-19 were recorded in December 2019 in China, from where it spread rapidly around the world. COVID-19, the third emerging coronavirus infection in humans, is caused by the new SARS-CoV-2 virus, which can cause a severe acute respiratory syndrome in some infected individuals. Previous research has revealed the possible animal origin of SARS-CoV-2, with bats considered as natural reservoirs and pangolins as intermediate hosts. To better understand COVID-19 and more successfully control the spread, domestic and wild animals have been infected in experimental conditions. On the other hand, in some species, infections have been recorded in field conditions. Natural infections have been reported in dogs, cats, tigers, lions, and minks, who have been in contact with SARS-CoV-2 positive humans. The reverse transmission of the pathogen, from infected animals to humans, has only been recorded on intensive mink farms. To better understand the pathogenesis of this disease's causative agent, drugs and vaccine trials, some experimental infections were performed on animal models, of which ferrets, rhesus macaques, and hamsters proved to be the most suitable. This article aimed to consolidate known data on the potential origin of SARS-CoV-2, its transmission to humans, infections in animals, and their significance in the epidemiology of COVID-19.

14.
FAPRI-MU Report - Food and Agricultural Policy Research Institute, College of Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources, University of Missouri|2021. (06-21):unpaginated. ; 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1837871

ABSTRACT

The following text examines some impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on U.S. agricultural and agricultural product markets, producers, consumers, and related indicators. We outline reasons why reviewing events in isolation in 2020 might not give reliable estimates of the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and might result in misleading expectations about a future pandemic. Next, we explore the effects of three key aspects of the shock in the United States: (1) lockdown impacts that reduced liquid fuel use dramatically, (2) disruptions in the livestock-meat sector supply chain, and (3) changes in overall economic activity, household income, and total expenditures. For these experiments, we use the FAPRI-MU stochastic model to simulate the impacts of a hypothetical future pandemic. This is not a study of the entire COVID-19 pandemic. The full impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic are large and complex. Factors include effects on health and mortality, a broader economic shock with its employment and income effects, lockdowns and reduced socializing, supply chain disruptions, policy responses, and similar shocks to other countries. The negative effects were experienced differently by each country. We focus only on the U.S. experience. We draw some conclusions from this and related work. * Market outcomes in 2020 were driven by factors other than the pandemic, such as a surge in crop exports and weather disruptions, so year-over-year changes alone are probably not good indicators of how the pandemic affected the sector. * Three of the largest direct impacts of COVID-19 on the agriculture sector were on fuel markets, meat supply chains, and consumer demand patterns. Demands for fuels fell by 5-10% after taking into account price and income effects. Margins between meat retail prices and livestock prices widened after considering other factors. * The loss of economic activity as measured by the falling U.S. GDP could have been expected to cause weaker demand for agricultural goods, lower prices, and sharply lower farm income than what was observed in 2020. * U.S. policy responses included payments that increased disposable income, boosted consumer demand, and mitigated the impacts on farm income from the drop in the size of the national economy. Greater payments directly to farmers also help explain why farm income rose in 2020 relative to 2019. * The impact of COVID-19 is partly a story of policy responses, including sector-specific actions targeting agriculture, fiscal policy, monetary policy, and lockdowns. A future pandemic might be set in a context that limits or disallows some of these options, or a setting that has - perhaps by design - new options. * A future pandemic's impacts would differ from recent experiences because of disease characteristics and also new individual, firm, and policy responses. If one assumes that a future pandemic is an exact repeat of the 2020 pandemic, then that implicitly requires that the disease is equally contagious and harmful, individuals and firms respond to a new pandemic the same as they did in 2020, and policy responses repeat the responses to COVID-19.

15.
Animals ; 12(9):1065, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1837225

ABSTRACT

Simple SummaryHow ferrets across sectors are housed and the environmental enrichment provided (e.g., toys, beds, exploration of new sights and smells) can directly impact their health and wellbeing. Through an online questionnaire reaching ferret caretakers from pet owner, laboratory, zoo, rescue, and working (e.g., pest control) sectors, we describe how ferrets are housed, the enrichment they receive, enrichment types that ferrets most enjoy and those which may be harmful or problematic. Of 754 responses, 82.4% were from pet owners. Most ferrets were housed with at least one other ferret, and the type of housing varied across sectors from single-level cages to free-ranging housing. Environmental enrichments most commonly reported were hammocks, tunnels and human interaction, with ferrets reported to most enjoy digging, tunnels, human interaction and exploration. Scent trails were also reported to be among the most enjoyable enrichments but were rarely provided, suggesting that they could be used more. Problematic enrichment included rubber items, such as Kongs®, which could be chewed and swallowed, narrow tunnels trapping ferrets, and fabrics catching claws. These items should therefore be avoided. Our results suggest that all sectors have room to improve both housing and enrichment to better ferret welfare.Ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) are kept and used in multiple sectors of society, but little is known about how they are housed and what environmental enrichment (EE) they may benefit from. We aimed to help guide caretakers about what housing and EE can be provided for ferrets. Through an online questionnaire of ferret caretakers, including pet, laboratory, zoological collection, rescue and working animal sectors internationally, we described ferret housing, opportunities for exploration, EE provision and caretaker opinions on ferrets’ preferred EE types, and problematic EE. In total, 754 valid responses from 17 countries were analysed, with most (82.4%) coming from pet owners. Most ferrets were housed socially, with housing varying across sectors from single-level cages to free-range housing in a room or outdoor enclosure;pet owners mostly used multi-level cages. The most commonly reported EE included hammocks, tunnels and tactile interaction with caretakers. Respondents reported that ferrets particularly enjoyed digging substrates, tunnels, human interaction and exploration. The most frequently reported problems were that ingestion of unsuitable chew toys and rubber items could cause internal blockages, narrow tunnels could trap ferrets, and certain fabrics that could catch claws. This suggests a need for increased awareness of the risks of these EE types and for more commercially available safety-tested ferret EE. Scent trails were relatively rarely provided but were reported to be enjoyed and harmless, so we recommend that these should be provided more commonly. Our results suggest that there is scope to improve ferret housing and EE provision to benefit ferret welfare across all sectors.

16.
Enterprise Development & Microfinance ; 32(1):4-18, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1834350

ABSTRACT

Somalia has a significant place in the livestock sector in the Horn of Africa;livestock trade and export is one of the key economic contributors. Most of the livestock trade happens with the Middle East, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia being one of its biggest importers. The COVID-19 pandemic has led to both massive loss of life and huge economic losses as the result of measures to contain the virus. In June 2020, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia took the decision to restrict the number of pilgrims for the annual Hajj. Impacts resulted in a decline in income from the seasonal Hajj of 80 per cent, though domestically prices of livestock remained stable and local markets were used for livestock sales. This paper, besides highlighting the effects, provides recommendations which could inform strategic planning, humanitarian aid, and resilience building for the livestock value chain in Somalia and the Horn of Africa.

17.
Revista Facultad Nacional de Agronomia Medellin ; 74(Suplemento):S13-S16, 2021.
Article in Spanish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1824480

ABSTRACT

According to physics principles, any action produces a reaction and generates consequences. Under this premise, it is essential to reflect on the actions we have in our relationships with other animals in current times. Our actions always bring implications, in many cases, affecting the welfare of animals, humans, or the planet. A unique virus, COVID-19, caused a pandemic, with more than 50 million cases in 188 countries as of November 2020. Evidence indicates its spread was a consequence of the human relationship with wild animals used for marketing and consumption, generating radical changes in social and economic dynamics, and significantly impacting animals. The lockdowns slowed down daily life, forced stop using vehicles, and reduce our excessive consumption of things. In just a few months, nature has shown that fauna can return to places where it had not been present for decades, the water cleared, the air cleaned, and a kind of natural balance returned. During the forced human quarantine, the outlook for production animals showed the fragility and low resilience of high-density industrialized systems. The excess of animals in contrast to the low number of processing plants (large in size, and therefore fragile when facing a problem like this) resulted in the emergency slaughter of millions of animals on farms. In the case of companion animals, they have suffered collateral damage due to conscious or involuntary relinquishment due to cities' surprise closures;additionally, humans' constant presence at home has generated multiple behavioral problems. For animals in zoos, the situation is also difficult, as visitors' absence reduced incomes;it has put many zoos around the world at risk of closure. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on animal, environmental, and human welfare is clear. Hence, the objective is to analyze the impact of the pandemic on global welfare.

18.
South of Russia-Ecology Development ; 17(1):6-16, 2022.
Article in Russian | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1811679

ABSTRACT

Aim. Analyse available literature data about the possibility of coronavirus infection with and the severity of the course of infection in various animal species in order to evaluate the significance of this possibility in the context of preservation of the well-being of both wild and domestic animals. Discussion. SARS-CoV-2 is thought to have originated from bat CoV. The virus enters the cell by binding to the ACE2 receptor, the affinity for which differs depending on the animal species. Infected animals show viral RNA and may show clinical symptoms. It is known that the virus originated from some animals, while others may be carriers. Moreover, it can be that wild as well as domestic and farm animals are in close contact with humans. Therefore, it is advisable to conduct a study of the degree of threat to humans associated with the persistence of the virus in animal communities. Conclusion. There is ample literature on the possibility of infection in various animals. However, it is not enough to fully understand how significant is the role that animals can play in the spread of coronavirus infection among humans and how much harm it can bring to themselves.

19.
Journal of Veterinary Epidemiology ; 24(2):55-74, 2020.
Article in Japanese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1790957

ABSTRACT

This proceedings contains 10 papers on risk management policy of the ministry of health, labour and welfare for ensuring safe wild game meat, prospective of application of food safety risk assessment for game meat, coronavirus disease (COVID-19) for animal owners, shelter medicine and COVID-19, the characteristics of bats as natural reservoirs of the novel coronavirus, chalkbrood in honey bees and its control measures, the economic impact of classical swine fever in Japan, benzalkonium chloride resistance in Listeria monocytogenes isolated in Japan, COVID-19 outbreak and epidemiological research in Japan and the amendment of the act on domestic animal infectious diseases control.

20.
Chinese Journal of Zoonoses ; 38(1):42-47, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1789499

ABSTRACT

Since the end of December 2019, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has posed a serious threat to global public health security. Many coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2, are of animal origin. Therefore, monitoring of animal coronavirus must be strengthened. Herein, the common sample types, cell types used for viral isolation and culture, viral molecular detection methods, and immunological detection of animal coronaviruses are reviewed to provide a reference for follow-up studies of animal coronaviruses.

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