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1.
International Journal of Organizational Analysis ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1840169

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This study aims to understand and analyse the financial independence of women in small island developing states, with a focus on Mauritius. Factors such as employer choice, domestic violence, sociological factors, lack of opportunities and empowerment and the legal framework have been identified as potential influencers of the financial independence of women. Design/methodology/approach: A survey was conducted where residents of Mauritius were targeted to have a more generic overview of the subject matter. A response rate of 347 was received. The partial least square structural equation modeling was used to analyse the proposed framework. Findings: A total of 12 hypotheses were proposed and only 2 hypotheses were confirmed. The sociological factors, lack of opportunities, domestic violence and employer choice appeared not to have a significant influence on the financial independence of women. The legal system had a significant influence on the financial independence of women. Originality/value: It must be acknowledged that the literature is rich with studies on financial independence. Nevertheless, not much has been prescribed in the literature from the perspective of small developing economies and having women at the centre of the debate. The theory of gender and power and the social learning theory were used as the theoretical foundation. © 2022, Emerald Publishing Limited.

2.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-335625

ABSTRACT

We leverage staggered implementation of lockdown across Chile's 346 municipalities, identifying dynamic impacts on domestic violence (DV). Using administrative data, we find lockdown imposition increases indicators of DV-related distress, while decreasing DV reports to the police. We identify male job loss as a mechanism driving distress, and female job loss as driving decreased reporting. Stimulus payments to poor households act on both margins, their impacts partially differentiated by lockdown status. Once lockdown is lifted, police reports surge but we see a ratchet effect in distress. Our findings accentuate the controversy around welfare impacts of lockdown mandates.

3.
Women ; 1(4):267, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1834938

ABSTRACT

The modern woman has taken her rightful place in society as a worker, a caregiver, a mother, and a world citizen. However, along with the privileges of these roles comes the great cost of stress and resultant exhaustion and fatigue. Psychosocial, physical, cultural, and disease-related realms of stress act as strands of a web that serve to bind and hinder women with chronic stress. New areas of research, such as exercise intervention, improved social programs (e.g., childcare), and supplementation are constantly evaluated for effectiveness alongside traditional remedies such as exercise. This review will highlight some of the key issues regarding stress in women and explore reports of new treatment modalities in light of the specific requirements of the modern woman.

4.
Sexes ; 2(4):509, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1834885

ABSTRACT

Rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) and substance use have risen during the COVID-19 pandemic, with potentially enduring effects on women’s health. A rapid review was conducted on IPV and women’s substance use in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. The rapid review explored two separate research questions with a view to integrate the literature related to: (1) containment, social isolation, pandemics, disasters, lockdowns, and IPV;and (2) the relationships between substance use and IPV. Two different searches for each question were conducted between May and October 2020 and n = 47 articles were included. Women experience multiple physical and mental health consequences related to IPV that can be exacerbated by public health crises such as pandemics and disasters. Perpetrators may use these events as a tactic to threaten, isolate, or use coercive control. Similar tactics are reported in the complex relationship between IPV and substance use, where substance use can accompany IPV and/or be used as a coping mechanism for survivors. The findings highlight long standing women’s health concerns made further visible during the COVID-19 pandemic. Additional research is needed to identify actions required to reduce gender inequities and harms associated with IPV and substance use, and to adequately tailor and prepare effective responses in the context of future public health crises.

5.
Sexes ; 2(4):468, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1834884

ABSTRACT

Pressure to send sexually explicit messages, or ‘sexting coercion’ is associated with adverse mental health outcomes and sexual risk behaviors. This study explores Differentiation of Self (DoS) as a potential protective factor to reduce susceptibility to sexting coercion. A convenience sample of 399 Australian participants, aged 18 to 21 years (Mage = 19.63;SD = 1.14, 68.2% women) completed an online survey measuring sexting behaviors and DoS. Women were four times more likely to send willing unwanted sexts, and seven times more likely to engage in coerced unwanted sexting than men. Participants with low DoS were four times more likely to engage in coerced unwanted sexting. DoS significantly mediated the relationship between gender and coerced unwanted sexting. Results support the proposal of a sexting coercion typology encompassing discrete sub-types of sexting coercion. Results also indicate DoS may operate as a protective factor for young people in Australia, reducing compliance with sexting when coerced.

6.
8th Annual International Conference on Information Management and Big Data, SIMBig 2021 ; 1577 CCIS:189-205, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1826268

ABSTRACT

Violence against women continues to claim thousands of lives worldwide each year. The COVID-19 pandemic only aggravated the problem by confining many victims together with their aggressors. When a woman experiences this situation, she usually falls into denial, justifies the aggressive behavior of her partner, or even blames herself for provoking it. The sooner she realizes that she is experiencing intimate partner violence, she can act and prevent her advance in the violence cycle (from psychological violence to physical violence, which could lead to femicide). The work proposes a classifier artificial intelligence model to detect levels of psychological violence against women in written virtual expressions (messages ‘from him to her’ in a couple) to ‘alert her’ about the risk that she runs in that relationship. 5250 records in Spanish were extracted with 4 techniques from 6 different sources. Definition of 5 intimate partner psychological violence levels (0-Low Risk, 1-Emotional Blackmail, 2-Jealousy/Justification, 3-Insults/Humiliations, and 4-Threats/Possessiveness) and the data labeling were supervised by a psychologist expert on the problem. Techniques TF-IDF and Word2Vec were used to get the vectors and were tested five Machine Learning algorithms (SVM, MLP, Random Forest, Logistic Regression, and Naive Bayes) with various combinations of parameters. Too were tested pad sequences with LSTM and Bidirectional LSTM. The best result was 93.45% accuracy and 0.2476 categorical cross-entropy loss, obtained with extensive preprocessing, pad sequences, and LSTM. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

7.
Social Alternatives ; 40(4):68-75, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1824060

ABSTRACT

This paper examines the COVID-19 approach in Victoria, Australia, with specifc reference to the response to the second wave in July 2020. The lockdown of 112 days confning people to homes, limiting recreation hours, visits to friends and family, and only permitting the opening of essential businesses, posed stark challenges from a human security perspective. While the policy in the long run was successful in containing, SARS-CoV-2, the approach emphasised heavy policing, punitive measures and surveillance. While polling suggests that a majority of Victorians approved of these measures, this has come at enormous social cost: lost incomes to low wage earners and casual workers who cannot afford to self-isolate on being diagnosed;rises in instances of domestic violence occasioned by stay-at-home orders;arguments levelled against certain ethnic communities for being more susceptible for spreading the virus than others. Protest movements have also developed, comprising 'sovereign citizens' who openly refused to wear masks or observe curfews. Using human security as a vantage point, the successes of the Victorian-Melbourne lockdown model can be seen as mixed, notably from the perspective of wellbeing, mental and physical health.

8.
Saúde Soc ; 30(3): e200535, 2021. graf
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1817561

ABSTRACT

Resumo No contexto de emergência da pandemia causada pela covid-19, o objetivo deste ensaio é refletir sobre as relações homem-poder-violência a partir das concepções de Hannah Arendt, problematizando o conceito normalizado de masculinidade hegemônica e buscando compreender o aumento de violência doméstica contra a mulher. Buscamos desconstruir a ideia de que existe um único modelo de masculinidade hegemônica que propõe uma dominação global dos homens sobre as mulheres, uma vez que mulheres também apresentam aspectos de masculinidade, sendo uma construção histórico-social que se transforma continuamente. Assim, diante das reformas históricas de gênero acrescidas da instabilidade provocada pela pandemia da covid-19, observa-se o aumento da violência domiciliar como efeito da diminuição do poder patriarcal, na tentativa de estabilizar o modelo de masculinidade definido por esse poder patriarcal, ou tenta-se reconstituí-lo (ressignificá-lo) em novas configurações.


Abstract In the context of the emergence of the pandemic caused by covid-19, the objective of this essay is to reflect on the man-power-violence relationships and the resignification of men's place, from the conceptions of Hannah Arendt, problematizing the normalized concept of hegemonic masculinity and seeking to understand the increase in domestic violence against women. Throughout this essay, we seek to deconstruct the idea that there is a single model of hegemonic masculinity that proposes a global domination of men over women, since women also present aspects of masculinity, being a historical-social construction that is constantly changing. Thus, in the face of historical gender reforms added to the instability caused by the covid-19 pandemic, there is an increase in domestic violence as an effect of the decrease in patriarchal power, in an attempt to stabilize the masculinity model defined by this patriarchal power, an attempt is made to reconstitute it (re-signify it) in new configurations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Domestic Violence , Violence Against Women , Masculinity , Gender-Based Violence , COVID-19
9.
Saúde Soc ; 30(2): e200367, 2021. graf
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1817558

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este ensaio tem como objetivo problematizar as relações entre a violência contra as mulheres e o isolamento social durante a pandemia de covid-19, a partir do diálogo entre os aportes teóricos dos estudos interseccionais e as contribuições do Movimento Institucionalista, por meio da filosofia da diferença de Gilles Deleuze. O isolamento social na pandemia comparece como operador de análise e categoria de intersecção, o que pode ser compreendido como acontecimento no contexto do institucionalismo. Trata-se, portanto, de vislumbrar a interseccionalidade a partir de uma perspectiva pós-estruturalista. Busca-se viabilizar a construção de espaços de problematização, a partir das contribuições que vão desde a saúde até as ciências sociais e humanas, campo extenso e diversificado da saúde coletiva, refletindo a própria concepção ampliada de saúde em suas inúmeras interfaces. Por meio dessa perspectiva, buscou-se deslocar a relação de causalidade direta entre o isolamento social e violência contra as mulheres, fazendo uma análise sócio-histórico-política que articule o microssocial, singular, com o contexto macrossocial, a fim de descortinar desigualdades e violências já experimentadas.


Abstract This essay discusses the relations between violence against women and social isolation during the covid-19 pandemic, based on the dialogue between the theoretical contributions of intersectional studies and those of the Institutionalist Movement, using Gilles Deleuze's philosophy of difference. Social isolation in the pandemic appears both as an analytical framework and as an intersection category, which can be understood as an event in the context of institutionalism. This entails, therefore, to envision intersectionality from the post-structuralist perspective. This study sought to open spaces for discussion based on contributions from the field of Collective Health, ranging from health to social and human sciences, reflecting on the expanded concept of health in its several different interfaces. From this perspective, the direct causal link between social isolation and violence against women was displaced by a social-historical-political analysis that articulates the singular, micro-social and the macro-social contexts, unveiling the inequalities and violence already experienced.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Social Isolation , Domestic Violence , Violence Against Women , Intersectionality , COVID-19
10.
BJPsych Advances ; : No Pagination Specified, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1817326

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY The rise in domestic violence and abuse has been dubbed a 'pandemic within a pandemic'. Individuals known to mental health services are particularly vulnerable. Yet despite challenges to mitigating domestic violence and abuse in this group, the COVID-19 pandemic has provided opportunities to develop new interventions to support those affected. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

11.
Crime Sci ; 10(1): 24, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817275

ABSTRACT

The spread of COVID-19 has prompted Governments around the world to impose draconian restrictions on business activity, public transport, and public freedom of movement. The effect of these restrictions appears to vary from country to country and, in some cases, from one area to another within a country. This paper examines the impact of the COVID-19 restrictions imposed in New South Wales (NSW) by the State Government. We examine week-to-week changes in 13 categories of crime (and four aggregated categories) from 2 January 2017 to 28 June 2020. Rather than using the pre-intervention data to make a forecast and then comparing that with what is actually observed, we use a Box-Jenkins (ARIMA) approach to model the entire time series. Our results are broadly in accord with those of other studies, but we find no effect of the lockdown (upward or downward) on domestic assault. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s40163-021-00160-x.

12.
Journal of International Women's Studies ; 23(3):41-55, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1812588

ABSTRACT

Using a qualitative methodology of personal interviews and participant observation, this research investigates the role of Emirati women in the fight against the Covid-19 pandemic and the subsequent impact/challenges. Research participants included female Emirati health care workers and educationists. We observed Emirati families to help better understand the challenges women went through during the pandemic. Contrary to existing narratives about the invisibility, docility, marginalization, victimhood, and dependency of Arab women, this research reveals that Emirati women were able to exercise agency in the fight against the pandemic due to the following factors: longstanding government empowerment of women, a sense of patriotism, supportive male relatives, and female dominance in the health and educational sectors. During the pandemic, Emirati women have contributed in the following ways as: volunteers;international aid workers;care givers;health information agents;and virtual teachers. Despite this, challenges abound because of the following: increased family conflict;domestic violence;the psychological toll of Covid-related deaths;economic challenges;and increased domestic responsibilities. The Emirati women's case provides lessons for policy makers and societies desirous of women's empowerment.

13.
J Fam Violence ; : 1-9, 2022 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1813749

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had significant impacts on violence against women (VAW), including increased prevalence and severity, and on VAW service delivery. The purpose of this research was to study women's experiences with VAW services in the first stages of the pandemic and describe their fears and concerns. This cross-sectional study was conducted from May through October 2020. Our VAW agency partners across Ontario, Canada invited women using outreach services to participate in a study about their experiences during the pandemic. In total, 49 women from 9 agencies completed an online survey. Quantitative data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and open-ended responses are presented to supplement findings. Women's experiences with VAW services during the pandemic varied greatly; some found technology-facilitated services (phone, video, text) more accessible, while others hoped to return to in-person care. Over half of women reported poorer wellbeing, access to health care, and access to informal supports. Many women reported increased relationship-related fears, some due specifically to COVID-19 factors. Our results support providing a variety of technology-based options for women accessing VAW services when in-person care options are reduced. This research also adds to the scant literature examining how some perpetrators capitalized on the pandemic by using new COVID-19-specific forms of coercive control. Although the impacts of the pandemic on women varied, our findings highlight how layers of difficulty, such as less accessible formal and informal support, as well as increased fear - can compound to make life for women experiencing abuse exceptionally difficult.

14.
Rossijskij Psihiatriceskij Zurnal ; 2021(1):93-102, 2021.
Article in Russian | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1812195

ABSTRACT

In order to present current evidence-based research on psychological interventions adapted to the experiences of women affected by domestic violence, the analytical review compares specialized, trauma-focused methods with general interventions that are particularly widespread in third world countries. The review is structured under the following headings: gender-based violence and intimate partner violence;violence and COVID-19;systematic reviews and meta-analyses, as well as data on the prevalence of domestic violence in different countries;psychosocial interventions for women with mental disorders who have experienced domestic violence;domestic violence as a moderator of the effectiveness of psychosocial therapy for women with mental disorders. © 2021, V. Serbsky National Medical Research Centre for Psychiatry and Narcology. All rights reserved.

15.
Lex Localis ; 20(2):455-478, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1810952

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 epidemic and the measures employed to tackle it have affected (inter alia) intrapersonal relationships and family life. This paper explores how those changed circumstances correlate with the patterns of intimate partner homicide (IPH) in Slovenia. For that purpose, we examine the recent IPH trends and compare them to trends in homicide in general. in the second part of the paper, we look qualitatively into all the cases of iPH that have allegedly occurred during the Covid-19 epidemic in Slovenia and that have been reported in online newspapers. The preliminary investigation into homicides committed during the Covid-19 epidemic reveals that intimate partner killings are likely to have occurred with more frequency, while their patterns have not been substantially changed.

16.
Organization ; 29(3):460-477, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1808132

ABSTRACT

This article analyses 26 interviews with frontline female practitioners from domestic violence and abuse (DVA) services for racially minoritised women in England and Wales, exploring how these practitioners – who are from the same racially minoritised communities as the women they support – responded to the challenges of the COVID-19 crisis. These specific practitioner perspectives offer valuable insights into the specific ways in which the pandemic exacerbated the intersectional vulnerabilities of minoritised women experiencing DVA. Interpreted through a standpoint feminist lens, the findings reveal how frontline practitioners used bureaucratic discretion both to meet minoritised women’s changed needs during the pandemic in order to enhance their safety and to challenge the exclusions and intersectional inequalities underpinning pandemic policies. The study illuminates the institutional dimensions of frontline practitioner responses to the pandemic and contribute to debates within the street-level bureaucracy scholarship about the nature of bureaucratic discretion exercised by frontline practitioners.

17.
Womens Health (Lond) ; 18: 17455057221095536, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1808188

ABSTRACT

Globally, domestic violence affects women across their life span. Domestic violence against women and children during COVID-19 is a critical and substantial public health issue. This review article was aimed to determine the prevalence and its associated factors toward domestic violence against women and children during COVID-19. Several studies showed that the prevalence of domestic violence against women and children has been alarmingly enlarged during this COVID-19. Domestic violence is a significant and essential problem that is occurring all over the world for many years now, but this condition has been augmented during the lockdown situation because of this pandemic. Women and children of the worldwide are facing twin health emergencies that are COVID-19 and domestic violence. The pandemic was found as a threat to commit domestic violence against women and children. This is because, even though the measurements taken to avoid COVID-19 spread are supportive strategies and also the only opportunity to do so, reducing the risk of COVID-19 was found to raise the risk of domestic violence against women and children. Factors associated with domestic violence against women and children were; being housewives, age < 30 years, marriage, husband's age being between 31 and 40 years, physical victimization, and sexual victimization were factors associated with domestic violence. Depression, spending more time in close contact, job losses, financial insecurity, lockdowns, addiction (alcohol or drugs), control of wealth in the family, technology, and quarantine were factors considered as risk factors for domestic violence. This review will serve as a "call to action" to address this crisis effectively by coming together since this crisis is the global aspect. This is a shadow pandemic growing during this COVID-19 crisis and a global collective effort is needed to prevent it. The life of women and children moves from their needs to their rights during this pandemic. It is essential to undertake urgent actions to intervene in it.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Domestic Violence , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Prevalence
18.
J Health Serv Res Policy ; : 13558196221078796, 2022 Apr 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1808141

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In Canada, calls to domestic violence and sexual assault hotlines increased during the COVID-19 pandemic as stricter public health restrictions took effect in parts of the country. Moreover, the public health measures introduced to limit the transmission of COVID-19 saw many health providers abruptly pivot to providing services virtually, with little to no opportunity to plan for this switch. We carried out a qualitative research study to understand the resulting challenges experienced by providers of domestic violence and sexual assault support services. METHODS: Twenty-four semi-structured interviews were conducted to gather in-depth information from service providers and organizational leaders in the Canadian province of Alberta about the challenges they experienced adopting virtual and remote-based domestic violence and sexual assault interventions during the COVID-19 outbreak. Interview transcripts and field notes were analysed using a thematic analysis approach. RESULTS: Our findings highlighted multiple challenges organizations, service providers and clients experienced. These included: (1) systemic (macro-level) challenges pertaining to policies, legislation and funding availability, (2) organization and provider (meso-level) challenges related to adapting services and programmes online or for remote delivery and (3) provider perceptions of client (micro-level) challenges related to accessing virtual interventions. CONCLUSIONS: Equity-focused policy and intersectional and systemic action are needed to enhance delivery and access to virtual interventions and services for domestic violence and sexual assault clients.

19.
12th National Conference on Recent Advancements in Biomedical Engineering, NCRABE 2020 ; 2405, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1805755

ABSTRACT

Domestic violence against women, questions in a new way, the historicity of theory in its social, cultural, and political definitions. A common understanding of the causes of domestic violence can help communities develop more effective responses to the violence;such an understanding helps to avoid conflicting responses that could undermine efforts to protect victims and hold batterers accountable. This research paper tries to highlight the link between domestic violence that occurred to women during the COVID-19 lockdown, tries to expose the main reason for the increase of domestic violence against women these days, and increase in domestic violence will lead to the social and economic crisis. The data for this research was collected from the secondary data source through statistical reports regarding domestic violence against women during COVID-19, the reason behind the increase of violence and the nature of domestic violence against women across the world will be discussed in this paper. There exist a clear link between Covid-19 and domestic violence, which also impacts the economic and social crisis. © 2022 Author(s).

20.
Estudios Irlandeses ; - (17):292-294, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1801364

ABSTRACT

Since Herself was first released to the festival market in 2020, rents have also risen by 10.3%. Clare Dunnes note-perfect performance tells the story of mother-of-two Sandra, who leaves her abusive husband and is moved into emergency accommodation. According to Allison Graham of Saoirse Domestic Violence Services, there are only 144 refuge spaces available across the entire country, [and] domestic violence services faced unmet requests for refuge from 1,351 women between March and August 2020 (Gleeson 2021).

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