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Transfusion ; 63(3): 552-563, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2285107


BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated low first-time donor return rates (DRR) following catastrophic events. Little is known, however, about the influence of demographic factors on the DRR of first-time donors during the COVID-19 pandemic, including the unique motivation of COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) donors as compared to non-CCP donors. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Thirteen blood collection organizations submitted deidentified data from first-time CCP and non-CCP donors returning for regular (non-CCP) donations during the pandemic. DRR was calculated as frequencies. Demographic factors associated with returning donors: race/ethnicity, gender, and generation (Gen Z: 19-24, Millennial: 25-40, Gen X: 41-56, and Boomer: ≥57 years old), within the CCP and non-CCP first-time cohorts were compared using chi-square test at p < .05 statistical significance. RESULTS: From March 2020 through December 2021, there were a total of 44,274 first-time CCP and 980,201 first-time non-CCP donors. DRR were 14.6% (range 11.9%-43.3%) and 46.6% (range 10.0%-76.9%) for CCP and non-CCP cohorts, respectively. Age over 40 years (Gen X and Boomers), female gender, and White race were each associated with higher return in both donor cohorts (p < .001). For the non-CCP return donor cohort, the Millennial and Boomers were comparable. CONCLUSION: The findings demonstrate differences in returning donor trends between the two donor cohorts. The motivation of a first-time CCP donor may be different than that of a non-CCP donor. Further study to improve first-time donor engagement would be worthwhile to expand the donor base with a focus on blood donor diversity emphasizing engagement of underrepresented minorities and younger donors.

Blood Donors , COVID-19 , Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Serotherapy , Ethnicity
J Clin Apher ; 37(5): 449-459, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1925937


BACKGROUND: COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) was approved under emergency authorization to treat critically ill patients with COVID-19 in the United States in 2020. We explored the demographics of donors contributing plasma for a hyperimmune, plasma-derived therapy to evaluate factors that may be associated with anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody response variability and, subsequently, antibody titers. STUDY DESIGN: An electronic search of CCP donors was performed across 282 US plasma donation centers. Donations were screened for nucleocapsid protein-binding-IgG using the Abbott SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay. RESULTS: Overall, 52 240 donors donated 418 046 units of CCP. Donors were of various ethnicities: 43% Caucasian, 34% Hispanic, 17% African American, 2% Native American, 1% Asian, and 3% other. Females had higher initial mean anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody titers but an overall faster rate of decline (P < .0001). Initial antibody titers increased with age: individuals aged 55 to 66 years had elevated anti-SARS-CoV-2 titers for longer periods compared with other ages (P = .0004). African American donors had the lowest initial antibody titers but a slower rate of decline (P < .0001), while Caucasian (P = .0088) and Hispanic (P = .0193) groups had the fastest rates of decline. Most donor antibody levels decreased below the inclusion criteria (≥1.50) within 30 to 100 days of first donation, but donation frequency did not appear to be associated with rate of decline. CONCLUSION: Several factors may be associated with anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody response including donor age and sex. Evaluating these factors during development of future hyperimmune globulin products may help generation of therapies with optimal efficacy.

COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Antibodies, Viral , Blood Donors , COVID-19/therapy , Ethnicity , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin G , Middle Aged , Nucleocapsid Proteins , COVID-19 Serotherapy
Transfusion ; 61(5): 1471-1478, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1032304


BACKGROUND: With coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) convalescent plasma (CCP) offering an early treatment option for COVID-19, blood collectors needed to quickly overcome obstacles to recruiting and qualifying eligible donors. We provide attributes of CCP donors and products and compare to standard donors and products. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Information on CCP donors was gathered from the American Red Cross qualification website through product collection. Data from 2019 for standard plasma/platelet apheresis (SA) and whole blood (WB) donor demographics and SA donations including product disposition and reactions were used for comparison. RESULTS: Of almost 59 000 donors registering on the website, 75% reported an existing COVID-19 diagnostic polymerase chain reaction or an antibody test. The majority (56.2%) of 10 231 CCP donors were first-time donors in contrast to SA or WB donor populations, which were only 3.0% and 30.6%, respectively, first-time donors. The number of female donors was 12% higher than SA donors. Older (≥ 65 years) and younger (16-19 years) were comparatively underrepresented in CCP donors. Deferral (10.2%) and Quantity Not Sufficient rates (6.4%) for presenting CCP donations were higher than SA (8.2% and 1.1%, respectively). Human leukocyte antigen antibody reactivity was the highest cause of product loss for CCP donations vs SA donations (9.6% vs 1.3%). Acute adverse events also occurred at a higher rate among both first-time and repeat CCP donations compared to SA. CONCLUSIONS: CCP donors were more likely to be first-time and female donors than WB or SA donors. CCP donations had a higher rate of donor adverse reactions, deferrals, and product loss than SA donations.

Blood Component Removal , Blood Donors , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/therapy , Convalescence , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Male , Middle Aged , COVID-19 Serotherapy