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1.
International Hatchery Practice ; 35(4):27-28, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2045268
2.
Chinese Journal of Nosocomiology ; 32(12):1880-1884, 2022.
Article in English, Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2034518

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore a new method for detecting respiratory viruses by extracting residual virus on mask, and verify its reliability and sensitivity. METHODS: The novel coronavirus analogs-s La Sota strains of chicken Newcastle disease virus and H120 strains of infectious bronchitis virus with different diluted concentrations were sprayed onto surgical masks and N95 masks through a respiratory simulator, and they were left standing at room temperature for 2 hours and 12 hours, respectively. The cDNA and its amplification cycle(CT) values of the nucleoocapsid protein(N) of chicken Newcastle disease virus and the nucleoprotein(NP) genes of infectious bronchitis virus were detected by ordinary polymerase chain reaction(PCR) and quantitative real-time PCR(qRT-PCR). The minimum detectable virus concentration and viral content in masks under different retention times were compared. RESULTS: The gene bands of the Newcastle disease virus La Sota strains and the infectious bronchitis virus H120 strains were detected on the masks stored for different times, and the total RNA of the virus had good amplification curves in the range of 10 pg-10 ng. The mean CT values of N gene and NP gene of the residual virus on the general medical surgical mask and N95 masks placed for 2 h were 22.547+or-0.342,23.698+or-0.501 and 22.855+or-0.308,24.036+or-0.338, respectively. However, only part of them could be detected after 12 h. respectively, and there was no significant difference in CT values between the two masks during the same period of time(P2 h=0.452, P12 h=0.355). The minimum detectable concentration of virus in the masks was 1:800, and the number of residual viruses on the mask that can be detected was 6.75x10~3. CONCLUSION: The method of screening coronavirus by detecting virus residues on masks within 2 hours was feasible and suitable for medical surgical masks and N95 masks, which can be used for preliminary screening of respiratory viruses.

3.
Zycie Weterynaryjne ; 96(1):42-49, 2021.
Article in Polish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2034018

ABSTRACT

Poultry industry is dynamically developing worldwide, and the threat from infectious viral diseases also increases. One of them is an acute, highly contagious avian infectious bronchitis (IB), caused by infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), the coronavirus of the fowl. IBV is characterized by extensive variations in the surface spike protein gene. Those genetic variations lead to rapid changes in IBV serotypes that need to be constantly monitored to assess the epidemiological situation in the field. The aim of this article was to present current knowledge and recent epidemiology, based on IBV field strains circulation. Several serotypes can be simultaneously present in a region and as they cross-protect poorly, broiler chickens can be infected more than once within their short period of life. Careful, constant monitoring is necessary to respond fast in case of new genetic IBV variants development. Some of these strains have global range, while the prevalence of others is limited to some geographical areas. Thus, the understanding the IB epidemiology, virus spread and the occurrence of individual strains allows to use the optimal vaccination schedule to limit the disease and improve the poultry production. Finaily, a good recognition of the IB problem in Central and Eastern Europe on the example of Poland as the largest European poultry producer, can be a key factor in the quickest response to emerging new IBV variants. Some practical solutions may help to introduce the similar and effective procedures also in other regions of the world with high intensity of poultry production.

4.
Economic Affairs ; 67(2):37-42, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2026767

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused unprecedented stresses on food supply chain in the country, with bottlenecks in processing, transportation and logistics, as well as momentous shifts in consumption pattern and demand for fish and other meat. In this study, the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on consumption pattern of fish, chicken, egg, mutton, beef and pork, market availability and as well as prices in North Eastern Region of India was analysed in this study. The study based on primary data collected through online survey method for which a questionnaire framed in Google Form. The sample comprises of total 104 respondents. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test for repeated measure differences between before COVID-19 and during COVID-19 levels of consumption of fish and other non vegetarian food items and quality of fishes supplied during two periods were analysed. It was found that the reduction in consumption of fishes, chicken and beef, during COVID-19 pandemic, were statistically significant. Whereas, the Wilcoxon signed rank test statistics for mutton and pork turned out to be insignificant. During COVID-19 the consumption of local fishes increased due non availability and distortion of fish supply chain. The quality of fishes in terms of freshness, size and odour were also impacted. Due poor availability of fishes, prices of fish increased during COVID-19. The increase in fish prices and poor availability of fishes resulted to shift in purchase of processed fish products in the North Eastern Region in India. The disruption in transportation, logistics, lockdown, etc during COVID-19 impacted trade of fishes as well as its consumption in the region. Hence, efforts for increasing of local supply of fishes as well as the development of resilient supply chain with sufficient storage facilities is needed to cope up under such unprecedented situation.

5.
Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine ; 20(1):17-24, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2026591

ABSTRACT

Background: Poultry and livestock are a leading sub-sector of agriculture, playing an important role to fulfill the protein requirements of the human diet and contributing to the national economy in Bangladesh. This sub-sector is often vulnerable due to frequent outbreaks of diseases in animals and unrest situations worldwide that hamper earning a profit up to the expected mark. Due to pandemic COVID-19, the Bangladesh government was bound to announce a countrywide lockdown and periodical restriction of movement in March 2020 to minimize the spread of the infection. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on poultry and livestock health.

6.
IOP Conference Series : Earth and Environmental Science ; 92, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2017614

ABSTRACT

Air pollution in the environment in which poultry is raised is one of the most serious problems facing the poultry sector across various aspects of production. Perhaps the most dangerous gas emitted from poultry houses is ammonia. The high concentrations of this gas in the air above the permissible limits (15 ppm) will have disastrous consequences. Ammonia directly affects the health and safety of birds, as it is a cause of ammonia blindness in birds accompanied by many respiratory diseases that destroy production and increase breeding costs. In addition, high concentrations of ammonia (above 20 ppm) contribute to enhancing the infection of birds with Newcastle and the bronchitis virus. In general, the greenhouse gases emitted from poultry houses included four main gases (carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane and hydrogen sulphide). Studies regarding their direct effects on the health and productivity of birds have been insufficient. In the direct form, as the concentrations of greenhouse gases rise to very high limits, they cause suffocation and death., the behaviour of the greenhouse gases in the indirect effect is reflected being a source of nutritional stress and a group of diseases and parasites which lead to a decrease in productivity levels. The intensity and concentrations of gas emissions are directly related to many factors such as geographic location, the season of the year, ventilation technologies, humidity, litter quality, nutritional status and stocking density. The advances in ventilation technologies have played a key role in expelling all harmful gases, especially those that depend on negative pressure. However, greenhouse gases remain a real threat to the poultry industry in particular and to the planet's environment in general.

7.
Journal of Tropical Medicine ; 20(10):1367-1370, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2012910

ABSTRACT

Objective: To examine the impact of the outbreak of novel Coronavirus disease (COVlD-19) upon public health-related knowledge. belief and practice among the public in China for providing references to public health decision-making.

8.
Zycie Weterynaryjne ; 95(9):554-559, 2020.
Article in Polish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2011448

ABSTRACT

Throughout the course of civilization, epidemics and pandemics have ravaged humanity, destroyed animal breeding and horticulture, and has also changed the course of history. It has been estimated that Justinian plague has affected half of the population of Europe and killed in three pandemics 50 million people, the avian-borne flu (Spanish flu), resulted in 50 million deaths worldwide in the years 1918-1919, and recently the COVID-19 is officially a pandemic, after barreling through 114 countries in just three months. In the past, rinderpest has hit Europe with three long panzootics, African swine fever (ASF), is still a threat to both the swine production industry and the health of wild boar populations. Several molecular changes occur in the pathogen that may trigger an epidemic or even pandemic. These include increase of virulence, introduction into a novel host, and changes in host susceptibility to the pathogen. Once the infectious disease threat reaches an epidemic or pandemic level, the goal of the response is to mitigate its impact and reduce its incidence, morbidity and mortality as well as disruptions to economic, political, and social systems. An epidemic curve shows progression of illnesses in an outbreak over time and the SIR, SI, SIRD and SEIR represent the simplest compartmental models that enable simplify the mathematical modelling of epidemics. This article throws a light on changing ideas in epidemiology of infectious diseases.

9.
XIV. Simpozij peradarski dani ; 11(14):71-77, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2011268

ABSTRACT

Avian infectious bronchitis (IB) is an economically important, highly contagious, acute disease of Chickens caused by a single-stranded positive RNA Virus that belongs to the Coronaviridae family. The Virus can replicate in the oviduct and cause permanent damage in young hens resulting in the false layer occurrence. In laying hens, infectious bronchitis Virus (IBV) infections can cause a severe decline in egg production and a number of effects on egg quality and reduced hatchability. The most effective means of controlling IB in poultry is vaccination. In the areas with increased pressure of circulating field challenge Virus, live attenuated vaccines are also used during the laying period with the intention of keeping local protection of the respiratory tract at a high level. The vaccine strain IB V-173/11 contained in Avishield IB GI-13 vaccine is a strain that genetically (S1 gene) belongs to GI-13 lineage and antigenically to 793B IBV serotype. Viral infections of this serotype occur frequently in Europe and therefore most vaccination programs in broilers, layers and breeders along a live IBV vaccine of the Massachusetts serotype also include a live vaccine of the 793B serotype, GI-I3 lineage. In this paper, results of a safety evaluation of live attenuated IB vaccine strain V-173/11, when administered by spray method in a ten-fold maximum dose repeated by one maximum dose in 28-week-old specific pathogen free (SPF) layer Chickens are presented. As a control, non-vaccinated SPF layer chickens were included in the study. The vaccine is considered to be safe when used in laying period because no vaccinated chicken showed abnormal local or systemic reactions or signs of IB related disease, no chicken died from the causes attributable to the vaccine, egg quality was not altered, and there was no statistically significant difference in. egg production between the vaccinated and non-vaccinated group.

10.
XIV. Simpozij peradarski dani ; 11(14):15-17, 2022.
Article in Cr | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2010958

ABSTRACT

In the years between the two poultry symposia, the European and Croatian poultry industry has been faced With additional challenges caused by COVID-19 pandemic and highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) epidemic. These years were characterised by considerable production and market disorders, which influenced the level of production and pricing deviations in primary production, as well as in processing industry, poultry meat and poultry product market.

11.
Russian Journal of Agricultural and Socio Economic Sciences ; 8(128):167-175, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2012667

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus has a significant impact on both the poultry industry and individual households. The pandemic's rapid spread has a significant impact on the country, leading to a total lockdown. As a result, the study focused on the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on egg production and income of marketers among poultry farmers in Ido Local Government, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. A total of 120 questionnaires were distributed. The respondents were chosen using a multi-stage randomization technique. The descriptive, budgetary technique was used to analyze the socioeconomic characteristics of the respondents, the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on egg marketing, and the challenges faced by poultry farmers in egg marketing, while the budgetary technique was used to analyze the cost and return of egg marketing in the study area. Females had the highest percentage of respondents with the highest socioeconomic characteristics, according to the findings (80.8%). The majority of respondents (96.8%) were between the ages of 31 and 60, and the vast majority was married (94.2%). It was also revealed that the majority of poultry farmers (92.5%) had formal education and that the majority of them (67.5%) practiced Christianity. According to the budgetary analysis, the average variable cost incurred by the farmers polled was 33764.85. It also revealed that the total fixed cost was 388392.98 and the total production cost was 422157.83. The profitability index was 0.38, indicating that poultry egg farmers in the study area earned N0.38 for each naira invested in production. The presence of COVID 19 was statistically significant in determining the level of income of poultry farmers. High input costs, product marketing, a lack of storage facilities, disease outbreaks, insufficient feed formulation ingredients, a lack of extension services, and movement restrictions were some of the challenges faced by poultry farmers and egg marketers in Ido Local Government. To keep poultry production afloat during and after the COVID-19 pandemic, the government should provide expanded income support to affected farms, as well as tax deferment or waiver, and lower interest rates.

12.
XIV. Simpozij peradarski dani ; 11(14):64-70, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2011772

ABSTRACT

Proper control of infectious bronchitis, pursued through strict biosecurity and mass vaccination, is essential in intensive broiler production. Despite effective and routinely adopted, hatchery spray vaccination has been hypothesized to affect body temperature and wellbeing of day-old chicks. Recently, gel administration has been proposed as an alternative and proved feasible in experimental settings. In this study, IBV spray and gel vaccination were compared in field conditions. One hundred birds from the same hatch were vaccinated, half by spray and half by gel, with 793B and Mass vaccines. After vaccination, rectal temperature was measured and vaccine intake assessed. The two groups were raised for 35 days in separate pens, and swabs and blood samples were collected at multiple time points for lineage-specific molecular analyses and serology, respectively. Temperature was significantly lower in spray vaccinated chicks 10 minutes and an hour after administration. A similar trend in 793B titres was observed in both groups, while Mass-based vaccine was detected later but persisted longer in gel vaccinated chicks. No differences were observed in mean antibody titres. Compared to spray, gel administration appears equally effective and less impactful on body temperature, thus supporting its application for IBV vaccmatlon.

13.
Archives of Razi Institute ; 77(5):1611-1619, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2002783

ABSTRACT

Infectious bronchitis (IB) disease, avian Infectious Bronchitis disease in one of the major cause of respiratory problems and economic loss in poultry industry, even in developed countries with good biosecurity practice. Since the first isolation of the virus in 1931, a lot of serotypes and genotypes of the virus have been reported around the world. The GI-1 lineage, including Massachusetts (Mass) serotype viruses, is one of the most widely spread types worldwide. Moreover, the GI-23 lineage with a growing incidence rate was reported approximately 20 years ago in the Middle East, with no or little homologues vaccine use. The genotype was previously restricted to the Middle East;now, there is evidence that it has spread to European countries, raising concerns regarding potential outbreaks. In the present study, our attempt was to phylogenetically analyze the S1 gene of six isolates from Massachusetts and variant 2 genotypes, which were isolated from broiler and broiler breeder flocks in Iran. The variant 2 viruses were compared to other reported variant 2 viruses from neighboring countries and they had more than 98% identity with the latest reported Iranian variant 2. In addition, Three Mass type viruses were similar to vaccine strains which may be shows continuous circulation of vaccine viruses in the field. This event can cause increasing the risk of their mutation or even reversion to virulence after several passages in natural host, furthermore circulating viruses may recombinant with virulent field viruses and cause emergence of new variants. Considering the variable nature of IB viruses in which few changes lead to important differences, continuous epidemiological surveillance along with clinical studies of new isolates, are crucial to a better understanding of their pathogenicity and subsequent disease control.

14.
Sarhad Journal of Agriculture ; 38(2):480-488, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2002723

ABSTRACT

Broiler population is one of the most important segments of livestock due to its significant contribution in white meat production. Infectious disease outbreaks adversely influence the production potential and consequently cause economic losses. Epidemiological data regarding magnitude of these disease outbreaks is of fundamental importance for planning of a comprehensive control strategy. With retrospective design, this study was conducted from January 2013 through December 2017 in order to assess the disease burden on broilers reared in different open type poultry houses. Out of total 658 commercial farms with capacity of 4221800 broilers, across Chakwal, a representative sample of 70 farms with capacity of 448000 broilers was randomly selected for collection and analysis of disease data. Five years' data of these randomly selected farms revealed highest (44.64%) crude morbidity during monsoon season followed by 23.92%, 22.12% and 17.49% for winter, spring and post-monsoon seasons respectively. The highest (14.90%) prevalence was recorded for new castle disease followed by infectious bursal disease (11.79%), pullorum disease (11.17%), colibacillosis (8.71%), infectious bronchitis (7.87%), inclusion body hepatitis (7.79%), chronic respiratory disease (7.67%), necrotic enteritis (6.48%), coccidiosis (6.09%), mycotoxicosis (5.43%), fowl cholera (4.74%), infectious coryza (4.41%), fowl typhoid (4.22%), omphalitis (3.71%) and hydropericardium syndrome (0.05%). Maximum share in crude morbidity was contributed by bacterial diseases with highest proportional morbidity of 48.68% followed by viral (40.32%), parasitic (5.80%) and fungal (5.20%) diseases. This epidemiological data represents true picture of study population and is a valuable tool for planning of prevention strategy and research priorities.

15.
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences ; 92(6):693-700, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1975927

ABSTRACT

Emergence of avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) variants with altered tissue tropism and host range has been reported from different parts of the world. Little is known about the different IBV variants existing and emerging in India. To explore the same, an IBV isolate, namely B17 isolated from backyard chicken in Tamil Nadu was used in the present study. The complete genome of B17 was sequenced and its phylogenetic relationship with the existing vaccine strain genotypes was analysed. The phylogenetic analysis of both S1 gene and complete genome sequence grouped B17 under Mass41 genotype comprising of M41, Beaudette, H120 and H120 variant with bootstrap value of 95-100%. Further, genomic analysis of B17 revealed the possibilities of emergence of the same from H120 vaccine strain through mutations at various genes.

16.
IOP Conference Series : Earth and Environmental Science ; 839(37), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1973036

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to determine the hematological profile and specific immunity of laying hens with the addition of oil extracts of lycopene or astaxanthin to the diet. The study used High Line W36 chickens that were vaccinated against Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis, avian rhinotracheitis and egg drop syndrome. It was found that the addition of lycopene (20 mg/kg) and astaxanthin (10 mg/kg) for 30 days did not affect the hematological profile of laying hens. Increasing the content of lycopene to 40 and 60 mg/kg or astaxanthin to 20 or 30 mg/kg of feed for 30 days reduced the number of leukocytes and hemoglobin in the blood compared to the control, which received an equivalent amount of refined sunflower oil in the diet. Lycopene and astaxanthin supplements, regardless of dose and duration of administration, did not affect the titer of antibodies to Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis, avian rhinotracheitis, and egg drop syndrome in serum of vaccinated laying hens. The obtained data can be used to justify the optimal dose and term of feeding of lycopene or astaxanthin supplements in the development of a model of carotenoid enrichment of chicken egg yolks.

17.
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association ; 93(31-37):31-37, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1935013

ABSTRACT

The informal poultry and pig sector in the Eastern Cape Province (ECP) of South Africa is of significant socio-economic importance as it sustains livelihoods and ensures food security;yet little is known about the distribution and prevalence of infectious and zoonotic diseases in this region. This paper reviews data published for pig and poultry diseases in the province during the last 20 years (2000-2020). The review included relevant published papers identified by a computerised literature search from Web of Science;provincial animal health reports;the national database from the Department of Agriculture, Land Reform and Rural Development (DALRRD);animal health reports submitted by DALRRD to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) via the World Animal Health Information Database (WAHID) interface and laboratory records. A publication was considered eligible if it included qualitative or quantitative information on any disease affecting pigs and poultry including zoonosis. The search retrieved 174 publications, of which 26 were relevant. The review found that Newcastle disease (ND), coccidiosis and fowl pox (FP) were the most reported avian diseases in the national database, whereas avian infectious bronchitis (AIB), ND and highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) were the most reported diseases in the OIE database. Classical swine fever (CSF) was the most reported pig disease in both databases. The retrieved literature on pig and poultry diseases was scarce and no longer up to date, providing decision makers with little information. The review identified important zoonotic diseases that require further studies yet failed to find information on important neglected diseases like leptospirosis.

18.
Agraarteadus ; 33(1):162-175, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1934720

ABSTRACT

During the years of 2015-2016 in Greece, an increase of imports of poultry meat has been occurred on a level of 10.2%, whereas in the years of 2018-2019 the increase has only reached the level of 1.9%. On the contrary, a reduction on a level of 14.2% on poultry meat imports, in Greece, between the years of 2019-2020 have shown the possible implications of the COVID-19 pandemic to poultry meat consumption and possibly to chicken meat consumption. Moreover, the Food related lifestyle (FRL) can be defined as a system of consumers' cognitive categories and relationships that connect a set of food-related behaviours, with a set of personal values of each consumer. Hence, this paper aims to segment Greek consumers according to their food-related lifestyles values and is tried to identify the aspects that may determine consumers' behaviour towards chicken meat preference, during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Four consumer segments appeared: "Sociable and safety seekers", "Light concerned and cooks", "Unconcerned and price seekers", "Innovative and moderate concerned". Uni- and multivariate statistical techniques have been used. Consumers' profiles that demonst-rated different food-related attitudes towards the pandemic were analysed with the use of variables: gender, age, marital status, educational level, monthly income and chicken meat quality cues. Significant differences were found between the four segments in terms of gender, age and income. Moreover, "Light concerned and cooks" and "Innovative and moderate concerned" consumers revealed to consider the place of purchasing as a dominant extrinsic quality cue of chicken meat. Furthermore, these consumers appeared to trust butcher in terms of the safety of chicken meat that they purchased, whereas only the consumers of the segment of "Light concerned and cooks" showed a willingness to pay a higher amount for chicken meat that is produced by animal welfare standards.

19.
Lucrari Stiintifice Universitatea de Stiinte Agricole si Medicina Veterinara, Seria Zootehnie ; 76:104-106, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1905245

ABSTRACT

The native chickens farming activities in Tomohon could support a provision of quality food continuously to the community, especially during the current covid-19 pandemic, but on the other hand various obstacles are still faced by small-scale farmers related to purchase price of feed and its availability. The empowerment of insects in animal feed could be an alternative solution. Based on this condition, a survey has been conducted in Tomohon City area which aimed to find out to what extent the using of insects as alternative feed applied in their livestock. This survey was conducted on thirty respondents in this area. Descriptive statistics were used in processing and presentation of data obtained in this survey. The responses of the respondent farmers were recorded in several points of view: time of experience in rearing chickens;experience in finding feed ingredients;farmer recognition on role of insect as animal feed;willingness to acquire skill improvement training. Concerning the time of experience in rearing chickens the most of respondents (70%) have an experience more than one year, 23% were between 6 months to one year, while the experience in finding feed ingredients: 47% of respondents (A1) informed easy to get it and 40% of respondent (A2) told that the ingredients were quite easy to get but the price increased. The farmer's recognition on role of insect as animal feed: 24% mentioned the insects in order of orthoptera, 21.2% described isoptera, 16,3% coleoptera, and then 14.4% informed the insects in diptera order as chicken feed. The respondents showed a different willingness to acquire training to improve their skill to use insect as alternative feed: 70% desired and 30% didn't thought the same thing. We concluded that the native chicken cultivation became interesting activities by the respondents in Tomohon to contribute the food, which is needed to improve their skill to use insect as alternative ingredient for their livestock chicken production improvement especially in the covid-19 situation.

20.
Veterinary Practitioner ; 22(2):165-171, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1905059

ABSTRACT

An attempt was made to analyze the impact of seasonal changes, disease scare situations and festivals on the prices of broilers across India. Prices of broilers were collected for the period from 2017 to 2021 from the various secondary sources like Karnataka Poultry Farmers and Breeders Association (KPFBA), TS AP Broiler Co-Ordination Committee (TSAPBCC), Poultry Bazaar etc. The seasonal index analysis for the last 10 years data revealed that the average broiler prices had grown significantly from 2011 to 2014, later prices gradually declined in 2015 due to the outbreak of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N1) in the month of February, 2015. Prices bounced back and increased from 2016 to 2019. Again there was decline of prices in the middle of January 2020 due to outbreak of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N1) and Covid-19 pandemic. The prices of broilers have been recovering and gradually increasing since March, 2021 onwards. The consumption of chicken during winter season is high and this led to high prices in the market. Whereas the demand for chicken during hot climate months of March, April and May become slack in all the market centers of India resulting lowest price for chicken. Also, the increased demand on account of festivals viz., Christmas and New Year attributed to the rise in prices in the months of November and December.

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